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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

BUREAU OP SOILS— BULLETIN NO. 68. 
MILTON WHITNEY, Chlsf. 



THE MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL 
BY THE WIND, 

By E. E. FREE, 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF EOLIAN GEOLOGY, 

Bl S. C. STUNTZ in E. E. FREE. 




GOVERNM1TNT PKINTTNO OTTIOK. 



L>3\M 



BUREAU OF SOILS. 

Milton Whitney, Chief of Bureau. 
Albert 6. Rice, Chief Clerk. 

BCIBNTIFIC STAFF. 

Frank K. Cameron, in charge of Physical and Chemical Investigations. 

Jay A. Bonstbel, in charge of Soil Survey. 

Oswald Schreiner, in charge of Fertility Investigations. 

W J McGeb, in charge of Soil-Water Investigations. 

2 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Bureau of Soils, 
Washington, D. C. f January 19, 1910. 

Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript of an 

article entitled "The Movement of Soil Material by the Wind," by 

E. E. Free, of this Bureau, with a bibliography of Eolian geology by 

S. C. Stuntz and E. E. Free. This article comprises an exhaustive 

review of the literature covering the subject, as well as the results 

of studies in the laboratory and in the field, both by the author and 

other members of the laboratory force. I recommend that this 

article be published as Bulletin No. 68 of the Bureau of Soils. 

Very respectfully, 

Milton Whitney, 

Chief of Bureau. 
Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 

* 



PREFACE. 



The relation of the soil to crop production has always been regarded 
as the fundamental problem of agricultural investigation. It has 
inspired numerous researches and led to the production of an enor- 
mous literature. By far the greater part of these researches and their 
accompanying literature have been dominated by a theory, which has 
been conveniently designated as the "plant- food theory of fertili- 
zers/' but which may be defined more precisely as follows: The pre- 
dominating factor in the production of a crop is the amount of avail- 
able mineral plant nutrients in the soil. The primary purpose of 
this theory is to account for the results produced by the use of soil 
amendments, or fertilizers and manures. It presupposes that a given 
field or soil mass stays in place indefinitely, and without changes, 
except for such local ones as may be produced by cultural methods, 
or the removal of plant nutrients in garnered crops and seepage 
waters. The chief merit of the theory is its simplicity. Recent 
investigation and analysis of the problem have shown, however, that 
no such simple theory can be satisfactory; that many factors enter 
into the production of crops, or, in other words, the efficiency of the 
plant depends on numerous factors. The prominent characteristic 
of all these factors, including the soil factors, is that they are con- 
stantly in processes of change. In other words, the problem is 
dynamic rather than static. 

Considering the soil factor, or more properly, factors, it is now 
clearly recognized that the living plant, or at least that part of it in 
the soil, the root, is always in motion while the plant lives. The soil 
solution, the natural nutrient medium for plants, is always in motion; 
for when water falls upon the soil there is always a movement into 
and through the larger soil interstices, mainly by gravity, and when 
the precipitation ceases there is immediately surface evaporation 
accompanied by a return to the surface of a portion of the absorbed 
water through the capillary interstices and in films over the soil 
grains. In like manner, the soil atmosphere is constantly changing, 
and it is obvious that the life of insects, bacteria, etc., in the soil is a 
process of growth and decay, and therefore of constant change. 

The solid particles of the soil are likewise always in motion. The 
activities of insects, crawfish, earthworms, burrowing animals, etc., 



6 PBXFAOB. 

in translocating soil material are now recognised as being, in the 
aggregate, very large. Freezing and thawing produce considerable 
motion of soil material. It has recently been shown that every 
change in the moisture content of a soil is accompanied by necessary 
movements of the soil particles, and by changes in their state of 
aggregation, and it is obvious that under field conditions a soil is 
always either drying out or being wetted. 

Besides these movements of the solid soil particles, resulting in 
profound changes from time to time, not the least of which is an 
interchange of the material between soil and subsoil, there is con- 
stantly in process a translocation of soil material from field to field, 
from area to area, and frequently over large distances. As a result, 
soils are notably complex as regards their composition — more com- 
plex by far than the individual rocks or rock magmas from which 
they have been derived; and, speaking generally, practically all soils 
contain all or nearly all of the common rock-forming minerals. To 
produce this state of affairs, two natural agencies are competent — 
water and wind. The effect of water action in translocating soil 
material is enormous, but restricted by the facts that water can run 
" down hill " only, and is but occasionally in action. The effects of wind 
action are quite as important, for the wind is constantly in action, 
to a greater or lesser extent, and blows up hill as well as down. 
While the effects of water action may be more striking and impressive, 
the effects of wind action are quite as important, from the point of 
view of the student of soils, if not of the surface geologist. 

The activity of the wind as a geologic agent has long been recog- 
nized, and frequent descriptions exist of various phases of its activity. 
But its action on the soil has not received that amount and character 
of attention which both the practical and theoretical importance of 
the phenomena would seem to demand. Particularly is this so in 
that observations have been made with reference to strictly geolog- 
ical rather than agronomic considerations, and attention has been 
confined mainly to but a few and generally minor locations of strictly 
eolian soils. 

It is clear that not only has the wind been a most important agent 
in the past in soil translocation, but that it is equally important 
to-day, not only in forming and modifying great deposits and areas 
of soil, but in modifying and affecting more or less profoundly every 
farm and field. It is one of the most important factors in the com- 
plex system of soil movement affecting soil fertility. No fact in our 
knowledge of the soil is now more clearly defined than that the soil 
of a particular field is not just the soil that was there a few years 
ago, or just the soil that will be there a few years hence. More- 
over, it appears that when this translocation is at a "normal" it is 
beneficial and an important factor in maintaining fertility- But 



PBEFAOB. 7 

) when excessive, "wind erosion" is one of the most baneful of the 

* farmers' troubles. Its prevention and control is therefore one of the 

great practical problems of agriculture, one easily met in the majority 
of cases, but sadly neglected, nevertheless. 

Methods for controlling the action of the wind must be devised. 
Windbreaks, cover crops, rotation schemes, cultural, and other meth- 
ods are actually in use to this end, more or less successfully. But in 
few localities can it be claimed that the problems have been met with 
complete success, and an unusual opportunity is open for experi- 
mental work of a most useful kind. In the following pages attention 
is called to the specific methods now in use, and it is felt that the dis- 
cussion of the subject as given in the bulletin as a whole will be a useful 
step forward in the working out of practical methods of soil control 
in this field. Not alone to the tiller of the soil is this a matter of 
great economic importance, but to the railroads, the public highways, 
and irrigation works it is of great, and in some cases, paramount 
importance. 

Important as is the action of the wind in removing soil material, 
and replacing it anew with material from elsewhere in all localities, 
it is especially so in arid and semiarid regions. Here control is not 
so easy, and in fact wind action is in many areas of the arid portions 
of the United States the all-important problem determining the 
possibility of settlement and utilization of the soils. Here at least 
the subject is by no means of merely academic interest, but is of the 
greatest immediate importance. 

In view of the facts presented above it has been deemed necessary 
to bring together, correlate, and summarize the known data of eolian 
geology from the viewpoint of the student of soils. This Mr. Free 
has done, the results of his work being given in the following pages. 
These include not only the results of a very comprehensive review of 
the literature but many of his own observations, made in many 
cases to clear up obscure points or apparent discrepancies in the 
work of previous observers. In the preparation of the bibliography 
the skill and experience of Mr. Stuntz have been available, so that 
it may be regarded as fairly complete, it being improbable that any 
citation of importance has been overlooked. It is believed that the 
present bulletin will prove to be one of the most important in the 
series which has been published from the Bureau of Soils on the fun- 
damental principles of soil formation and soil control. 

Frank K. Cameron. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Preface 5 

Heterogeneity of soilB 13 

Translocating agents in general 15 

The limitations of water translocation 18 

Wind translocation 22 

The mechanics of wind translocation 24 

Wind corrosion — sand-blast action 24 

Protections against erosion by wind 28 

The lifting of exposed material 33 

The sorting of material by the wind 35 

Deflation 37 

The competence of the wind 41 

The transport capacity of the wind 46 

The distance to which material may be carried 47 

The deposition of atmospheric load 49 

Drifting Band and Band dunes 53 

The nature of sand drifts 53 

Sand dunes 57 

Wind-formed sand ripples 67 

The properties of blown sandB 68 

The control of drifting sands 74 

Dust storms and dust falls 77 

Material moved by dust storms 80 

Distances of transfer 82 

Dust whirlwinds 83 

European dust falls 88 

Early theories regarding European dust falls 90 

The Saharan origin of Birocco dust 92 

Quantity of dust deposited in Europe 97 

The continual drift of soil material with the wind 99 

Accumulations of dust 100 

Admixture of local material in dust falls 106 

Natural burial of articles in the soil 106 

The importance of soil drift 108 

True atmospheric dust 110 

The physics of dust suspension 1 10 

The sources of atmospheric dust 112 

The quantity of atmospheric dust 114 

The optical effects of dust in the air 116 

Extra-terrestrial dust 120 

Geologic formations of eolian origin 122 

EolianBoils 122 

The loess 124 

The origin of the loess 129 

Eolian action during pre-Pleistocene time 141 

9 



10 CONTENTS. 



Volcanic dust a* soil material 146 

Fragmentary material thrown out by volcanoes 146 

Character and production of volcanic dust 147 

The air transport of volcanic dust 148 

Volcanic tuffs 161 

The composition of volcanic duste 152 

Volcanic dust in the soil 168 

Wind transport of vegetable matter 160 

Translocation in general — supplementary action of the agents 162 

Excessive blowing of the soil 164 

Conclusion 172 

Bibliography of eolian geology „ 174 

Index 176 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



FLATBS. 

Plate I. Fig. 1. — Desert pavement of tufa fragments near Fallon, Nev. 
Fig. 2. — Typical crescentic dune in the delta of Oarrizo Creek, 

Colorado Desert (California) 32 

II. Fig. I. — Removal of soil from around tree. Fig. 2. — Blown sand 

collected behind a fence 32 

III. Damage by blowing of soil on strawberry field near Severn, Md 160 

IV. Recently planted field at Severn, Md., not damaged by blowing 160 

V. Sand drifted between rows of plants, Severn, Md 168 

FIGURES. 

Fig. 1. Group of crescentic dunes in the desert near Bokhara (after Walther). . 61 
2. Ideal diagram of air currents showing tendency of wind to blow sand 

up ridges in both directions (after Darwin) 66 

11 



THE MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 



THE HETEROGENEITY OF SOILS.** 

Recent work in this Bureau and elsewhere has indicated * that the 
normal soils in the most diverse regions are remarkably similar, in that 
all of the important soil-forming minerals are present therein in greater 
or lesser quantity. This similarity in the constituents of all soils 
is of course largely due to the fact that they are formed everywhere 
under much the same conditions and from materials of the same gen- 
eral character, 6 namely, the rocks. The original igneous rocks con- 
tain in most cases all of the minerals important in soil formation, and 
since most sedimentary rocks are secondary deposits, derived from 
igneous originals, they also contain the important soil minerals. It 
should be noted that it is not necessary for the soil minerals to exist 
in large quantity in the parent rock. The soil is usually the residuum 
from the decay of a much greater, thickness of rock, and there are 
some evidences that there is in the processes of soil formation a tend- 
ency for the retention and concentration of the various minor rock 
constituents, in spite of the fact that their proper rates of disintegra- 
tion may be greater than those of the other, more prevalent, minerals. 
If this be so the normal processes of soil formation will tend to main- 
tain and to increase heterogeneity and the soil will be likely to con- 

o Author's Note. — Throughout the following pages the attempt has been made 
to cite authorities whenever possible and to give references to all important and per- 
tinent literature. All quoted articles are given in the appended bibliography, and 
readers interested in the literature are advised to refer at once to page 174, where the 
system of citation is explained. 

The author wishes also to acknowledge the general assistance and suggestions of the 
many persons who during the past three years have encouraged and helped the devel- 
opment of the ideas of which this bulletin is the fruit. Especially should an acknowl- 
edgment be made to Dr. D. T. MacDougal and Prof. C. F. Tolman, jr., of Tucson, ^riz. ; 
Prof. J. A. Udden, of Rock Island, 111.; Mr. J. M. Westgate of the Bureau of Plant 
Industry; and Drs. F. K. Cameron and W J McGee of the Bureau of Soils. The assist- 
ance of Mr. Stuntz has not been confined to the bibliography which bears his name, but 
has been felt on every page of the text. To all these gentlemen and to many others 
whose assistance it is impossible to acknowledge in detail, any excellence which this 
work may possess is largely to be ascribed. 

& Bull. 30, Bureau of Soils, U. S. Dept. Agr., p. 9-11 (1905), and references there 
cited; also Bull. 54, Bureau of Soils (1908). 

« The general processes of soil formation are discussed in all text-bookB on soils. See 
especially Merrill — Rocks, rock- weathering, and soils (1906). 

18 



14 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

tain, not only all of the minerals present in the parent rock, but to 
contain certain of the minor constituents in considerably increased 
proportions. If, however, disintegration be carried too far, this 
heterogeneity will be destroyed, because in the last analysis the per- 
sistence of a mineral in the soil depends on its capacity of resisting 
the disintegrating agents. An easily disintegrated mineral may be 
protected for a time, perhaps by the presence of much other material, 
but it must ultimately succumb. Thus a soil exposed to the weather- 
ing agents without the supply of new and unweathered material must 
come to be composed of its most resistant mineral in a more or less 
pure state, and since quartz is the most resistant of the ordinary soil 
minerals, the ordinary result of complete weathering of the soil is 
pure quartz. This actually does occur in special cases where the 
agencies of removal * are much more active than are those which sup- 
ply unweathered material. Clarke • mentions a beach sand which 
contained 99.65 per cent SiO„ and the present writer has examined 
sands in which absolutely no mineral other than quartz could be 
detected by microscopic examination, though traces of other ele- 
ments, especially iron, could usually be found by chemical means. 
Under desert conditions the products of mineral disintegration are so 
rapidly removed by the wind that in the older deserts the surface 
material is quartz sand of great purity . d 

That such occurrences are not more frequent is due to the fact that 
under normal conditions new material is supplied as rapidly as the old 
is removed. Undecomposed rock fragments are brought up from 
below and carried in from a distance by means of the various trans- 
locating agents, and the composition of the soil is kept fairly con- 
stant. In most cases also the mechanical removal of the entire soil is 
so much more rapid than the differential removal of the more easily 
disintegrated minerals that the processes which tend to make the soil 
more siliceous do not have time to show their effects. This material 
mechanically removed is replaced, so far as the soil is concerned, by 

<* This means only that quartz is the most resistant in the majority oi cases, and 
wherever the weathering agents — chemical and mechanical — are normally balanced. 
To chemical erosion (by solution) quartz is not so resistant as are the various oxides and 
hydroxides of iron, and if erosion were anywhere exclusively chemical the soil would 
then- become not siliceous, but ferruginous. This case is approached in certain sec- 
tions of the tropics and laterites high in iron have been there produced. The iron com- 
pounds are, however, very easily disintegrated into minute fragments and are there- 
fore unusually susceptible to removal by the agents of mechanical erosion (both eolian 
and aqueous). In all ordinary cases therefore the iron is removed mechanically as fast 
as or faster than the quartz is removed chemically, and it is only under conditions 
which limit or inhibit the mechanical agencies that quartz loses its supremacy of per- 
sistence. 

& Mechanical, of course. See note a. 

«U. S. Geol. butv. Bull. 330: 427 (1908). 

d Walther— Wustenbildung,Jchap. 9 (1900). On the eilicification of sand by water 
transport see Mackie— Trans. Edinb. geol. toe. 7 : 148-151 (1897). 



TRANSLOCATING AGENTS IK GMTBBAL. 15 

freshly disintegrated rock from below and by the translocation of the 
surface material. The persistence of the soil is, as probably first 
pointed out by filie de Beaumont, - rather a persistence of the soil 
layer than of the individual particles. It can not be too much empha- 
sized that the soil is always in process of change, and that soil condi- 
tions are not static but dynamic. 6 

Practically all writers "on the subject have noted the existence of 
extensive areas of soil composed lasgely or entirely of transported 
material. Shaler d estimates that the truly alluvial soils in North 
America cover an area of over 200,000 square miles, and much greater 
areas are covered by soils which are in part of alluvial origin. It is 
much more common to find lack of conformity between the soil and 
the underlying rock than it is to find the one strictly derived from the 
other. 

Not only are many soils thus composed in whole or in large part of 
transported material, but even in soils which are clearly residual there 
is frequently much foreign material. "Almost all soils, except those 
on very level plains, have derived their mineral parts in some measure 
from the rocks which do not lie immediately beneath their site." • 

The observed heterogeneity of soils is therefore due both to the 
nature of the processes of rock disintegration and to the mixing of one 
soil with another, which is brought about by the various transporting 
agencies. - The weathering agents alone could not permanently main* 
tain the heterogeneity of the soil without the assistance and continued 
activity of the transporting agents; and, since the fertility of the 
soil depends on the existence therein of all the soil minerals, the great 
importance of these agencies of transportation is evident. 

TRANSLOCATING AGENTS IN OBNEBAL. 

There are two general ways in which soils are mixed: (1) Vertical 
translocation, mainly the bringing up of material from the subsoil or 
below, and (2) lateral translocation, or the moving to one area of soil 
material from some other area. The first is, of course, local and can 
not supply to the soil anything not present in the parent rock or 
other underlying material, though it is extremely important in pre- 
venting the deterioration of the soil which might result from excessive 
weathering. The second process may be either local or general, and is 
not limited as to sources of material or distances of transport. Exact 
discrimination in individual cases between vertical and lateral trans- 

a Legons de geologic pratique, vol. 1, p. 140 (1847). 

* Cameron — Jour, indust. and eng. chem. 1: 806-810 (1909). 

cSee, for instance Johnston — Application of chemistry and geology to agricul- 
ture, pp. 267-268 (1859); Shaler— Ann. Kept. U. S. Geol. Surv. 12: 287-306 (1891); 
Merrill — Rocks, rock-weathering, and soils, part IV (1906); Hilgard — Soils, chap. I 
(1906). 

<*Loc. cit., p. 291. 

• Shaler— loc. cit., p. 296. 



16 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

location is neither possible nor desirable. Both are constantly occiuv 
ring side by side, and both are most necessary to the continued good 
condition of the soil. 

The most important agents in the vertical — and therefore local — 
translocation of soils are the movements of plants and animals and 
the operations of agriculture. When plants, especially trees, are 
uprooted by the wind or other agency, their roots carry with them to 
the surface considerable quantities of lower soil, and the space thus 
left is slowly filled with surrounding surficial material. In humid 
climates the most important of the animal agencies is probably that 
of the ordinary earthworm, as was pointed out by Darwin a in 1837. 
He estimates b that in places they produce on the surface an accu- 
mulation of 0.2 inch annually. The similar action of ants and ter- 
mites has been observed by Mills, Branner, d and Knab* in Brazil, 
and by Shaler f in New England, and the various species of crawfish, 
as well as the larger burrowing animals — moles, rabbits, and prairie 
dogs — are doubtless also of importance.* 

A certain amount of translocation, both vertical and lateral, is pro- 
duced by the slow creep of soil on slopes under the action of frost, 
changes of temperature, falling rain, etc.,* and by the gravitational 
fall of particles to lower levels. More rapid transfer is produced in 
occasional slips, landslides, etc. It seems certain also that the soil 
particles themselves are continually in motion/ though the amount 
of translocation produced by this means is probably very small. 

a Proc. Geol. soc. London 2 : 574-676 (1838) ; Trans. Geol. boc. London (2) 5 : 505-610 
(1840). His researches are given in extended form in his " Formation of vegetable 
mould," 1881. See also Henry— Bull. Soc. Sci. Nancy (3) 1: 23-34 (1900). 

ft Formation of vegetable mould, New York, 1898, p. 307. 

e Amer. geol. 3: 351-357 (1889). 

<*Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 7: 295-300 (1896); and Jour. geol. 8: 151-153 (1900). 

e Science (n. s.) 30: 574-575 (1909). 

/Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. 12: 278 (1892). See also Kinahan— Geol. mag. 
6: 348 (1869); Hensen— Zs. wiss. Zool. 28: 354-364 (1877); Key— Nature 17: 28 
(1877); Holmgren— Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. 20: 353-370 (1904); Hilgard— Science 
(n. s.) 21: 551-552 (1905); Headlee and Dean— Kans. agr. expt. stat. Bull. 154: 
165-180 (1908). 

A good account of the action of plants and animals in moving the soil will be found 
in Shaler's monograph already cited, Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. 12: 268-297 (1892). 

* This process (called "solifluction") has been well described by Andersson, Jour, 
geol. 14=: 91-112(1906). 

i The main item of evidence in favor of this conclusion is the fact that in most soils 
considerable changes in volume take place on wetting and drying. (See Bull. 50, 
Bureau of Soils, U. S. Dept. Agr., pp. 27-45 (1908), where previous literature is sum- 
marized.) These volume changes are believed by Hilgard (Soils, p. 122) to be due to 
the peculiar properties of "colloidal clay," and by Cameron and Gallagher (Bull. 50, 
just cited, p. 50) to be caused by changes in the moisture films surrounding the grains, 
with succeeding changes in the degree of " flocculation." Whatever their ultimate 
cause, it is evident that they must be accompanied by a considerable movement of 
the soil grains in relation to one another. It is possible that temperature changes may 
also produce some such movements. 



TRANSLOCATING AGENTS IN GENERAL. 17 

More general in their sphere of action than the agencies above dis- 
cussed are ice, water, and wind, which, since they act over extended 
areas, are capable of transporting soil material to considerable dis- 
tances. Of these, ice has been much more active at certain times 
in the past than it is to-day. During the Olacial period the North 
American ice sheet scraped off much of the soil which had pre- 
viously accumulated on the areas which it covered, and deposited 
it over the lands and in the seas to the south. At the present time 
translocation by ice is of minor importance except in the polar 
regions. Its manifestations elsewhere are confined to the action of 
drift ice and of glaciers; the latter being occasionally of moment in 
supplying silt to rivers. The importance of ice action to the student 
of present-day conditions lies in the existence of extensive deposits 
which have been largely produced through glacial agency, though that 
agency has now ceased to act. The North American ice sheet on its 
retreat left behind it a great amount of morainic material, while it 
discharged from its borders enormous quantities of finely comminuted 
rock, which was laid down by streams and in lakes and seas to form 
the soils of later epochs. These glacial soils, formed both underhand 
beyond the ice sheet, are to-day very important agriculturally, and 
their origin has greatly affected their properties. This subject, how- 
ever, is outside the scope of the present discussion. 

The action of running water in transporting all manner of rock 
detritus is a matter of common knowledge. Indeed water is usually 
considered the only translocating agent of much importance, and, 
while this conclusion is not justifiable, it is possible that a greater 
actual quantity of soil material (and other detritus) is moved by 
water than by any other one agent. In addition, too, to its more 
extended and better known action as instanced by transfer in rivers, 
etc., water produces much local mixing and moving of soils, both 
vertically and laterally. It is probable that there is some tendency 
for the finer material of a soil to wash downward through the inter- 
spaces under the action of percolating rain water, and the lateral 
movement is seen in the wash of surface soil by rain storms. Every 
little rill carries its quota of soil particles and distributes them at 
lower levels. The amounts concerned are small and may seem unim- 
portant, but every rain does its part, and the aggregate results are 
large. Exactly similar to the action of rain on the soil, though on a 
larger scale, is the wash occasioned by heavy storms in mountainous 

o See Hilgard— Soils, p. 161 (1906), and Hull— Ooreprong der Hollandsche duinen, 
p. 103 (1838). However, some preliminary experiments (as yet unpublished) con- 
ducted several years ago at Cornell University by Mr. C. F. Shaw, under the direc- 
tion of Dr. J. A. Bonsteel, failed to show any tendency for the clay to accumulate 
in the lower layers of a soil through which over 100 inches of water was percolated. It 
is possible that the downward infiltration of clay is not so common as has been believed* 

83952°— Bull. 68—11 2 



18 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BT THE WIND. 

regions, producing alluvial fans of material carried down mountain 
slopes in the same way that soil material is carried down the irregu- 
larities of a field. Small-scale examples can be seen everywhere after 
a moderately heavy rain storm. The Brick Earth of southern 
England is an extensive deposit believed to have been formed by rain 
wash, and similar deposits occur in many other localities. 

The transporting action of small streams is both more extended 
and more restricted than that of rills formed by the rain. Streams 
run all the time, but this apparent advantage is lost by their being 
confined to fixed channels. The rain, however, falls everywhere, and 
rain rills form over the whole of the uncovered surface, and hence have 
a much greater quantity of material exposed to their attack than can 
come under the action of permanent streams. Streams, on the other 
hand, because of their permanency, can carry material to much 
greater distances. Of course what actually happens is that the rain 
• and the streams assist each other. The rain-water rills carry part of 
the surface soil into the small streams and these in turn to the rivers. 
Enormous quantities of silt are constantly in suspension in most 
rivers and streams, 6 and in the larger rivers even greater quantities 
are pushed along the bottom by the current.* Much of the trans- 
ported material is thrown up along the bank and deposited on the 
bottom, but most of it goes out to sea, and the precipitation both of 
"bottom-drift" and of suspended material at the river's mouth sup- 
plies the material which makes up the delta. Delta lands, being 
composed of material derived from the whole drainage area of the 
river, are unusually heterogeneous, and when cultivation is possible 
remarkably fertile, as is indeed true of alluvial lands in general. 

By rain wash and stream action, alone and together, the aggregate 
of soil translocation performed by running water is very great indeed. 
Yet this agent is by no means of universal action. Close examination 
will show that its activity is narrowly limited in several ways, some 
of which it will be advisable to discuss. 

THE LIMITATIONS OF WATER TRANSLOCATION. 

All water transportation is limited by two conditions prescribed 
by the nature of the action itself: (1) It can occur only from higher 
to lower levels, and (2) it can degrade or aggrade d only the surface 
with which the water comes actually in contact. Water-borne 

<* Godwin-Austen— Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 6:94 (1860), 7:121 (1851); Foster and 
Topley— ibid. 21:446 (1865); Prestwich— ibid. 48:323 (1892). 

b See A. Geikie— Textbook of Geology, 4th ed., vol. 1, pp. 488-489 (1903); 
Humphreys and Abbot — Physics and hydraulics of the Mississippi, 2d ed., pp. 147-149 
(1876); Babb— Science 21: 342-343 (1893); and especially the comprehensive 
tables of Dole and Stabler—XL S. Geol. surv. Water Bupp. pap. 234: 84-93 (1909). 

« Humphreys and Abbot — loc. cit., p. 147; Forshey — Proc. Amer. assoc. adv. aci. 
26: 144 (1877); Guerard— Proc. Inst. min. engs. 82: 309 (1884-35). 

4 These words are used in their ordinary geological meanings. " Degrade " means to 
lower the level of the general land surface of the locality considered by removing material 
therefrom. * ' Aggrade " means to raise this surface by depositing material thereon. 



THE LIMITATIONS OF WATER TRANSLOCATION. 19 

detritus can be carried only down hill, and in ordinary cases the jour- 
ney must be continuously downward. A barrier to the continuous 
fall of the water will effectually stop the progress of the suspended 
load, though the water itself, by backing up sufficiently, may be able 
to escape at a higher level. Lakes thus formed act as settling basins 
and the water escaping from them usually carries very little suspended 
matter, however much it may have borne on entrance. Of course, 
the material carried into a lake is laid down on its bottom and 
will (if the supply be kept up) ultimately suffice to fill it, so that 
the river will run through a flat plain where the lake once stood. 
When this happens the detrital load of the stream will be carried 
on to the next lake or to the sea. 

The second limitation of water action is even more self-evident as 
applied to streams. It is obvious that running water can attack only 
the surface over which it runs, and equally obvious that it can 
deposit the material gained only on those surfaces which it is, at 
least occasionally, able to cover. This second limitation has, how- 
ever, little force when applied to the action of rain water, for prac- 
tically the whole surface is exposed to the action of rain. But rain 
water, like all running water, can act only down hill, and its action 
is still further limited by several special considerations. In the first 
place, rain water becomes effective as an eroding and transporting 
agent only when the precipitation is sufficiently rapid to exceed the 
rate of absorption by the soil, and thus to cause water to run on the 
surface. In most climates much of the annual rainfall comes in 
rains so gentle that the water is absorbed as fast as it falls, and very 
little, if any, runs over the surface outside of the fixed channels, 
natural and artificial. Such rains can have no great translocating 
action. Whether a particular rain storm will be sufficiently heavy 
to have any erosive action depends not alone on the actual rate of pre- 
cipitation but on the absorptive power of the soil, and, in the case of 
long-continued rains, on the efficiency of the soil drainage. A rain 
which lasts long may finally bring the soil to a state approaching 
saturation, and then begin to have an erosive action, though it had 
none at first. 

At best, rain-water translocation is of intermittent action. Rain 
storms of sufficient violence to have any appreciable effect are of 
only occasional occurrence in ordinary climates, and in many climates 
they are very rare indeed. The proportion of time in the year during 
which rain water is actually running over the surface in the ordinary 
humid areas is certainly less than 5 per cent. The heavy rains, 
which alone are active, are usually of short duration. Finally, rain- 
water translocation, as mentioned above, is essentially local. It 
may produce an effective mixing of the surface of any one field (pro- 
vided conditions of slope are favorable) but further than this it can 
not go unassisted. 



20 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL, BY THE WIND. 

The sphere of river and stream action is in some ways even more 
limited, because, not alone must all action be down hill, but it must 
be on the relatively small surface actually reached by the water. 
The streams themselves can attack only their own beds, and were they 
dependent on their own resources for their supply of detrital mate- 
rial, it would be reduced to small fractions of that which they now 
carry. The bed, when once established, is usually attacked relatively 
slowly and the supply of material on the banks would soon be ex- 
hausted were it not kept up by other agents. Of course, as a matter of 
fact, streams are not dependent on their own exertions for their 
supply of detritus. Loose material is continually washed into them 
by the rain; and, where the bordering slopes are steep, much material 
falls and creeps into them under the action of gravity. However, 
rain wash, as just pointed out, is intermittent in its action, and soil 
creep affects only the soil immediately adjacent to the stream, and 
materially affects that only when the slopes are steep. Further, the 
access of detritus to the streams by either of these methods is in large 
measure prevented by a border of vegetation along the banks, and, 
owing to the plentiful supply of water which they furnish to the soil on 
their banks, all streams tend to produce such vegetal borders and 
thus themselves to limit the supply of detritus which reaches them. 
Always, however, to limit it, and never to shut it off entirely, since 
some eroded material will find its way in, in spite of all vegetal or 
other obstacles. 

Some rivers (and occasionally smaller streams) are so situated that 
they are able to attack directly deposits of alluvial material which 
they themselves, or other rivers, have laid down in previous epochs. 
The lower Mississippi, the Ganges, the Yangtsekiang, and the Fo, are 
examples. Such rivers are not limited to the action of rain water and 
of their smaller tributaries for their supply of suspended material, 
since they by their own action can obtain such material from their 
banks. Such a procedure, however, is but one step in the process of 
translocation. The alluvial material must have come from some- 
where. The river has simply juggled it a bit before passing it finally 
into the sea. Material derived from the banks would not last for- 
ever, and in general what is taken away at one time or one place is 
replaced at another. The ultimate source of the river load is farther 
back. This is still true of the Chinese rivers, though the amount 
of alluvial material directly available is there so enormous that the 
river may be considered as having a practically inexhaustable supply 
of soil material always open to the attack of the stream itself. The 
loess ° is so great in extent that eons will be required for its complete 
degradation. But the loess is not a primary material. It has already 
been subjected to much translocation, and the existence of this appar- 

o On the Chinese loess, see p. 126 et seq. 



THE LIMITATIONS OF WATER TRANSLOCATION. 21 

ent exception does not shake the conclusion that rivers in general 
are greatly limited in their powers of attack, and require the assistance 
of other agents to complete their supply of detrital material. 

But, by rain wash and stream movement acting together, the 
surface waters have a reasonably large range of attack. There are 
but few localities where the surface is not somewhat subject to the 
erosive action of water, and the suspended load of a river generally 
represents to some degree the soil of the whole of its drainage area; 
well enough at least to give river deposits all necessary heterogeneity. 
A much more serious limitation to the action of rivers and streams 
lies in their inability to deposit their load except where their waters 
actually flow. However well charged be the river water with the 
various soil forming materials, no benefit will accrue to the land lying 
higher than the flood level, and in nearly all river basins these lands far 
exceed in area and value those which are occasionally subject to flood. 

The action of running water is limited,- therefore, in that the 
streams are restricted, both in attack and deposition, to the surface 
actually covered; and in that the main source of supply of extraneous 
material to the streams, namely, rain wash, is very intermittent in 
its action. The most serious restriction is that of deposition, since 
never more than a small secti&n of the land surface can under pres- 
ent conditions be subject to cover by flood waters. Larger soil areas 
may be found in which river deposition has played a part in the past, 
though it has long ceased to do so. Such are the alluvial lands in 
river bottoms, and on terraces, old flood plains, etc. When the 
product of large rivers, these are of course thoroughly mixed and 
very fertile, but they make up no large percentage of the available 
farm lands. Of the soils usually (and rightly) classed as alluvial, 
the larger proportion are the products of the present or past action 
of small streams, and the sediments of these streams, being derived 
from smaller and less diversified drainage areas, do not compare with 
river sediments in heterogeneity or fertilizing value. It is not prob- 
able that any major proportion of the present arable soil is now 
receiving or has received river or stream sediments of sufficient 
diversity to be of material assistance in the maintenance or increase 
of heterogeneity. 

At the present day the one translocating action of water which is 
most important in the maintenance of heterogeneity and fertility is 
not the addition of new material to the soil, but the removal of old 
material from it. By the constant and normal removal of surficial 
soil through the streams into the lakes and oceans, the soil layer is 
pushed gradually into the underlying deposits, and secures therefrom 
fresh, unweathered, and unexhausted materials. In this way water 
translocation is of great and indubitable importance, but in the sup- 
ply of new material by cross-surface translocation it must in all 
probability yield in importance to the action of the wind. 



22 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BT THE WIND. ! 

WIND TRANSLOCATION. 



i 



The importance of the wind as a geologic agent has been recognized 
by many geologists, and its action on the soil has been noted in 
most general works on the subject. 6 In addition to these incidental 
notices, general papers on the geologic action of the wind have been 
published by Czerny, c Walther, d and Udden, € while Bychikhin,/ 
Hensele,* BfBletskfl/ Engelhardt, ' and Stahl-Schroeder * have written 
on the general action of wind on the soil.* 

Most of these and other writers who have discussed the geological 
action of the wind have confined themselves in the main to the more 
striking examples of its work, as, e. g., sand dunes, dust and sand 
storms, the formation of extensive eolian deposits, etc. These 
phenomena are naturally the ones which most attract attention, 
because in them the agency of the wind is easily discernible, but, 
though geologically important, they are less often agriculturally so, 
since they occur mostly in the more arid regions, where extended 
agriculture is impossible. So much has attention been confined to 
these practically arid region phenomena that soil students in general 
consider the wind as specifically a desert agent and of little, if any, 
importance in the humid regions. This is by no means the case. It 
will be shown below that large quantities of soil material are every- 
where being moved about by the winds, and this transfer, by assisting 
the mixing of soils, has been, and is, of the utmost importance to 

<*6lie de Beaumont — Lemons de geologie pratique, vol. 1, pp. 183, 200 (1847); 
Von Lasauht— Encyclop. der Naturw., Abt. II 1: 68-80 (1882); Penck— Mor- 
phologie der Erdoberflache, vol. 1, pp. 254-259 (1894); Lapparent — Lemons de 
geographie physique, 2d ed., pp. 249-261 (1898); Squinabol — Cenni di geografica 
fisica e di geologica, p. 32 et seq. (1900); A. Geikie — Textbook of geology, 4th ed. 
vol. 1, pp. 432-446 (1903); Chamberlin and Salisbury— Geology, vol. 1, pp. 20-39 
(1904). 

& See, e. g.: A. D. Hall— The soil, p. 10 (1903); Merrill— Rocks, rock-weathering, 
and soils, 2d ed., pp. 280-286 (1906); Burkett— Soils, pp. 15-16 (1907); S. W. 
Fletcher— Soils, pp. 18-20 (1907); Hilgard— Soils, pp. 8-10 (1906), etc. 

cPeterm. Mitt. Erganzungsh. 48, 1876. 

<*Abh. K. sachs. Ges. Wiss. Leipzig 16: 345-570 (1891); Himmel und Erde 10: 
259-267, 301-311 (1898); and Das Gesetz der Wustenbildung, 1900. 

tJour. geol. 2; 318-331 (1894), and The mechanical composition of wind deposits, 
Augustana Lib. Pub. No. 1, 1898. 

/The influence of the wind on the soil (Russian), 1891; and Trudy Imp. vol. 
ekon. obshch. 1892: 312-390. 

fForech. Geb. Agric.-Phys. 16: 311-364 (1893). 

A Mat. izuch. russ. pochv 9: 1-40 (1895). 

i Khozfain 1895 : 633-634. 

iPoln. entsik. russ. selsk. khoz. 3: 163-175 (1900); Selsk. khoz. i Uesov. 196: 
363-378 (1900). 

* A large part of these articles is devoted to the action of the wind on the mois- 
ture, gases, and temperature of the soil, subjects which are outside the scope of the 
present discussion. 



WIND TRANSLOCATION. 28 

agriculture. This constant drift of blown material has largely passed 
unnoticed, because it does not of itself attract attention; its results 
are slowly produced, and when complete are difficult to distinguish 
from the results of other agencies. Where special conditions exist, 
special manifestations are developed; and these being unusual and 
striking, attract attention entirely out of proportion to their true 
importance. The wind must be considered as active everywhere. 
In a geological sense it is perhaps most active in arid regions, where 
the surface is dry and easily attacked and where protective vegeta- 
tion is absent; but, agriculturally considered, its activity in humid 
regions is of much greater importance on account of the greater pro- 
ductive value of the lands affected. 

It is, of course, true that the arid-region manifestations of wind 
action may indirectly affect the humid regions, as, e. g., when a dust 
storm originating in the Sahara carries material to Southern Europe, 
or when desert sands are blown into a river, to be deposited along its 
lower course. Neither are the special manifestations of wind action, 
such as sand dunes and dust storms, strictly confined to deserts, 
though most frequent therein. 

It should be noted that the wind is not subject to the factors which 
limit the action of water, as discussed in the last chapter (p. 18). 
The wind does not move (that is, not directly) under the action of 
gravitation, and therefore it may, and does, move either up or down 
hill, carrying its load with it. The preponderance of translocation is 
naturally from higher to lower levels, but there is much in the oppo- 
site direction. 6 In area of attack the wind is complementary to water. 
It works on the areas upon which water does not, for water-covered 
areas are naturally not exposed to the wind. And since the areas 
covered by water are enormously less than those not so covered, 
the wind has greatly the advantage. With regard to areas of deposi- 
tion, the wind has no limits whatever. It can deposit anywhere. 
Then, too, the wind is constantly active, or nearly so, and thereby 
avoids the intermittence which is characteristic of much water action. 

But if the wind escapes the limitations which are forced on water 
translocation, it has no less serious ones of its own. On account of 
the greater tenuity of air, the atmosphere has a specific transporting 
power much less than that possessed by water, and is much more 
closely limited in the size and weight of particles which it can handle. 
Further, a surface is much more easily protected from the wind than 
from the action of running water. Vegetation or surface moisture 

« See, however, authorities cited on pp. 105-107. 

6Cf. W. M. Davis— Jour. geol. 18: 384 (1905); Penck— Amer. jour. Bci. (4) 19 1 
167 (1905). 

« Areas covered by oceans and permanent lakes are, of course, excluded from con- 
sideration. 



24 MOVEMENT OF BOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

will prevent wind erosion much more completely than they will erosion 
by water. 

The erosive and translocating activity of either wind or water is 
determined by a balance of various factors, some of which are favoring 
and some opposing, and the actual activity in any individual case will 
depend on the relative values of these factors. Those favorable to 
wind erosion are not always the same as those favorable to erosion 
by water, and consequently what increases wind action may decrease 
water action, and vice versa, and whether wind or water is most active 
in any particular region depends again on a balance of the factors. 
In an arid region wind has the advantage; in certain other places 
water action becomes much more important; while in still others, as, 
e. g., on rocky mountain slopes, both agents are perhaps equally 
active. 

In order to show clearly the importance of wind action on soils, 
it is necessary to discuss the manner and manifestations of its action 
in more detail, paying particular attention to the importance of 
constant drift of soil, as mentioned above, but not neglecting the more 
unusual phenomena of dunes, sand storms, etc. These need discus- 
sion not only for the sake of completeness and on account of their 
occasional agricultural importance, but also because in them the 
phenomena are usually simple and apparent, and are consequently 
easier of examination and interpretation. 

THE MECHANICS OF WIND TRANSLOCATION. 

In order to be transported by the wind, material must first be lifted 
from the surface, and any discussion of the mechanics of wind trans- 
location must therefore be prefaced by some consideration of the 
means by which the air currents attack the surface and acquire their 
load of detrital material. Loose dust and sand can be directly at- 
tacked by the wind, but rocks and other more or less indurated 
materials must first be disintegrated or abraded. This disintegra- 
tion is largely performed by the general weathering agents, and the 
wind is usually an agent of removal rather than an agent of attack; 
but under certain conditions it is possible for the wind to attack and 
wear away even the hardest rocks, and this process may conveniently 
be called corrasion — the *ord employed by Powell a to designate the 
similar action of flowing water loaded with detritus in mechanically 
attacking the material over which it flows. 

WIND CORRASION— SAND-BLAST ACTION. 

The corrasive power of the wind is due altogether to the dust and 
sand which it carries, acting in the same manner as the well-known 

<* Science 12 : 229-233 (1888). The term has already been applied to eolian action 
by Pasearge (Naturw. Wochens. 16 : 371 [1901]) and others. 



THE MECHANICS OF WIND TRANSLOCATION. 25 

sand blast much employed as a cutting and polishing agent. Rock 
corrasion by natural sand blast was first geologically described from 
the San Bernardino Pass, California, by Blake a in 1855. It has 
been many times observed in deserts, on seacoasts, and in all locali- 
ties where drifting sand is common. 6 General discussions of the 
phenomena have been published by Gilbert, Obruchev, d Walther,* 

o Proc. Amer. assoc. adv. sci. 9: 216-220 (1856), Amer. jour. sci. (2) 20: 178-181 
(1855), and Pacific Railway Repts., vol. 5, p. 92 (1856). The process had been earlier 
noted in brief by several desert travelers, especially Wellsted (loc. cit., in note & below). 

& See Wellsted— Travels in Arabia, vol. 2, p. 33-34, 204 (1838); Newberry— Geol- 
ogy of the Ives Expedition, pp. 17, 24 (1861); Fraas— Aus dem Orient, p. 200 (1867); 
Stowe — Trans. New Zealand inst. 5: 105-106 (1873); Naumann — Neues Jahrb. Min. 
1874: 337-361; Heim— ibid. 1874=: 953-959; Kayser— Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 27; 
966 (1875); Ramsay— Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 34 : 87 (1878); Rohlfe— Libyschen Wuste, 
p. 59 (1875); Holland— Rev. Bci. (3) 1: 611 (1881); Weisgerber— Rev. archeol. 2: 4 
(1881); Mickwite— Neues Jahrb. Min. 1885, II: 177; Narrative "Challenger" Expedi- 
tion, vol. 1, p. 373 (1885); De Geer— Geol. f6ren. f6rh. 8: 501-513 (1886); Bajolle— Le 
Sahara de Ouargla, p. 16 (1887); Hettner — GebirgBbau und Oberflachengestaltung der 
S&chsischen Schweiz, p. 292 (1887); Stapff— Verh. Ges. Erdk. Berlin 14: 48-49 
(1887); Jakel— Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 39: 287 (1887); Oldham— Rec. Geol. surv. India 
21 : 159 (1888); Contejean— -Compt. rend. 108 : 1208-1209 (1889); Choisy— Documents 
Mission Algene, v. 1, p. 327 (1890); Rolland— Geologic Sahara algerien, p. 215-217 
(1890); Pechuel-Lfische— Ausland 65 : 446 (1892); Steenstrup— Geol. foren. fdrh. 14 1 
493(1892); Brackebusch— Peterm. Mitth. 39: 156 (1893); L6czy— Reise Grafen Bela 
Szechenyi, vol. 1, pp. 507-508 (1893); Beck— Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 46: 537-546 
(1894); Goldschmidt— Tschennak's Min. Mitt. 14:131-141 (1894); Baltzer— Mitth. 
naturf. Ges. Bern 1895: 28-29; Obruchev— Verh. Imp. min. Ges. St. Petersburg 33 : 
249-255 (1895); Fruh— Globus 67: 117-120 (1895); Bain— Iowa Geol. surv. 8: 337 
(1897); Cornish— Geog. jour. 15: 16 (1900); Walther— Wustenbildung, p. 44, 51-52, 
101 (1900); Beadnell— -Compt. Rend. Gong. geol. intern. 8: 857 (1900); Abel— Jahrb. 
geol. Reichsanst. 51: 25-40 (1901); Futterer— Verh. Ges. deut. Naturf. Arzte 73, II 
1: 227-229 (1901), Geog. Zs. 8: 261-266, 335-338 (1902); La T ouch e— Mem. Geol. 
surv. Ind. 35: 10-11 (1902); Paaearge — Loc. cit. in a, p. 26; Brunhes— Oompt. rend. 
135: 1133 (1902); J u lien— Ann. N. Y. acad. eci. 14: 152-153 (1902); Barron and 
Hume— Topography eastern desert of Egypt, p. 288-289 (1902); RusBell— U. S. Geol. 
surv. Bull. 199: 108, 122, 144 (1902); Johnsen— Centbl. Min. 1908: 593-597, 
662; Stein— Sand buried ruins of Khotan, pp. 307, 353, 368, 421, 430, 436 et al. 
(1903); Koken— Centbl. Min. 1903: 625-628; A. P. Davis— U. S. Geol. surv. Water 
supp. pap. 73: plate 5 (1903); Philippi — Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 56: Monatsb. 64-67 
(1904); Foureau — Documents scientifiques Mission saharienne, vol. 1, p. 217-221 
(1904); Ivchenko— Ann. geol. min. Run. 7, I: 57-58 (1904); 8, I: 135-138 (1906); 
Lomas— Proc. Liverpool geol. soc. 10: 192 (1905-6); J. Ball— Aswan Cataract, p. 112 
(1907); Barron— Topography Western Sinai, p. 158, 216 (1907); Ferrar— Rept. Nat. 
Antarctic Exped. 1901-*, Nat. Hist. 1: 87-89 (1907); Barron— Topography between 
Cairo and Suez, p. 61, 116-117 (1907); Cross— Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 19: 53-62 
(1908); Hume— Cairo sci. jour. 2: 318 (1908); Werth— Deut. sud-polar Expedition 
1901-3, vol. 2, p. 168-169 (1908); Gibson— Brit, assoc. Geol. photos. (2) No. 2879, 
desc. p. 10. 

e Proc. Amer. assoc. adv. sci. 23, II: 26-29 (1874); Amer. jour. sci. (3) 9: 151-152 
(1875). 

* Loc. cit. 

« Einleitung in der Geologic als historische Wiasenschaft, p. 589-592 (1894). 



26 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BT THE WIND. 

Passarge,* and Brunhes. 6 Chatley* discusses briefly the mechanics 
of the phenomena. Rocks which have been subjected to wind 
^^ corrasion usually have a smooth and hi ghly p olished though fre- 
quently irregular surface, sometimes with projecting crystals and 
ridges of the harder minerals, or with cavities (like pot holes) where 
softer parts have been worn away.* Blown sand is supposed also to 
be responsible for the faceted pebbles frequently found in deserts, 
on glacial sand plains, or on other sandy and wind-swept areas. 4 

«Naturw. Wochens. 16: 369-373 (1901). 

h Mem. Accad. Nuovi Lincei (5) 21 : 136-148 (1903). 

cThe force of the wind, p. 77-80 (1909). 

<* These corrasion forms are sometimes simulated by atmospheric (chemical) decay. 
See Choffat — Comm. Direccao trab. geol. Portugal 3 : 17-22 (1895-6); Ivchenko — Ann. 
geol. min. Russie 7, I: 216-217 (1904); Tuckett-Geol. mag. (5) 1: 12-13 (1904); 
Lake— Ibid., p. 89; Bonney— Ibid., p. 388-392; Baron—Ibid., (5) 2: 17 (1905). 

« It was once supposed by many geologists that these pebbles had been formed 
by the mutual attrition of stones in the beds of the glacial torrents. For this opinion 
see Braun — Verh. Berliner Ges. Anthrop. 1870-71: 103; Meyn — Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 
24: 414 (1872); Keilhack— Jahrb. K. preuss. geol. Landesanst. 1883: 173, 1884: 
210-238; Berendt— Ibid., 1884: 201; Wahnschaffe— Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 36: 411 
(1884); Theile — Sitzungsb. Ib\b Dresden 1885: 35-36. The now universal opinion 
is that they are formed by sand-blast corrasion, though the initial form of the pebble 
may have much to do with its final one. There exists a kind of faceted or planed 
bowlders and pebbles of undoubted glacial origin, but these have only a very super- 
ficial resemblance to the ordinary faceted pebbles or Drei-KanUr. The facets on these 
glacial pebbles are produced by ice planation while the pebble is fixed in the bed 
over which the ice is passing and which it is planing down. See Blanford — Kept. 
Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 1886 : 630-631; Wynne— Ibid., pp. 631-632; I. C. Russell— Bull. 
Geol. soc. Amer. 1: 120 (1890); Koken and Noetling— Centbl. Min. 1903: 97-103; 
Koken— Ibid., p. 625-628; Philippi— Ibid., 1904: 737-738, 1905: 655, and Neuee 
Jahrb. Min., 1906, I: 71-80, and others in bibliography. 

For descriptions of occurrences of faceted pebbles and discussions of their eolian 
origin, see the works cited in the bibliography under the following authors: Abel, E. W. 
Andrews, Barron (Topography between Cairo and Suez, p. 116-117), Bather, Beasley, 
Berendt, Bergt, Brackebusch (p. 156), W. D. Brown, Cadell, van Calker, van Galker 
and Tenne, Cazalis de Fondouce, Dames, Dawkins, Enys, Fegrceus, Ferrar, Fontannes, 
Futterer (Geog. Zs. 8: 335-338 [1902]), Gagel, Geinitz, Geiseler, George, Goebel, Gold- 
schmidt, Gottsche (Sedimentiir-Geschiebe Schleswig-Holstein, p. 6), J. W. Gregory 
(Dead Heart of Australia, p. 26), Gutbier, Harll, HedstrGm, Heim, Hogbom, Hunting- 
ton (Pulse of Asia, p. 148), Kayser, Klemm (Erl. sp. K., p. 19-20), P. G. Krause, Laufer, 
Lenz (Timbouctou, vol 2, p. 384), Lisbfta, Mackie, Mares, Meyn (Abh. geol. Spec. 
Karte Preuss. 1 : 652, 666, 686), Mickwitz, Milthers, Mugge, Nathorst, Papp, Prest- 
wich (Geology, vol. 1, p. 145), Preussner, Adolf Sauer, Sauer and Chelius, 
Steenstrup, Steinmann, Stone, Suess, Thomson, Travere, TutkovskH, Verworn, 
Virchow, Vorwerg, Wagner, Wahnschafife, Walther, Wilmer, Wiman, Wittich, Wold- 
Kch, and Wood worth. See also Abel, Baltzer, De Geer, Jakel, Johnsen, Koken, 
Mickwitz, and Steenstrup; loci citati in note 6, p. 25. Gutbier 's articles are the 
first notices of occurrences and those of Travere and of Enys contain the first sugges- 
tions of eolian origin. Mugge and Milthers give good resumes of present knowledge. 
Occurrences in the western United States are described by Blake (loc. cit., note a, 
p. 25), Gilbert (loc. cit., note c, p. 25), and George (loc. cit. in bibliography). 
Occurrences in New England are described in the articles by Stone and Woodworth, 
cited in the bibliography. The latter gives references to earlier New England literature. 



THE MECHANICS OF WIND TRANSLOCATION. 27 

Experiments on the geologic action of the sand blast have been 
published by Egleston,* De Geer,* Preussner, Thoulet,* Harl6,* 
HedstrOm/ and W. D. Browne 

Materials other than rocks are also frequently attacked by blown 
sand. Trees and plants are injured/ wooden structures abraded, 1 
exposed glass articles etched/ etc. The telegraph wire along the 
Trans-Caspian Railway had to be removed after eleven years because 
in that time its diameter had diminished one-half because of sand 
blast corrasion.* The erosion of the wooden telegraph poles of the 
Southern Pacific Railway through the San Bernardino Pass in 7 
southern California is so great that the railway has been forced 
to protect them by piles of rock or by short supplementary posts 
placed on the windward side where they will take the corrasion and 
sa ve the main poles. 1 Egleston describes the injury to building stones 
by blown sand and notes the gradual effacement of city tombstone 
inscriptions by dust blown from the street.** Blown snow crystals 
have a corrasive action similar to that of sand but less violent.* 

However, the amount of dlbris derived from the sand blast corra- 
sion of the rocks is not large, and is unimportant both to geology 
and to agriculture. The material moved by the wind comes mainly 

a Trans. Amer. soc. civ. engs. 15: 655 (1886). 

»Geol. ffiren. fdrh. 8: 501-513 (1886). 

cZe. deut. geol. Gee. 89: 502 (1887). 

* Compt. lend. 104: 381-383 (1887); Ann. mines (8) lit 199-224 (1887). 

« Bull. Soc. geol. France (3) 28: 70 (1900). 

/Geol. fdren. f5rh. 18: 601 (1896), 25: 413^420 (1903). 

fProc. Liverpool geol. soc. 10: 128-131 (190&-4). 

* See p. 164 et seq. 

< Reade— Geol. mag. (4) 8 : 193-194 (1901). 

/Beck— Zs. deut. geol. Gee. 46: 540 (1894); Sokolov— Die Dflnen, p. 6 (1894). 
Merrill (Eng. mag. 2 : 605 [1892]) mentions a window pane from one of the Cape Cod 
light-houses which had its transparency destroyed by sand blast during a single storm. 

* Walther— Wttstenbildung, p. 52 (1900). 

* For photographs and descriptions of sand-blast action in this area (where it is 
probably more active than anywhere else in the United States) see Mendenhall — U. S. ^y^^y 
Geol. surv. Water supp. pap. 225: 26 (1909). l 

*» Trans. Amer. soc. civ. engs. 15 : 654-658 (1886). Futterer has noticed the corra- 
sion of building stones in Heidelberg Castle — Mitth. Badischen Landesanst. 8t 
471-496 (1897). For notices of the injury of Egyptian monuments see Petrie — Proc. 
Roy. geog. soc. 11: 648 (1889); Bolton— Trans. N. Y. acad. sci. 9: 120 (1890); Wal- 
ther — Einleitung in der Geologic als historische Wissenschaft, p. 591 (1894); Lomas — 
Proc. Liverpool geol. soc. 10: 192 (1905-6). On the effects of corrasion on the ruins 
of the ancient cities of east Turkestan see Hedin— Through Asia, vol. 2, p. 780 (1899); 
Stein— Sand buried ruins of Khotan, p. 368 et al. (1903), Ancient Khotan, p. 107, 243, 
327, 328 et al. (1907), and Geog. jour. 34 : 16, 17, 21, 27, 35 (1909). 

* Clarence King— Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel, vol 1, p. 527 (1878); Davi- 
son — Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 50: 478-479 (1894) and authorities there cited; Baltzer — 
Mitth. naturf. Ges. Bern 1895: 35; Svenonius— Geol. fdren. fern. 21: 569 (1899); 
Tschirwinsky— Zs. Gletscherk. 2: 111-112 (1907); Ferrar— Nat. Antarctic Exped. 
1901- 4, Nat. hist. 1 : 89 (1907). 



28 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

y from that already loosened and disintegrated by the general weather- 
ing agents. Exposed deposits of such material are rapidly attacked, 
the detached and blown grains acting as tools, to loosen and remove 
further material. The soil is of course easily attacked in this way 
and is saved from complete removal only by the existence of certain 
agencies which tend to protect it. 

PROTECTIONS AGAINST EROSION BT WIND. 

The chief of these natural protectors are vegetation and surface 
moisture, and nearly all lands share to some degree in the benefits 
they afford, though in few is the protection perfect enough entirely to 
prevent attack. The protective action of vegetation is due to its 
preventing the contact of moving air with the soil surface. The air 
in the layer next the ground is entangled in the stalks and leaves of 
the plants and either its motion is entirely prevented or its velocity 
is greatly reduced. To act in this way the plants must of course be 
more or less closely matted, and isolated individuals are compara- 
tively useless, as the wind is able to reach the soil between them with 
little or no loss of velocity. That form of vegetation is most efficient 
which provides (1) plants spaced most closely and (2) plants reach- 
ing highest into the air. Thus grasses and trees are found in prac- 
tice to offer the best protection — the first because of the production 
of a close mat near the ground, and the second because of the height 
they attain. .The real criterion of the protective action of any 
particular form of vegetation is naturally the ratio of the average 
height of the plants to the average distance between them. The 
greater this ratio, the greater the protection. 

The protective action of vegetation is not, however, entirely due 
to the reduction of the wind velocity at the surface, for the roots 
of the plants also act as binders in holding the soil grains together 
and preventing erosion either by wind or water. Possibly much 
of the efficiency of the grasses in preventing erosion is due to the 
extensive interlaced root system which is developed near the surface. 
The layer of decaying vegetable matter which accumulates under an 
established vegetation is also an opponent of wind action. It is 
usually pretty well held together by undecomposed stalks and 
branches and acts as a felted covering which is not readily broken 
by the wind. Its efficiency is, however, largely due to the fact that 
it tends to remain moist, for if its moisture be lost, much of the resist- 
ance to erosion is lost also, and the individual leaves, etc., are soon 
blown away. The vegetable matter in the soil itself (humus) is not 
unimportant in enabling resistance to the wind because of its tendency 

<s The shape of the plant will of course have some influence on the effective distance 
between plants. For instance, a low bushy species will furnish more protection 
than a tall one with a single stem, though the distance between plants be the same 
in each case. 



PROTECTIONS AGAINST EROSION BY WIND. 29 

to conserve moisture, and also to supply agglutinabt materials which 
stick together the grains of the soil and help maintain its coherence. 

The actual efficiency of any particular vegetal cover in preventing 
wind erosion is rather difficult to estimate. It is probable that sod 
and full-grown forests give nearly perfect protection, though even 
in this case some wind action occurs when the soil is accidentally 
exposed through the uprooting of a tree ° or brought to the sur- 
face by earthworms or burrowing animals. The other forms' of 
vegetation decrease more and more in efficiency with decrease in 
the ratio of plant height to plant distance. At the lower end of the 
series stand the plants common in semiarid regions which grow 
singly or in isolated clumps, and whose action in preventing wind 
erosion is very slight. Whether the natural vegetation of any 
piece of land will prevent its being acted upon by the wind depends 
largely on its water supply. If the land be kept sufficiently moist 
the vegetation is usually thick enough and high enough to form a 
mom or less perfect protection, while an arid soil has practically ne 
vegetation and therefore no protection. All gradations between 
these two extremes are possible and are found in nature. 

The vegetal covering of cultivated fields (excepting pastures) •» 
seldom such as to furnish a sufficiently dbmplete protection. Cul- 
tivated plants are usually spaced much more widely than wild ones 
and in many cases a large part of the area of the field is entirely 
bare of vegetation. These spaces between plants and between rows 
of plants are easily attacked by the wind, but more important is the 
fact that cultivated fields are during a part of each year bare of any 
vegetation whatever. The operations of plowing, harrowing, etc., 
have for their main objects the destruction of the natural vegetation 
(weeds) and the loosening of the soil. In both ways wind erosion 
is assisted and it is therefore apparent that cultivation will, other 
things equal, tend to increase the amount of soil moved by the wind, 
so much so in some cases that the clearing of the natural vegetation 
preparatory to cultivation has led to serious loss of soil by blowing. 6 

The second great protection against wind erosion is a moist condi- 
tion of the surface. The presence of films of moisture between the 
soil particles sets up forces due to surface tension. These forces 
tend to hold the particles together. If, therefore, the surface of the 
soil be moist there will exist a force strongly opposing the action of 
the wind in detaching soil particles and in many cases competent 
entirely to prevent attack.* It is seldom, however, that the actual 
surface is moist. There are usually a few grains which are dry 
enough to lack the surrounding water films. These are blown 

a See Shaler— Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. eurv. 12 : 273-274 (1892). 

& See pp. 164-172 below. 

cSee Bull. 10, Bur. of Soils, and Bull. 50, ditto, pp. 49-51. 

<*See e. g. the experiments of Henaele— Forsch. Geb. agric. Phye. 16 1 363 (1893). 



30 



MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 



away, exposing the grains below, which are dried by the wind and 
themselves blown away, enabling the wind gradually to work its 
way even into a soil which is comparatively wet.° In order that there 
may be a complete protection against wind action it is necessary that 
moisture be supplied from below by capillary rise as rapidly as it 
is removed on the surface by evaporation. 6 A soil may be quite 
moist and still be subject to wind action owing to the presence of a 
very thin dry layer on the surface which is renewed as rapidly as 
it is removed. 

This drying effect of the wind and consequent blowing of even wet 
soil is well illustrated by phenomena observed on the sandy soils of 
Anne Arundel County, Md. These soils blow a great deal at all 
times, and especially when freshly plowed, but contrary to what 
might be expected they blow more when plowed wet than when 
plowed dry. The fact that some blowing takes place on the wet 
soil is not difficult to understand. Owing to the sandy character 
of the soil, as shown by the mechanical analysis given in Table I, it 
is very permeable and well drained and the rain water, though rap- 
idly absorbed, is as rapidly drained .away to lower levels, leaving in 
the surface layers only that water which is held by capillary and 
hygroscopic action in the films about the grains. 

Table I. — Mechanical analysis of soil from Severn, Anne Arundel County, Md., which 

is much subject to blowing. 



Grade. 


Sitt. 


Name. 


Per 

cent. 


Grade. 

• 


Site. 


Name. 


Per 

cent. 


1 

2 


Mm. 
2 -1 
1 - .5 
.5 - .25 
.26- .1 




0.2 
24.4 
65.4 
16.4 


5 

6 

7 


Mm. 
0. 1-0.06 
.06- .006 
Below .006 


Very fine sand.... 
Silt 


1.5 
2.3 


3 


Clay 


1.1 









It is apparent from surface tension relations d that the capillary 
films on the large particles of a sandy soil are more easily broken than 
those on the fine particles of a clayey soil, i. e., a sandy soil loses its 
capillary moisture more rapidly, and is more rapidly dried out (on 
the surface) by the wind. For this reason a sandy soil always tends 
to blow more when wet than does a soil composed of finer particles, 
and consequently is less protected by moisture than is a loam or 

a This action has been noticed by Bernard in the Sahara — Compt. rend. Soc. geog. 
1890: 323. Another illustration is the observation that the sand of the Gape Town 
(South Africa) dunes blows badly when the wind is dry but hardly at all when it is 
wet, Braine — Proc. Inst. civ. engs. 150 : 388 (1902). Cf . also note a, on page 58 below. 

&On evaporation from soils and consequent capillary rise, see Bull. 38, Bureau of 
Soils, pp. 18-24 (1907). 

cThat the wind can attack the soil to a considerable degree in a climate which is 
not perfectly arid has been noted by Willis in China (Carnegie Institution of Wash- 
ington Pub. 54 : 247 [1907]). See also the instances of damage by soil blowing cited 
on pp. 164-167 below. 

<* See Bull. 10, Bureau of Soils. 



PROTECTIONS AGAINST EROSION BY WIND. 81 

day. Clay soils in particular hold on to their moisture so tena- 
ciously that they blow practically not at all when wet. 

That more blowing should be observed on the freshly plowed soil 
when moist than when dry is more difficult of explanation, but is 
probably due to a looser texture in the moist soil. It has been 
shown by Cameron and Gallagher that the structure of a soil is 
dependent on its water content and that for each soil there is a cer- 
tain "critical moisture content" which corresponds to the maximum 
of flocculation and looseness of texture. This critical moisture con- 
tent is also that content at which water is most strongly held (mechan- 
ically) by the soil. Amounts of water above this content can be 
drained away quite readily, whereas below this point very little 
water can be mechanically removed, even by centrifuging at very 
high speeds. 6 On account of the exceptionally good drainage of 
the soils under consideration their water content when wet would 
probably be not much greater than the critical moisture content, 
as water in excess of this quantity would flow to lower levels. Hence 
the wet soil when stirred by plowing would take on the maximum 
openness of structure of which it was capable and would be most 
easily dried out superficially and blown away by the wind. The dry 
soil, on the other hand, when stirred by plowing would tend to pack 
more closely together and would hence be less open to attack. These 
phenomena are in accord with the observation of Wesseley e that 
dune sands are looser after having been moistened. 

In deserts where there can be no protection by either vegetation 
or moisture another protective agent is developed — the '' desert 
pavement," recently well described by Tolman.* When loose mate- 

<» Bull. 50, Bureau of Soils. 

* Bull. 45* Bureau of Soils. The "critical moisture content" of Bulletin 50 and 
the " moisture equivalent" of Bulletin 45 mean the same thing (see BuU. 50, 
pp. 64-66). This same moisture content is identical with the so-called "optimum 
water content" for the growth of plants (see BuU. 50, p. 57 et seq.). 

c Flugsand, p. 62 (1873). 

'Jour. geol. 17: 149-151 (1909). For the ideas expressed in this paragraph I am 
largely indebted to suggestions received from Professor Tolman's papers and from 
him personally. 

The surface concentration of stones and pebbles in desert regions had previously 
been observed by Blake— Kept. Pacific Rwy. Surv., vol. 5, p. 230 (1866); Bradley- 
Ann. Kept. U.S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr. 6: 211-212(1873); WesBeley— Flugsand, 
p. 50, 64 (1873); Gilbert— Kept. Wheeler Surv., vol. 3, p. 82 (1875); Tenison-Woods— 
Jour, and Proc. Roy. soc. N. S. Wales 16: 84^85 (1882); Sokolov— Die Dunen, p. 12 
note (1894); Walther— Wttstenbildung, chap. 9 (1900); Cholnoky— Foldtani Kdzldny 
82: 136 (1902); Lomas— Trans. Liverpool geol. soc. 10: 190 (1906-6); Gregory— The 
dead heart of Australia, p. 70 (1906); Ferrar— Kept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 1907: 
604-605; Hume — Cairo sci. jour. 2: 318 (1908); and others. Its protective action 
seems, however, to have been first noted by Tolman (loc. cit.). 

Of interest in this connection is the fact that the surface layers of desert sand are 
apt to be coarser than those below — an observation made in Sinai by Bolton (Trans. 
New York acad. sci. 9: 119 [1890]), and in Egypt by Cornish (Geog. jour. 15: 12 
[1900]) and confirmed by the present writer at many places in the deserts of North 
America. 



? 



} r i 



82 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

rial containing pebbles or larger stones (e. g., ordinary mountain wash) 
is exposed to wind action the finer dust and sand are blown away 
and the pebbles gradually accumulate on the surface, forming a sort 
of mosaic which protects the finer material underneath from attack. 
This is the "desert pavement/' a good example of which is shown 
in Plate I, figure 1 . It is obvious that a pavement will be formed as 
soon as the wind has worked through a layer of heterogeneous mate- 
rial sufficiently thick to contain one layer of pebbles; the actual 
thickness depending upon the proportion of pebbles in the deposit. 
This thickness will therefore form the practiced limit to the wind ero- 
sion of that deposit, and in the heterogeneous deposits of ordinary 
deserts this limiting thickness will be comparatively small. It is, of 
course, true that the desert pavement is not absolutely permanent. 
Its pebbles will yield slowly to corrosion and occasionally to fracture 
by temperature change, and loose material may be removed from 
underneath them during the rare periods of flowing water, or by the 
"creep" of soil. The susceptibility of the pavement pebbles to 
removal and change is shown by the rarity of perfect pavements. 
There is almost always some uncovered space between the individual 
pebbles and there are frequently bare spots in which the pebbles 
are spaced more widely. Of many pavements examined by the 
writer only two 6 have at all closely approached perfection. This 
lack of perfection is, however, but a minor matter. Even though 
it be far from a perfect one, a desert pavement is a most effective 
protection to fine material beneath, and it is certain that the formation 
of such pavements is a phenomenon of constant occurrence wherever 
heterogeneous material is exposed to wind attack, 6 and of far-reaching 
importance in limiting the eolian degradation of desert surfaces. 



1 * The writer has seen and collected such fractured pebbles on the Colorado Desert 

northeast of Superstition Mountain. They are, however, comparatively rare. For 
another occurrence, see H6gbom— Geol. fdren. fflrh. 16: 387-390 (1894). 

&A pebble pavement at Knob Station on the Southern Pacific Railway in the 
Colorado Desert, California, and a small pavement of tufa fragments on the north 
slope of Rattlesnake Butte, near Fallon, Nev. (This is the one shown in PI. I, fig. 1.) 
Professor Tolman tells me that there is an extensive and still more perfect pavement 
north of the Chocolate Mountains, California. 

c The surface concentration of the larger fragments in heterogeneous deposits sub- 
jected to wind erosion is not confined to deserts. "Desert pavements" in coastal 
dune areas have been described by Richardson (Rept. Yorkshire phil. soc. 1902: 
47) and Oldham (Mem. Geol. surv. India 34: 141 [1903]), and the writer has seen 
typical examples on the dune lands of New Jersey and of the southern California 
coast, and on the great dune area south of the Arkansas River in eastern Colorado and 
western Kansas. There is a similar pavement of shell fragments covering a small 
area on Monterey Peninsula, California, though here the possible action of man, birds, 
or other animals can not be certainly excluded. Neither is it certain that the desert 
pavement is always or exclusively the product of wind action. It is very probable 
, that under proper conditions flowing water can produce a practically identical forma- 
tion. The writer has examined pavements west of Hazen, Nev., which he believes 
to be of this class. Cf. also Chelius and Vogel— Neues Jahrb. Mia. 1891, 1: 104. 




Fio. 1. -Desert Pavement of Tufa Fragments near Fallon. Nev. 




,1. 69, Buiuu of Soils U 5 Dept. ol A(i 




Fig. 2.-Blown Sand Collecteo Behind Fence. 



THE LIFTING OF EXPOSED MATERIAL, 83 

In addition to these pavements, there are two other protections 
against wind action which are of some importance in deserts; first, 
the salt crusts, which, possessing more cohesion, are less easily 
attacked than is the naked soil; and second, the surficial crusting 
and baking not only of clays and loams but of fairly sandy soils as 
well, the nature of which is not yet well understood, but the occur- 
rence of which is familiar to all who have been much in desert coun- 
tries. 4 The more complete discussion of these phenomena, while not 
lacking in interest, would lead too far afield. 

THE LIFTING OF EXPOSED MATERIAL. 

The lifting of loose material lying exposed on the surface is largely 
the work of eddies and irregularities of movement in the wind. In 
the earlier discussions of fluid friction the moving fluid was consid- 
ered as flowing past the stationary surface with no deformation of 
its lines of flow, and all friction was assumed to take place at the 
solid-fluid surface ("skin friction") or else between layers of fluid 
parallel to that surface. The very thin layer immediately next the 
surface was assumed stationary or moving with a very low velocity. 
The next layer moves a little faster, the next a little faster still, etc., 
but all maintain their identity and there is no mixing of the layers. 
Did this sort of thing actually occur in flowing fluids bhere would be 
practically no lifting of material into the current. The lower layer 
might become somewhat charged with suspended material but prac- 
tically none would be able to rise to layers above. In nature, how- 
ever, this simple laminated flow does not exist. Whatever may be 
the true motion of flowing fluids it is undoubtedly very complex 
and there is much mixing of the hypothetical layers of flow. McGee * 
has recently elaborated a hypothesis with regard to flowing water 
which considers* the fluid made up of discrete particles or "modules" 
which move by "saltation" in a series of leaps, describing paths 
which probably approach the parabola. If water flows in this way 
it is easy to see how material can be picked up from the bottom and 
carried along, the solid particles moving (as is known to be a fact) 
in a saltatory manner similar to that ascribed to the hypothetical 
water module. In any event it is certain that water flow is not 
laminar and that there are innumerable eddies and cross-currents 
which thoroughly mix the body of a stream and enable material to 
be lifted from the bottom and carried along in suspension and in 
saltation. 

« An extreme case is the protection by the calcareous cementation of the soil parti- 
cles into aggregates and layers as noticed by Russell on the Snake River plains in 
Idaho. (U. S. Geol. surv. Bull. 199 : 143 [1902]). 

* Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 19 : 193-220 (1908). 

53952*— Bull. 68—11 8 



84 MOVEMENT OF BOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Whether the phenomena of flowing water and of flowing air are 
perfectly analogous is perhaps open to question, and at any rate the 
air currents with which we are familiar are really but eddies in the 
bottom of an ocean of air and hardly comparable with currents in 
limited and confined masses of water like streams. It is, however, 
certain, as has been shown by Langley, that the air currents are 
exceedingly variable and made up of many conflicting cross currents 
and eddies, and the hypothesis of laminar flow is just as inapplicable 
to air as to water. The wind is made up of many momentary cur- 
rents blowing upward and downward * as well as horizontally, and 
what we call the "wind direction" is the resultant of these momen- 
tarily variable directions and denotes the direction in which the 
whole mass of air is moving rather than the direction of motion at 
any particular place and particular instant. It is no matter whether 
these cross currents and eddies be considered a characteristic con- 
comitant of moving air (as seems probable) or whether they be 
deemed accidental variations due to the interference of terrestrial 
obstacles. The fact remains that they exist and are of great import- 
ance in promoting the thorough mixing of the atmosphere and 
enabling it to lift fine material from the surface of the ground. The 
actual form of the eddies is unknown and is probably variable. 
Whirling eddies are known to be efficient, but dust can probably be 
lifted in many other ways. 

The preceding discussion relates to the way in which surface deposits 
are attacked and the material made available for the transporting 
activity of the wind. The lifting of the finer material higher into 
the atmosphere is accomplished in the same general way. The 
atmosphere is in such general and constant circulation, vertical as 
well as horizontal, that material fine enough to remain in suspension 
for any appreciable time can be carried far above the surface simply 
by the normal movement of the air currents. Material is also lifted 
by whirlwinds as described on pages 83-88 and very fine dust is 
carried up by the rising of masses of air under changes of tempera- 
ture — the ordinary convectional circulation of the atmosphere. 

<» "The Internal Work of the Wind," Smithsonian Con t rib. 27, No. 884 (1893); 
Amer. jour. ari. (3) 47: 41-63 (1894). 

& On the vertical component of the wind velocity see Abbe— Monthly weath. rev., 
81: 536-537 (1903); Dechevrens (with notes by Abbe and by Marvin)— ibid. 32: 
118-121 (1904). 

c On the presence and nature of vertical currents due to this cause see Schreiber — 
Abh. K. Sachs, met. Inst. 3: 18-24(1898); Exner— Sitzungsb. Kaiserl. Akad. Wise. 
Vienna, Abt. Ila, 112: 345-369 (1903); Besson— Met. Zs. 20: 398-409 (1903); 
Eliae— Illus. aeron. Mitth. 8: 394-396 (1904); Hoffman— Beitrage Geophysik6: 543- 
569 (1904); Conrad— Met. Ze. 22: 266-267 (1905); Clayton— Mon. weath. rev. 
83: 390-391(1905). 



. THE SOBTING OF MATERIAL BY THE WIND, £{> 

THE SORTING OF MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Of course under equivalent conditions the smaller particles are 
more easily moved by the wind, and consequently in attacking a 
heterogeneous deposit the wind tends to make a selection, removing 
the finer particles and leaving the coarser behind. 8 Professor Udden 
in his excellent monograph * on this subject classifies wind deposits 
as (1) lag gravels, which represent the coarse residuum from which 
all finer material has been blown away; (2) drifting sands, which 
can be readily moved along the surface but not lifted to any height; 
(3) fine sands found in the lee of dunes ("lee sands"); and (4) dust, 
which settles out slowly and may be carried considerable distances. 
There is no sharp separation between these various classes, and each 
grades into the next. 

This sorting action of the wind depends not really on size but on 
the mutual relations of mass, surface area, and shape. The forces 
exerted by the wind against a suspended particle are due to the 
impact of the air against the particle and to friction along its surface, 
which forces vary with the size and shape of the particle, while the 
only opposing force is that of gravity which varies with its mass. 
It is of course possible to consider the forces acting between the air 
and the particle as due entirely to impact; for, if gases be consid- 
ered as composed of free moving particles, all manifestations of 
gaseous "friction" are really due to the impact of particles of gas 
against the solid surface. It is convenient, however, to make a 
rough distinction between the "impact" forces due to the momentum 
of the air which directly impinges on the body and the "frictional" 
forces due to secondary impact and connected with the viscosity of 
the air and similar effects. It is possible that this latter component 
may include effects other than purely mechanical impact, as perhaps 
electric or magnetic attractions, gravitational actions, etc. 

The forces due to direct impact will vary (for any given wind 
velocity) with the cross section of the particle in the plane perpen- 
dicular to the wind direction and with the angle (or angles) which 
the exposed surface makes with this direction; therefore, practically 
with the cross section of the particle, its shape, and its orientation 
relative to the wind. The forces due to friction will vary with the 
area and configuration of the exposed surface. For particles of very 
irregular shape — as, for instance, mica flakes — these relations are far 
too complex for any analysis, except the general conclusion that ease 
of suspension will increase with increasing irregularity of shape, and 
of course with decrease of mass. However, for particles which 

« Cf . the discussion of desert pavements on pp. 31-33 above. 
* The mechanical composition of wind deposits, 1898. 



86 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

approach the spherical form the relations are much simpler, and the 
ease of transport can be fairly well represented by the ratio of the 
surface area of the particle to its mass. With such regular particles 
decrease of size (represented by the diameter) means increase of this 
surface-mass ratio, and consequently small spherical particles are 
more easily carried than large ones. Thus since most of the soil parti- 
cles, and especially those classed as sand, are likely to be approxi- 
mately spherical, their ease of transport is roughly dependent upon 
their diameter, and they are sorted by the wind pretty closely accord- 
ing to this dimension. The more irregular particles are more easily 
carried and will be found among material which (if regular in shape) 
is of smaller linear dimensions. As a practical conclusion of general 
applicability it may be stated that the greater the surface-mass ratio 
of a particle the more easily will it be suspended. 

All this assumes that the particles under consideration have the 
same specific gravity. If the specific gravities vary, either because 
of difference of material or of internal cavities or inclusions, that 
particle with the highest value will have the greatest mass per unit 
surface and will consequently tend to fall most rapidly. This is well 
illustrated by the fact that in showers of volcanic ash the heaviest 
minerals, as magnetite, augito, etc., fall nearest the volcano, as was 
observed for the Krakatoa eruption by Murray and Renard* and 
by Judd, 6 at Vesuvius by Matteuci,* at Santa Maria by Brauns, d 
and in dust from the recent West Indian eruptions by Schmelck.* 
Another interesting example of air elutriation according to specific 
gravity is the winnowing process employed to separate gold from 
alluvial gravels in Mexico/ Central Australia,* and Central Asia,* 
where water is too scarce to permit the employment of the ordinary 
processes. 

The result of this air sorting of blown material is that practically 
all eolian deposits are remarkably uniform in grain, as has been 
pointed out by Udden.' 

Dune sands in particular are very uniform because made up of 
material which can be drifted, but not raised, by the wind. Mate- 
rial a little coarser is not moved at all and forms lag gravels, while 

material a little finer is blown clear away. Indeed, the great uni- 

•— ^^^"ii^— "^— ■— i«— ^^— — ■— •— ^""^"i""^~~^"«^iiii""i"""""""~«""~-"^""""i""™". 

« Nature 29 : 588 (1884). 

b Roy. Soc. Rept. on Krakatoa, p. 39; and Nature 29: 595 (1884). 

cBoll. Soc. siam. ital. 6: 207-312 (1901). 

'Centbl. Min. 1903: 290. Cf. Schottler— ibid., pp. 288-289. 

eChemztg. 27: 34 (1903). 

/ Personal communication from W J McGee. 

9 Carnegie — Spinifex and sand, pp. 131-133 (1898). 

* Huntington— Pulse of Asia, p. 197 (1907). 

i Mechanical composition of wind deposits, pp. 60 et seq. (1898). 



DEFLATION. 87 

formity of eolian sands has been advocated by van den Broeck* and 
by Beck* as a means of distinguishing them from sands deposited by 
other means. Dust deposited from suspension in the air ("dust- 
falls, 11 etc.), is also quite uniform, and in the case of falls of volcanic 
dust the same is true of the material collected at any one place, d the 
fineness increasing with distance from the volcano. 

DEFLATION. 

The complete blowing away of fine dust, leaving sand and coarser 
material behind, is known as " deflation." • It is the eolian analogue 
of the removal of water-borne silt by the rivers. By its means only 
is the wind able to lower a surface on which it works. The finely 
disintegrated material is continually removed from the surface and 
the rocks and coarser fragments left exposed to the attack of the dis- 
integrating and abrading agents. 

It is because of this phase of wind action that the surfaces of deserts 
are so uniformly sandy or stony. Any dust which is produced by 
abrasion or other means (and there is a great deal) is at once blown 
away, leaving only the particles which are too coarse to be 
"deflated."' The phenomena are quite analogous to those con- 
cerned in the formation of the "desert pavements 1 ' above described. 
Rock disintegration (and especially the largely mechanical disintegra- 
tion which obtains in deserts) leads to the production, progressively, 
of stones, gravel, sand, and dust. If the dust be blown away, sand 
is left, and if the sand be disintegrated or be itself drifted away, gravel 
or bare rock is left. Or, if the floor of the desert be formed of already 
disintegrated heterogeneous material, the finer part will be removed, 
and the resulting surface will be sandy, gravelly, or rock-strewn, 
depending upon the relative amounts of the materials of various fine- 
ness in the original deposit and upon their relative rates of disinte- 
gration or removal. Obviously the surface character of any par> 

aNote in discussion of Briartr-Bull. Soc. geol. France (3) 8: 587 (1880). 

• Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 46: 539 (1894). 

cSee Herrmann— Annalen Hydrog. 31: 481 (1903). 

* For an example from the West Indian fall of March 22, 1903 (at Barbados), see 
report of an examination made by Doctor Gottsche, of Hamburg, in Annalen Hydrog. 
31:270-271(1903). 

« The term is due to Walther (Wttstenbildung, chap. 9 [1900]). For a discussion of 
the advisability of employing it, see Passarge — Naturw. Wochens. 16 8 372 (1901), and 
Walther, ibid., pp. 431-432. From philological considerations "efflation" would 
probably be better, but "deflation' 1 has been so long and so generally used that it 
seems inadvisable to make the change. 

/ In the rare spots in which the desert surface is composed of clay or silt there is 
always protection by moisture, alkali, chemical cementation, surface crusting, or some 
similar agency. These spots are also usually places to which fine material is fre- 
quently supplied (usually by water action), as, for example, the playaa. 



y 



88 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL, BY THE WIND. 

ticular desert (excluding salt deserts) will depend upon the character 
of the materials originally present' or being supplied, and upon the 
relative rapidity with which they are disintegrated and removed. 
The presence or supply of much resistant gravel will cause the for- 
mation of a desert pavement (gravelly desert) ; the presence of much 
sand (either original or as the result of disintegration of weakly resist- 
ant gravel or rock) and the existence of conditions forbidding the 
escape of this sand by drifting along the surface, will cause a sandy 
desert, etc. Of course in the analysis of the origin of desert surfaces 
7 agents other than eolian must be assigned their share. The question 
4 is one of too great detail and complexity to be fully discussed here. 
The process of eolian erosion and deflation of the d6bris has 
recently been suggested in explanation of the origin of the peculiar 
flat plains of the American deserts out of which rise isolated moun- 
tains or mountain ranges. It has always been believed that these 
plains were composed of immense thicknesses of rock d6bris rain- 
washed from the higher land. The original valleys had been filled 
up, leaving the higher mountains projecting as islands from a 
solid sea of mountain waste. 5 McGee,' however, in 1896 announced 
that at least a part of the plains of Sonora in northwestern Mexico 
were not deep deposits of disintegrated materials, but were rock 
floors comparatively thinly mantled with loose d6bris, and Keyes d 
in 1903 found the same to be true of certain of thfe plains of New 
Mexico and discovered that the underlying strata were not hori- 
zontal, but greatly inclined, the approximately horizontal surface 
being produced by the edgewise planing of these strata, evidently 
by some erosive agent. At the same time Passarge e in studying a 
similar, though geographically more mature, region in South Africa, 

« At the inception of desert conditions. 

& These conclusions follow from either the fold theory, or the faulted-block theory 
of Basin Range structure. On these theories and the structure of the valleyB in 
general see Powell — Geology Uinta Mts., p. 29 (1876); Clarence King— Explor. For- 
tieth Parallel, vol. 1, p. 735 (1878); Dutton— Plateaus of Utah, p. 47 (1880); Gil- 
bert— Surv. West of 100th Merid., Prog. Rept., p. 48-62 (1874); Russell— Ann. Rept. 
U. S.Geol. surv. 4:443 (1884); and Monogr. 11: 26 (1886); Diller— Bull. U. S. Geol. 
surv. 33: 15 (1886), and Bull. Phil. soc. Wash. 9:4-5 (1887); Le Conte— Amer. jour. 
, sci. (8) 38:259 (1889); R. T. Hill— Topog. folio U. 8. 3: 8 (1900); Spurr— Bull. Geo^ 
"soc. Amer. 12:217-270 (1901); D. W. Johnson— Amer. geol. 31:135-139 (1903); 
Davis— Science (n. s.) 14 : 457 (1901), Bull. Mus. comp. zool. 42 : 129-177 (1903), and 
ibid. 49:17-56 (1905); M. R. Campbell— Bull. geol. soc. Amer. 14:551-552 (1904); 
Keyes— Amer. geol. 33:19-23(1904); Herrick— ibid. pp. 376-381; Louderback— ' 
Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 15:343 (1904); Keyes— Jour, geol. 16:434-451 (1908). 

cMcGee and Johnson— Nat. Geog. Mag. 7:127 (1896); McGee— fcull. Geol. soc. 
Amer. 8:90(1897). 

* Amer. Jour. Sci. (4) 15:207-210 (1903); Amer. geol. 34:160-164 (1904). His 
Conclusions are more fully stated in his papers cited below. 

«Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 56, Monatsb.: 193-215 (1904); Naturw. Wochens. 19 x 657-665' 
(1904); and his comprehensive monograph, Die Kalahari (1904). 



DEFLATION. 89 

had come to the conclusion that the agent of this planation was the \/ 
wind a and that plains of this character with isolated steeply rising 
mountains ("Inselberge") must be regarded as plains of eolian erosion. 

This conclusion has been accepted by Keyes* and Hill 6 as apply- 
ing to the deserts of the southwestern United States, but it has not 
attained general acceptance and has been challenged in particular 
by Tolman* on the ground that it is only ver y rarely, if at all, that * 4 ^ 
these desert plains (or "bolsons") are planed rock floors, but that 
in the yast majority of cases they are really yalleys filled with d6bris 
washed from the mountains, and unconsolidated except for occa- r 
sional layers cemented by lime carbonate (so-called "caliche"). 
Tolman's conclusions are supported by well logs for certain of the 
bolsons, and the writer has seen logs and other evidence which point 
the same way in the case of a few others. For these the hypothesis 
of eolian origin must be abandoned. This failure of the hypothesis 
to be everywhere applicable does not, however, entirely discredit it. 
Passarge's conclusions in the Kalahari have not been challenged, 
and it is quite possible that even in North America the same processes 
may have been determining in certain places, though in others they 
seem certainly to have played a minor r61e. The question is one 
which can be settled only after the acquiring of more exact and 
accurate knowledge of the underground conditions in the areas 
affected. 

This controversy aside, there is little doubt of the reality of the 
process of eolian planation and of the activity of deflation as a gen- 
eral agent of removal. Its effects have been noted by Davis c on 
the South African veld, by Obruchev/ Berg,* and Ivohenko* in 
Russian central Asia, by La Touche * in India, by Blackwelder ' in 
the Laramie Basin, Wyoming, and by Hundhausen * in southern 
France; and Davis l has pointed out its place in the arid-region geo- 

oThis conclusion is supported by Hecker — Zs. deut. geol. Gea. 57, Monatsb.: 
175-179 (1906). 

. & Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 19 8 63-92 (1906); Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 15 : 137-141 (1908); 
four. geol. 17: 31-37 (1909); Pop. sci. mon. 74: 19-30 (1909). 

«Eng. min. jour. 85:688 (1908). 

tfJour. geol. 17:136-163 (1909). See also Tight— Amer. Geol. 36:271-284 (1905), 
who points out that the bolson plains are by no means all of the same character or 
genesis. 

< Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 17 : 428, 435-444 (1906). 

/ Verh. Imp. min. Ges. St. Petersburg (2) 33: 260-263 (1695). 

pPedologiel&Ofi: 37-14. 
. * Ann. geol. min. ftussie 7, 1: 43-59 (1904); 8, 1: 135-197 (1906). 

<Mem. Geol. Surv. India 35: 10 (1902). 

/Jour. geol. 17:429-444, esp. p. 443 (1909). See also Knight and Slosson— Wyo. 
agr. expt. stat. Bull. 49: 88 (1901). 

* Globus 90:4o-48(1906). 

I Jour. geol. 13 : 381-407 (1905). 






40 MOVEMENT OF BOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

graphical cycle, and the possibility of the production by its means 
of plains of erosion which have no relation to sea level. Such plains 
have been discovered in eastern Egypt by Barron* who describes 5 
an especially interesting occurrence of gentle slopes which simulate 
those due to dip of the strata but which are really of eolian origin. 
According to Petrie c at least 8 feet has been removed by deflation 
from part of the Nile Delta during the past 2,600 years. Crawford, d 
Gilbert, e Woodward, / and Coffey * have described the origin of sur- 
face depressions through wind removal, and Forbes * has noted the 
lowering of arid region cattle paths by wind erosion. Mention 
should also be made of the action of the prevailing wind in modifying 
the so-called law of von Baer relating to the asymmetric develop- 
ment of river valleys; which action includes not only direct erosion 
of the opposing bank, but also eolian deposition behind the wind- 
ward bank, sidewise blowing of the waters of the river (with conse- 
quent asymmetric erosion), and the action of wind-driven rain.* 

Since the wind has no base level of erosion as water has, it may 
seem that level plains could not be produced by wind action, but 
that the tendency would be to form hollows where the rock was softer 
and more easily disintegrated. This tendency is, however, counter- 
acted by two others; first, the excess of corrasion to which elevated 
portions are exposed and which tends to wear them down to the com- 
mon level;' and, second, the action of rain wash (sheetfloods) in 
carrying loose material into depressions and tending to fill them up.* 

« Topography of Sinai, Western Portion, p. 17, 216 (1907). 

ft Topography between Cairo and Suez, p. 19, 115-116 (1907). 

cProc. Roy. geog. boc. 11:648 (1889). 

<* Trans. New Zealand inst. 12 : 415-416 (1880). 

«Jour. geol. 3:47-49 (1895). 

/Geol. mag. (4) 4: 363-366 (1897). 

fJour. geol. 17:754-755 (1909). 

A Ariz. agr. expt. stat. Bull. 38:249-255 (1901). 

< On these various actions of the wind see Buff — Ann. Chem. Pharm. Supp. Bd. 4s 
223-224 (1865); von Vilovo— Mitt. geog. Ges. Vienna 24:179-187 (1881); Tietze— 
Verh. geol. Reichsanst. 1881:37-40, Jahrb. ditto 32:132-148 (1882); ZOppritz— 
Verh. deut. Geographentags 2: 53 (1882); von Dunikowski— Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 86 1 
65-66 (1884); Tietze— Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 37:825-830 (1887); Rucktaschel— 
Peterm. Mitt. 35 : 224-226 (1889); Klinge—Bot. Jahrb. 11 : 301-304 (1889); Koppen— 
Met. Zs. 7:34-35, 180-182 (1890); Zimmermann— Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 46:493-500 
(1894); Penck— Morphologie der Erdoberfl&che, vol. 1, p. 360-362 (1894); Guard— 
Gompt. rend. Soc. geog. Paris 1897:273-275; Rutot— Bull. Soc. belg. geol. M6m. 
17:95 (1903); Fabre— Geographic 8:291-316 (1903); and Rtthl— Ze. Ges. Erdk. 
Berlin 1907: 374-377. The results and interactions of the various factors have 
recently been well analyzed by Smolenski— Peterm. Mitt. 55: 101-107 (1909). 

I Petrie— Proc. Roy. geog. soc. lit 648 (1889); Brunhee— Mem. Accad. Nuovi 
Lincei 21: 137 (1903); Stromer— Centbl. Min. 1903: 4-5; Tolman— Jour. geol. 17 1 
150 (1909). 

* Passarge— Ze. deut. geol. Ges. 56, Monatsb.: 208 (1904). On sheetflood action, 
see McGee— Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 8: 87-112 (1897). Tolman (loc. cit. p. 148) 
denies the reality of sheet-flood erosion, but the distributive action of such floods is 
unquestioned. 



THE COMPETENCE OP THE WIND. 41 

The result is that only the most resistant rocks are able to withstand 
the general tendency of planation, and these rocks form the elevated 
mesas and doubtless many of the islandlike mountains of the "Insel- 
berge" regions, though some of the latter are perhaps the result of 
tectonic movements or remnants of an earlier topography. The 
absence of a limiting base level also, as noted by Penck,° permits 
the wind to carry its level of planation even below sea level, pro- 
vided the waters be excluded by a bordering barrier. In fact this 
has possibly happened in the case of Death Valley in California and 
the Dead Sea Valley in Asia Minor. Keyes* has, however, pointed 
out that there is a natural lower limit of eolian erosion fixed by the 
position of the ground-water table, which in turn has usually some 
relation to the sea level.* 

Deflation has been suggested by Walther d as a possible agent in 
the production of the great amphitheaters of the Canyon of the 
Colorado. Davis 6 rejects this hypothesis but it is favored by Cross' 
and by Tolman.' 

The importance of deflation to the student of soils lies in the 
other aspect of the phenomena — the deposition of the deflated 
material. If large quantities of fine dust are deflated from desert 
regions they must be deposited somewhere, and at least a part of the 
deposition will be on land surfaces. Dust so deposited may have not 
only a geological but an agricultural importance. It will be shown 
later that a considerable quantity of dust blown from the Sahara 
has been deposited in Europe and that the process is still going on. 
Other regions show analogous phenomena.* 

THE COMPETENCE ' OF THE WIND. . 

The actual size of the particles which can be transported, and 
consequently the limiting sizes of lag gravel, drifting sand, etc., in 
any individual case depends on the shape and structure (surface- 
mass ratio) of the particles and on the velocity of the wind. The 

o Amer. jour. sci. (4) 19 : 167 (1905). 

*>Bull. Geol. boc. Amer. 19: 90 (1908); Jour. Geol. 17: 659-663 (1909). 
cFor a case (in the Holland dune lands) see Du Bois — Tijd. Aardr. Gen. 26: 869- 
910 (1909). 

* Verh. Ges. Erdk. Berlin 19: 52-65 (1892); translated in Nat. geog. mag. 4: 163- 
208 (1892). On the eolian formation of cirques, see also Barron and Hume — Topog- 
raphy of the Eastern desert of Egypt, p. 289 (1902). 

"Bull. Mus. comp. zool. 38: 187-191 (1901). 
/Bull. Geol. boc. Amer. 19: 61-62 (1908). 
9 Jour. geol. 17 ; 150 (1909). 

* On the eolian interchange of dust between different regions, see Gessert — Naturw, 
Wochens. 22 : 705-707 (1907). 

'This term is employed by geologists to indicate the size of the particle of solid 
matter which can just be carried by a stream — the largest particle which the stream 
is "competent" to handle. The extension of the term to eolian transport is obvious. 



? 



42 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL, BY THE WIND. 

latter factor is ordinarily the more important, since most soil particles 
(except the micas) are approximately spherical. The forces which 
tend to place a particle in suspension and keep it there have been 
explained as due to the impact of the air against the particle and 
the "friction 11 of the air in passing it. The commonly used formula 
of Stokes a (which makes no distinction between these quantities) 
expresses the relation between velocity and radius of a sphere moving 

F 
through a fluid as ^=-^ . in which V is the velocity, 7 the vis- 
cosity constant of the fluid, r the radius of the sphere, and F the 
force which causes the motion. In the case of solid particles sus- 
pended by the wind this force is that of gravity, and if its value in 
terms of the radius be introduced in the above formula, the latter 

becomes V— 9 t* or F=2& 1 , where K is a constant for spherical 

particles of uniform specific gravity. This means that the wind 
velocity necessary to support a particle will vary as the square of the 
radius; or inversely, the radius of the particle which the wind can 
support (the radius of competence) will vary as the square root of 
the velocity. An increase in wind velocity will, according to this 
formula, produce a less than corresponding increase in competence. 
The same formula (V==Kr 2 ) may be easily deduced from a consider- 
ation of the loss of momentum by impact of moving air particles 
against a sphere. Unfortunately this formula does not seem to be 
in very good agreement with the rather meager experimental data. 
The formula of Stokes has been tested by Zeleny and -McKeehan* and 
by Buller c for the case of the fall of plant spores in still air. Both 
observers find a discrepancy of about 50 per cent between theory and 
observation, but in opposite directions. Zeleny and McKeehan find 
that the observed values are less than the calculated, while Buller 
finds the reverse. Zeleny and McKeehan, however, in a preliminary 
announcement of later work d say that Stokes's formula has been 
found to hold for the fall of small spheres of wax, paraffin, and 
mercury. Thoulet* has also tested the relations concerned by 
measuring the size of approximately spherical quartz grains which 
were kept just suspended by an upward air current of known velocity 
in a narrow, vertical tube. His data are given in Table II. 

a Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. 9, II: [51]-p2] (1850). 

* Science (n. b.) 29: 469 (1909); Nature 81; 472 (1909). 

c Nature 80 : 186-187 (1909). 

d Nature 82: 158(1909). 

< His earlier experiments were made in 1884 and are reported in Ann. mines (8) 
5: 526-530 (1884). His later, more exact experiments are reported in the Compt. 
rend. 146: 1185 (1908). In the table the data of both articles are combined. The 
values from the earlier experiments are marked with an asterisk. 



THE COMPETENCE 07 THE WIND. 



43 



Tablb llr-Mtam**menU by ThouUt en the eite of quarto grains kept suspended by a 

uniform upward current o/q*r. 



Wind 




Wind 




Wind 




Wind 




Telocity. 


Diameter 


velocity. 


Diameter 


velocity. 


Diameter 


velocity. 


Diameter 
of quarts 
particles. 


Meten 


of quarts 
parttolee. 


Meters 


of quarts 
parades. 


Meters 


of quarts 
particles. 


Meters 

per 


aoconn 




second. 




second. 




second. 




Mm. 




Mm. 




Mm. 




Mm. 


0.60 


0.04 


3.00 


0.26 


6.30 


a 53 


10.00 


0.81 


1.00 


.08 


3.60 


.31 


6.05 


• 56 


*10. 80 


.38 


♦1.51 


.14 


4.30 


.35 


7.00 


.57 


11.00 


.80 


2.00 


.16 


4.75 


• 39 


7.70 


.62 


12.00 


.67 


•2.25 


.27 


5.00 


.41 


8.00 


.65 


13.00 


1.05 


•2.07 


.20 


5.60 


.47 


8.10 


.65 






3.9ft 


.24 


6.00 


.40 


9.00 


.73 







Thoulet himself makes no deductions from these experiments, but 
ott {dotting hk results it is evident that the relation is linear and cor- 
responds to the formula F*» Kr, where K is a constant for the condi- 
tions of the experiment. The discrepancy between this result and the 
formula deduced from the Stokes equation is not easy to explain. It 
is possible that the relations existing in a narrow tube are not similar 
to those for free motion in the open air. The recent experiments of 
Orsi ° do not cover wide enough ranges of sizes and velocities to be 
useful for a checking of the formulae. They do, however, lead to the 
interesting conclusion that the velocity of moving air relative to its 
surroundings has a marked effect on the rate of fall (relative to the 
air) of particles through it. 

Closer to the actual conditions in nature are the observations of 
Udden * on the paths of particles of various size allowed to fail freely 
when the wind was blowing with a velocity of approximately 8 miles 
an hour (3.58 meters a second). It was found that particles aver- 
aging 0.75 mm. in diameter fell in a path differing but 10° from the 
vertical. Those averaging 0.37 mm. fell at an angle of about 45°, 
while those averaging 0.18 mm. followed a path differing but little 
from the horizontal. Material 0.08 mm. and less in diameter was 
blown clear away. 

In all the above discussion the velocities mentioned are, of course, 
the velocities of the wind with reference to the particles (or vice 
versa), and only the components of these velocities parallel and oppo- 
site to the force of gravity are of interest. The velocities of the 
wind itself or of the particle as referred to any point in space or to a 
point on the surface of the earth are of no direct interest in calcu- 
lating the supporting power. However, the upward velocities of the 
momentary cross currents (see p. 33) to which support is due may, 
in a general way, be assumed proportional to the velocity of transla- 



• Arch. Hygiene 68 x 22-53 (1908). 



o Jour. geol. fi: 324 (1894). 



44 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATEBIAL BY THE WIND. 

tion of the wind as referred to the earth's surface, though it is not 
impossible that they may increase in greater ratio. 

As a practical deduction from his experiments and from many 
measurements of blown dust from many different sources Udden* 
concludes that the "average largest size of quartz particles that can 
be sustained in the air by ordinary strong winds is about 0.1 mm. 
in diameter." This conclusion seems to be in good agreement with 
all known data. 6 It applies only to particles which are sustained 
in the air. The size of the grains which can be rolled and drifted 
along the surface depends not alone on the wind velocity and the 
nature of the material, but obviously on the topography as well. 
Mechanical analyses of dune sands from different localities show the 
presence of material varying between fairly wide limits, but this, at 
county means little, as the history of the sand is usually not fulfcp: 
kno*% nor is it possible to say in how far it owes its position exclu- 
sively *o eolian action. Experiments on the wind velocity required to 
drift «&nd of definite size under definite conditions have been made 
by Soholov* and Olsson-Seffer,* but it is difficult to draw from them 
any conclusions of general applicability. 
y Mushketov/ and Walther' think that the largest particles which 

can be moved (not sustained) by ordinary strong winds are about 2 
mm. in diameter. Winds of extraordinary strength may, of course, 
move larger fragments. For instance, Rohlfs* and Przhevalskil' 
have seen stones as large as the fist blown along by the wind in the 
j deserts of Sahara and Gobi, respectively. R. W. Pumpelly'saw 
stones 2 inches across blown along by a storm in Turkestan. 

It is said * that a wind-borne pebble 2 cm. in diameter was col- 
lected from the snow on Ben Nevis after a severe storm. 

In all such cases it is necessary to discriminate between material 
moved by the wind and material moved by gravity with the assist- 
ance of the wind. On sloping ground the wind is able to dislodge 
v and start off rock fragments far too large to be affected by it on the 
level. In any event the movement of occasional large stones is of 
interest only as a curiosity. Of the particles moved to any distance, by 
far the larger number must lie well inside of Udden's limit of 0.1 mm. 

a Jour. geol. 2: 318-331 (1894). See also his " Mechanical composition of wind 
deposits/' where many mechanical analyses are given. 

b Cf . Table III, p. 45, below. 

c See p. 68, below. 
. * Venukoff— Compt. rend. 100: 473 (1885); Sokolov— Die Dttnen, p. 12 (1894). 

< Jour. geol. 16: 553-558 (1908). 
/Nature 34: 237(1886). 

9 Wustenbildung, p. 97. 

*Quer durch Afrika, vol. 1, p. 216 (1874); Ausland 45: 1112 (1872). 

< Diener— Peterm. Mitth. 35 : 3 (1889). 

I Carnegie Institution of Washington Pub. 73: vol. 2, p. 303 (1908). 
* Murray and Renard — Nature 29 : 590 (1884) . On pebbles moved by storms in the 
Alps see Theobald— Jahrb. Schweizer Alpenklubs 4i 534-535 (1867-68). 



THE COMPETBKCB OP THE WIND. 



For purposes of reference some measurements of the size of 
undoubted wind-borne particles are given in Table III. 

.Table III. — Maximum size of particles in various samples of air borne dutte. 



Dwt from atorm at Irvlngton. In I , January M. ISM.. . . 

Duttfr. i.inn in New South Wtln 

Du»l fr  r i  A' ■'- ,1. .i< i-i mi. 

Duatfa ..■ : hi.--. November. : «l 

BtrotcaSS hmkl i \biAM,im\\V^.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

Sirocco ii:.t l.illtnai Lealna, Aw:a. ISTfl 

Blrocco ■;■: i .,'. K I... .  . r>  r 

Blrocco !■: - : r s : "i n I injury, February, 1SSS. 

Blracco i ■.'■ n .1.  \Mt 

Blrocco -I.,-' <■ i-.-„.ii I- I..T.T., ...)..-. Uafcb, IMD 

Blroooo h -. ■■.   i ■■■. .'■ I. Mji.h. MO 

BlrOCOOlM.; f.Iii-n:,! Zurich. ti»i ■• • .„; U8f.-tl.HCl,. 

Sirocco ;.m i ,!;-.i ,.[ Vi.-nriii. A j*:i.s. Marrh. IM1 

Blroooo -ii.-' f.-.r-ini! Kul.-ifin. v ,.:.'.». March, 1901.... 
Sirocco -i-i-.i (ill. ii iii Z. II-. -Mi <, -.11 

Blracco (IB * kUen»l EImdcti, aujiti* iiirm. ioai.. . 
Sirocco 'in.-.i l.illi'ii i.t Nci-l.T-liir' i ••■• > M ■' i- " ■■! 
SlTOCOO i- I h ■!. U Wu.iMsLeln. A.IUUIS Mairb. ItOI 
Sirocco -in -i i 1. 1. -ii .ii- 1. In liliacb. Auilrta. Warrb. IsOI... 

Sirocco :  .' Pirirk, Ainaria blin-h, IW1 

Sirocco . IliI.'n.ii i;;;rt. Aus-r.a. March. l»l .... 

Slroeco :..i.-n.r I  -iiia. Auairta. Marrh, 1901 

Sirocco .in.- i l-.il. ii m l-iunir, Hungary. Marcb. 1901 .... 
Blroooo   I .11-. ill l'.ii-l::|..-.-l, i: .".' ."I. »•' h. .M.I 
BITOCC0 .lien at StiHItiirt, i,ni,iiiii Much. [Jul. . 

Sirocco In i (illenatCiamar, dennaoy. alar* i>. ISO:. . 
BlrocCO  i- ii sit Hr.-iMi-u. l.rr: ..:... Ml'. St. no: 



a: Uamlmru, ■irnuaoT. Uo 

at Koiwhacn.Kwitwrland. ftbronry. IBM.. 

liuM fniif]] .it 



Sirocco. Ii; i I.iii.ti ,u Tr;u-eri. Ehrltatrland / February, ft 

' ".iiri..]i,S»m«.a-.rt. Kchruarr. IWu 

ir.-le. ilehM.in . Veimiuj. IMS 

IpI, Uulliui I. ?*-jruirt, ISOS 

... _. ^ausanne. P»l:wi .■ d TtA  - .->. imO 

Blrocco In -i l.i.l.-ii ul Lp. Amen,!* i> - .-: -m I-: f my. ISUS 

Sirocco dual fallen .,n .i.-.;r-i>i,i r -. s • \i mj, 1903 

Sirocco 'I'M hi!-:-, ■■:  ' u- -  irjari. IM 

Slrooco-- .:■■:,;-..■■■. I ihtol >-.*■■• \ :f ft I.'- . .ry.lfco... 

Blrocco (lusi tallpn on !-l.'.iin.-.lil|i ■• \ .-■.*«'. NDroary, IV 



Pint tiora mow, from F»rl«. . . 



AUTUOBITIES FOB ABOVI TaBLI. 

I. BruMt-Hoo. sealhar rev Sat 1* (1»J) A aarople of dual which fell at Madison, Wla., during tbe 

-'• .■-<■■-■ :-■ •..-■•-! Prof J. A.JeSery. It haa been eiamlned by Of. C. C. Fletcher, 

- -' ■' -* — *lcle« to be 0.08 mm. Complc" 

made by Prof. Milton Whltne 
! agr. 19Mi 168. Material w 
■e been partly of local origin, 
-  WMaisei MUlto). 
1. !■ Mareriall Salni*AHi ^<(lsu31 

' b, St 451 (1886). 



d. h.liri-ii|..'ri[ Miin.il K. I'l-i]-;- Al. I. ft la. Berlin 18«Br 308. 

7. ! ii 'I -c itaublall.p. do(iwji). 

S. M. KWinsi-t SII/u.itMi KiiiiH-ii A .ad. Wla-. Vfenna B3: Kt (188B). 
V :;.- --:....|.-r .Lihtl> u,-.l II..;, Ii-.i' il. «Bl 288 (1888). 
10. N. A. E. XoriJFNskk.ld Mil /s II: 304 (IBM). 



... At-Hi.-ir.il -AIM K Ar.ii-i . ..- neorj. Florence (i) Ml 1« (lsdl). 

rj !•■ :.-■. il-iini ,;i- i- . . '.[.■i -i..- i.-«?. dt., pp. eo-7*. 
joi-ni l-rij:-, M.-i /:-.-jii: i;<-.|.«m. 
3S. I'orel -Hull. Sot-, i-uii'l.wi n i'. n  :»! dvH (IMS). 
' ~ 4TB (IMS). 



to*". Hcrnnann Ann. H] 47SH78(.. 

.. FrMin a in- 1 1 ii-.l- .: iiiiK-i- ■■•■: unpubUahed) b] r 

['.8. N-.iti'.iiiii Miimmi'i. linjiiii.l.-i.i.-.lial'rofeator Uddtnlorkto^ylurDMuD* maaoopyof nl 

.« r.,... ru,i _. . „.. ... B | lvl n| 

Mi i .".'■; aw*). 



46 



MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 



THE TBAN8POBT CAPACITY OF THE WIND. 

The total amount of material which can be carried by the wind is a 
matter quite distinct from the question of the size of the particle which 
it can sustain. It is evident that water is able to carry particles much 
larger than can be supported by moving air, but in its relation to 
transport capacity this handicap is more than counterbalanced by the 
tremendously greater volume of the atmosphere and by the fre- 
quently greater velocities possessed by atmospheric currents. The 
carrying capacity of the wind has been experimentally investigated 
by Udden, 8 who determined the amount of quartz flour of varying 
fineness which was kept suspended by air agitated with a velocity of 
about 5 miles per hour. His results are given in Table IV. No great 
accuracy is claimed, as the natural conditions are far too complicated 
to be susceptible to satisfactory reproduction in the laboratory. 

Tablb IV. — Udden* $ experiments on the quantity of quarto flour kept permmmt&y em~ 
pended by our agitated with a velocity of about 6 mike per hour. 



Aratft dtaMtar 


QOMltttT 

pereuble 


0.08 
.04 
.007 
.001 (and below). 


vMMfl. 

a 030 

.047 
.US 
.063 



Udden estimates, from this and other lines of investigation, that 
under average conditions the atmosphere can hold per cubic foot about 
0.0015 gram of solid matter of the average coarseness of river silt. 
Assuming this value and more or less well-known values for velocities 
and areas of current, he calculates that the transport capacity of the 
winds blowing over the basin of the Mississippi is one thousand 
times as large as the transport capacity of the river. This estimate 
is based on very conservative data and seems quite worthy of accept- 
ance. If anything it is probably too low. 

Of course because the transport capacity of the winds is one thou- 
sand times that of the river it does not follow that the actual amounts 
of material transported are in anything like the same ratio. The 
atmosphere is usually loaded only to a very small fraction of its ca- 
pacity, and the river, having so much larger a proportion of its capacity 
actually utilized, possibly does remove more material from the 
Mississippi basin than does the atmosphere. The sediment annually 
discharged by the Mississippi is estimated by Dole and Stabler* as 
340,500,000 tons, and even if the atmosphere carries only a small frac- 

a Jour. geol. 2: 326 (1894). 

*U. S. Geol. Surv. Water eupp. pap. 234 1 84 (1909). 



THE DISTANCES TO WHICH MATERIAL MAY BE CARRIED. 47 

ti<m of what it is able to cany and only a fraction of what is carried 
by the river, the amount removed may be still very large. What is 
the actual amount of atmospheric transportation out of the Mississippi 
basin, or from place to place within it, it is impossible even to estimate 
without extensive measurements of deposited dust and of dust in the 
air over long periods of time. The difficulty of making such meas- 
urements is very great and the value of the results obtained would 
probably be entirely incommensurate with the labor expended. Some 
idea of the amount of atmospheric transport may be obtained from 
the various estimates of deposited dust, of deflation, etc., given in the 
following chapters. Some more or less direct measurements of the 
material carried by dust-storms are given on pages 80-82. It will 
be evident that the amount of material moved by the atmosphere is 
probably very large, and that the maximum amount which could be 
moved is certainly much larger still. 

It may be noted in passing that if these estimates of atmospheric 
transport can be established they will, to a considerable extent, vitiate 
the calculations of the rate of geologic denudation which are based 
on the amount of material carried off by seaward flowing waters.* 

THE DISTANCE TO WHICH MATERIAL MAY BE CARRIED. 

There is a small fraction of the air-borne dust which is fine enough 
to remain more or less permanently in suspension and the distance 
to which such material can be carried is limited only by the limits 
of the atmosphere. But by far the larger part of the material car- 
ried by the wind remains in the lower layers of the atmosphere and 
moves in a series of comparatively short leaps in a manner quite 
analogous to the process of saltation described by McGee for the 
detritus of loaded streams and noted on page 33 above. The lengths 
of the leaps made by the individual particles depend on their size 
and shape, on the wind velocity, and to a certain extent on the 
topography of the country. Very heavy particles, the coarsest of 
the drifting sand, are dislodged by some unusually heavy gust and 
carried forward a distance dependent largely upon the initial impulse 
and the force of gravity, the resistance (or assistance) of the air 
being relatively unimportant. Such a particle will describe a tra- 
jectory, which is sensibly a parabola. With decrease in the size of 
particle, the assisting action of the wind becomes of greater and 
greater importance and the path departs more and more from the 
parabolic form, tending in the limiting case (and when variations in 
direction of the air currents are neglected) to approach the straight 

• On the presence and importance of air-borne dust on the ocean bottoms, see Thou- 
letr-Compt. rend. 146: 1184-1186,1340-1348(1908); 148: 445-447 (1909) and 150t 
947-949 (1910). Cf . Murray— Proc. Roy. geog. soc. (n. e.) 12 : 466 (1890). 

* Free— Science (n. s.) 29 x 423-424 (1909). 



48 MOVEMENT OF BOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND* 

line parallel to the direction of the wind, which represents the path 
described by the truly suspended particle. In all actual cases the 
path described is affected by so many accidental variations that it 
loses all resemblance to any regular curve, but the motion is always 
saltatory in its general character and all eolian transportation (ex- 
cluding that of truly suspended material) is by a series of leaps. 
This manner of progression can be very easily and very beautifully 
observed in the motion of drifting sand under a moderate wind. 

With such sand the leaps are very short — a few inches or a few 
feet — but the finer material intermediate between that in saltation 
and that in true suspension may make leaps of much greater length, 
perhaps even of miles. The particular sizes (or surface-mass ratios) 
which such material includes will vary with the velocity of the wind. 
A heavy storm may carry in what is practically permanent suspension 
matter which, by ordinary winds, would be moved only in saltation. 
There is really no intrinsic difference between saltation and suspen- 
sion. Particles carried in suspension are simply saltatory particles 
whose leaps are disproportionately (in the limiting case infinitely) 
long. 6 This intermittent character of the movement of soil particles 
by the wind applies, of course, only to individual particles and not 
to the mass, and does not mean that the air intermittently loses its 
load. When one particle is dropped another is picked up, and the 
total load may remain practically constant, though the individual 
particles are changing. Neither does it mean than an individual 
particle can not travel far if sufficient time be allowed. Unless in 
some way permanently attached to the surface some of the particles 
dropped at any spot will be again picked up and started on another 
leap. The total distance of transport effected by even one storm 
may be very considerable for some few of the particles. Others will 
be left from place to place along the way and new ones picked up in 
their stead. It is this constant interchange which takes place between 
the atmospheric load and the soil which gives to the process of wind 
translocation its importance in mixing soils and maintaining their 
heterogeneity. 

The arid region dust storms, described on page 77 and following, 
frequently carry material so fine that much of it remains in suspen- 
sion throughout the whole course of the storm, and the distances 
covered by such material are consequently very great, though well- 

a See the recent experiments of Olsson-Seffer on drifting coastal sands, Jour. Geol. 
16: 557-658 (1908). 

b Saltatory transport is here discussed as though the wind were constant in direc- 
tion and velocity. Of course, in nature this practically never occurs; and owing to 
eddies and velocity changes in the wind a particle of medium size may be successively 
in "suspension" and in "saltation" a score of times in the course of a single "leap." 
The path actually followed by a wind-borne particle is indescribably complex. 



THE DEPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERIC LOAD. 49 

established instances are rare on account of the difficulty of determin- 
ing the source of the material. Examination of the dust itself usually 
fails to indicate the place of origin, and one must rely on indirect 
evidence, such as the existence of a probable source in the direction 
from which the wind was coming, meteorological data by which the 
path of the storm can be traced, etc. A few instances of long- 
distance transport by dust storms are given on pages 82-83. 

It occasionally happens that dust is raised into the upper air by 
violent storms, volcanic eruptions, etc., and the possible velocities 
and distances of transfer are then much greater, not alone on account 
of the greater vertical fall available, but because of the greater velocity 
of the air currents at higher altitudes. Observations on cloud move- 
ments a have shown the presence of rapid currents at heights of 
from 2 to 10 miles, and the recent observations of Trowbridge b on 
meteor trains indicate that velocities of over 100 miles per hour are 
not infrequent at greater heights (40 to 65 miles). The existence 
of cloud glows and similar optical effects due to dust shows that 
some dust is present at high altitudes, though perhaps not at the 
highest mentioned, and what dust is there will travel far and fast. 
The European dust storm of February, 1903, seems to have traveled 
mainly in the higher strata and with a velocity of about 50 miles 
an hour. A part of the dust of the storm of March, 1901, also got 
into the higher strata (above the zone of rain formation) and was 
not precipitated with the rain of March 12. Three days later it 
had sunk low enough to be caught by the rain of the 15th and carried 
down therewith.* It is probable, however, that the total transport 
affected by these higher currents is very slight. Most eolian trans- 
portation is by saltation in the air close to the surface. 

THE DEPOSITION OF ATMOSPHEBIO LOAD. 

Material carried either in suspension or in saltation is deposited 
primarily by decrease of wind velocity. Owing, however, to the 
variable character of the wind, and indeed to the very nature of the 
process of saltation, material is always being deposited and other 
material being picked up. The problems of the accumulation of 
blown material are therefore not so much problems of deposition as 
problems of the retention of the material which is deposited.* As, 

• See, e. g., Polis— Met. Zb. 19: 441-453 (1902). 
&Mon. weath. rev. 35: 390-397 (1907). 

c Herrmann— Annalen Hydrog. 31: 481 (1903). 

* Krebs— Annalen Hydrog. 31: 174 (1903). 

<The action of rain in washing dust out of the air and thus causing its deposition 
is not of great geological importance. In so far as it causes the deposition of truly 
suspended atmospheric dust it will be later discussed under that head. 

53952°— Bull. 68—11 4 



50 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

however, the removal of material depends upon the violence of the 
wind as much as does its transport, the problems of retention come 
back pretty closely to wind velocity after all. What decreases the 
wind velocity will favor retention as well as deposition. Thus the 
action of vegetation in causing the deposition (or rather the accumu- 
lation) of blown material depends primarily upon the decrease of 
wind velocity produced by the vegetal obstruction, but this decrease 
of velocity both causes the wind to deposit its suspended matter and 
prevents its picking up new. 

On account of their retentive action plants are particularly efficient 
in collecting drifting sand and other material which moves near the 
surface in a succession of comparatively short leaps. A clump of 
plants in an area of moderate sand drift will thus collect blown mate- 
rial around it, forming a little mound. As the sand heap grows the 
plants grow also and continue their accumulating action until a heap 
several feet high may be produced. These plant-formed mounds, 
both of sand and of fine dust, occur very commonly in the arid and 
8emiarid regions ° and have been noticed by many travelers. 6 

It is obvious that similar mounds may be produced by the removal 
of soil from the intervening spaces instead of by accumulation at the 
locus of the plant. 6 In fact, in the cases of many of these desert 
mounds it is impossible to decide whether they have been formed by 
accumulation or by retention coupled with lowering of the general 
surface. Probably both agencies are often at work at once. Because 
of the great mobility of the surface material of deserts the plant- 

a Their universality in such regions is large due to the tendency of desert plants to 
grow in clumps or colonies with bare spaces between. These isolated colonies easily 
catch the blown dust and sand. 

& See, e. g., Ehrenberg— Abh. K. preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1827: 73-88; Well- 
sted— Travels in Arabia, vol. 1, p. 87; vol. 2, p. 38 (1838); Kinahan— Nature 16: 
7 (1877); Gabb— ibid., pp. 183-184; Senft^Gsea 15: 83-92 (1879); Tarr— Amer. nat. 
24: 458 (1890); Means and Gardner—Field Operations, Bur. of Soils, 1899: 62; 
Walther— Wttstenbildung, pp. 122-124, 128, etc. (1900); Russell— U. S. Geol. surv. 
Bull. 217: 33 (1903); MacDougal— Bot. gaz. 38: 52 (1904), Bull. Amer. geog. soc. 
39: 709-710 (1907), North American deserts, p. 37, 39 (1908); Hedin— Scientific 
results, vol. 1, p. 332 (1904); vol. 2, p. 15 (1905); Grund— Si tzungsb. K. Akad. Wiss. 
Vienna Abt. I, 115: 550 (1906); Hume— Topography Southeastern Sinai, p. 65 
(1906); Hill— Eng. min. jour. 83: 663 (1907); Hovey— Bull. Amer. mus. nat. hist. 
23: 405 (1907); S. H. Ball— U. S. Geol. surv. Bull. 308: plate II (1907); Beadnell— 
An Egyptian oasis, p. 78-80, 210 (1909); Stein— Sand buried ruins of Khotan, pp. 
275, 429, 435 et al. (1903), Geog. jour. 34: 24 (1909); Spalding— Distribution of 
Desert Plants, p. 11 (1909). Cf. also the observation of Przhevalskil of the raising 
of the banks of central Asian rivers by dust deposited in the vegetation there growing 
(From Kulja to Lob Nor, p. 57 [1879]). 

cFor examples see MacDougal and Grund (loci citati in last note), Baraban — 
1 traverslaTunisie, p. 76 (1887); Ivohenko— Ann. geol. min. Rubs. 7, 1: 50, 53 (1904); 
Huntington— Pulse of Asia, p. 180-181 (1907); and Waring— U. S. Geol. surv. Water 
supp. pap. 220: 11, plate III, b (1908). 



THE DEPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERIC LOAD. 51 

protected spots tend to grow quite rapidly at the expense of the 
interspaces which lack this advantage, and the producers of this 
growth are seldom exclusively eolian. The plants act toward the 
water-borne detritus much as they act toward that moved by the 
wind. 

Forms of protection other than vegetal will also serve to prevent 
removal, though they have usually no tendency toward localizing 
accumulation. The writer has frequently seen mounds and ridges 
capped with desert pavements, and it seems not improbable that these 
elevations owe their origin to the pavement which protects them. 
The surrounding depressions, having lacked this protection, or the 
material from which to produce it, have been more deeply scoured. 
It is certain that a hard surface layer will serve to localize wind scour 
and produce gullies and local depressions where the protecting layer 
is absent or breached. The clay "eolian mesas" and wind-scoured 
gullies of the desert of Lop-Nor 6 have probably been formed in some- 
what this way, c though the past distribution of vegetation may have 
been not without influence. d Forms superficially similar to these, 
but on a smaller scale and composed of hardened dime sand, are not 
uncommon in the wind-scoured parts of dune areas. The best exam- 
ples which the writer has examined are in the gypsum dunes of the 
Alamogordo desert/ In this area the taller sand blocks are usually 
capped by plants, which have probably had much to do with their 
formation. 

In the humid regions the action of vegetation is not so noticeable, 
because the plants do not grow in clumps and no raised mounds are 
produced, but the action is none the less present and the blown dust 
entangled in the Vegetation goes to raise the general soil surface over 
areas in which deposition is in progress. In the general movement 
of detritus from place to place land covered with vegetation is better 
able to retain material which falls on it, and it therefore happens that 
vegetation-covered areas, large or small, tend to gain at the expense 
of those not so covered. This growth of soil, because of the retention 

a For examples see Rolland — Geologie Sahara algenen, p. 215-217 (1890); Russell — 
U. S. Geol. surv. Bull. 199: 144 (1902); and authorities cited in the next note below. 
A similar case of eolian undercutting in soft tuffs capped by a harder layer is cited 
by Hovey — Bull. Amer. mus. nat. hist. 23: 429-430, and plate xxlx (1907). 

ft Hedin— Scientific results, vol. 2, p. 67, 223-253, 488-489, 494-500(1905); Hunting- 
ton— Pulse of Asia, p. 253-254, 262 (1907); Stein— Ancient Khotan, pp. 107-108, 112, 
242, 315, 327 (1907), Geog. jour. 34: 26 (1909); R. W. Pumpelly— Carnegie inst. of 
Wash. Pub. 73, vol. 2, pp. 283-284 (1908). Similar forms in the Oasis of Kharga 
(Egypt) are mentioned by Beadnell — An Egyptian oasis, p. Ill (1909). 

c Hedin — Loc. cit., p. 238. 

<* Hedin— Loc. cit., pp. 248, 365. 

« Noted by MacDougal — Botanical features of North American deserts, p. 13, and 
plate 2 (1908). 



52 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL, BY THE WIND. 

of blown dust by the vegetal covering, has been observed by Shimek a 
and Shaler, 6 and especially by Huntington.* According to the last 
writer the areas over which eolian loess is now being deposited in 
central Asia are determined by the presence or absence of vegetation, 
which in turn is determined by the general climatic conditions.* The 
periods of greater rainfall which are postulated by his hypothesis of 
alternating climatic change, are also periods of greater vegetation, 
and therefore periods of loess accumulation; and with change of 
climate, either toward or away from greater aridity, the vegetation 
will increase or disappear, will retreat or advance, and the areas of 
eolian accumulation or removal will vary accordingly. Another 
interesting illustration is the observation of Beadnell* that the 
irrigated and cultivated spots in the Oasis of Kharga in the Lybian 
Desert have been raised many feet within historic times gimply by 
the accretions of wind-blown dust and sand which they are con- 
stantly receiving and which are retained by their vegetal covering. 

Of course, decrease of wind velocity and consequent deposition 
may occur in ways with which vegetation or other surface obstacles 
have nothing to do; ways which are much more general and affect 
much larger areas. The more or less constant winds, which are 
caused by climatic and general meteorological conditions or by the 
larger features of the topography, often tend to lose their velocity 
over about the same area, and if these winds be dust-laden this area 
will become one of eolian deposition. Of course there must be some- 
where complementary areas of eolian removal from which the winds 
have obtained their load. The accumulation of eolian material over 
wide areas, and even in some cases over small ones, is dependent in 
the most complex way upon climatic factors, not alone as they 
influence the path and velocity pf the winds, but even more as they 
control the presence or absence of vegetation and its nature and 
permanence. These matters will find ample illustration in the dis- 
cussion of the loess and its probable origin, which will be found on 
pages 124 to 141. 

Accumulation in special locations may also be caused by the direct 
action of a moist surface in retaining particles which accidentally 
drop thereon. Thus the initial impulse to dune formation is occasion- 
ally furnished by a moist spot, which causes the accumulation of a 

aProc. Iowa acad. sci. 4: 68-72 (1897); 10: 45-48 (1903); 15: 57-64 (1908). 

b Bull. Geol. boc. Amer. 10: 245-252 (1899). 

cBull. Geol. soc. Amer. 18: 359-360 (1907), and Pulse of Asia, pp. 135, 148 (1907), 
See also Richthofen — Fuhrer ftir Forachungsreisende, pp. 477-483 (1886), and Hedin— 
Scientific results, vol. 1, p. 291-293 (1904). 

* See also R. W. Pumpelly — Carnegie inst. of Wash. Pub. 73, vol. 2, pp. 246 et al. 
(1908). 

• An Egyptian oasis, pp. 78-80, 210 (1909). 



DRIFTING SAND AND SAND DUNES. 53 

heap of sand, and it has been suggested by Fischer b that on the 
coast of Morocco moisture (especially dew) assists the growth of soil 
by entrapping and retaining fallen eolian dust. It is necessary of 
course that the surface be possessed of a sufficient supply of moisture 
to resist the drying action of the wind, and it is apparent from the 
discussion on page 30 that most land areas are not thus equipped. 
Any surface will meet the conditions just after a rain, but very few are 
wet enough to do so at all times. The extreme case is that in which dust 
falls on the surface of the water itself. Such material goes to join the 
load of the stream or is deposited on the bottom of the lake or sea. 

Another interesting special case is the tendency of the salts of 
certain alkali soils to keep them moist and thus cause the accumula- 
tion of dust. It is possible that some few deposits of loess have been 
formed in this way. d 

DRIFTING* SAND AND SAND DUNES. 
THE NATURE OF SAND DRIFT. 

The ordinary drifting sand moves in saltation by comparatively 
short leaps, never rising far above the surface. 6 That of the desert 
can not be felt by a person mounted on a camel/ By reason of this 
tendency to hug the surface, isolated rocks exposed to drift-sand 
corrasion are worn away much more rapidly below than above, assum- 
ing various mushroomlike forms,* and trees, telegraph poles, etc., are 
girdled near the ground.* 

o Gamier— Compt. rend. Soc. geog. Paris 1885: 498-499; Courbis— ibid. 1890: 
114-119, 266-261; Cornish— Geog. jour. 15: 28-30 (1900); MacDougal— Botanical 
features of North American deserts, p. 39 (1908); Ivchenko — Ann. geol. min. Russie 
10, 1: 20-21, 25-26 (1908). 

*Peterm. Mitth. Erganzungs hft. 133: 122-123 (1900), Mitth. geog. Ges. Hamburg 
18: 1155(1902). 

«See Hedin— Scientific results, vol. 2, p. 132-133 (1905). 

d Holland— Compt. rend. 114: 1298-1301 (1892); Walther— Wustenbildung, p. 112 
(1900). 

« See Bre*mon tier — Ann. ponts chauss. 5: 148 (1833); Blake — Pacific Railway repts. 
vol. 5, p. 242 (1856); Travers— Trans. New Zealand inst. 2: 248 (1869); Wesseley— 
Flugsand, p. 51 (1873); Beringer— Documents Mission Flatters, p. 92 (1884); Sokolov — 
Die Dunen, pp. 14-15 (1894); Hedin— Through Asia, vol. 1, p. 516 (1899); Horna- 
day — Campfires on desert and lava, p. 187 (1908); etc., and especially the experiments 
of OlBson-Seffer— Jour. geol. 16: 553-558 (1908). On the similar drift of snow in the 
arctic see Andree— Arch. sci. phys. nat. Geneva (3) 15: 522-533 (1886); Kusnezov— 
Meteor. Svornik 1000: 477-481; Ferrar— National Antarctic Exped. 1901-4, Nat. 
Hist. 1: 84 (1907); and Tschirwinsky— Zs. Gletscherk. 2: 104-112 (1907). 

/ Foureau — Documents scientifiques Mission saharienne, vol. 1, p. 215 (1904). 

9 See e. g., Hedin— Through Asia, vol. 1, p. 445 (1899); Jentzsch— Gerhardt's 
Handbuch des Dunenbaues, p. 57 (1900); Cornish— Geog. jour. 15: 21 (1900); R. T. 
Hill— Eng. min. jour. 85: 686, and photo, on page 685 (1908); Tolman— Jour. geol. 
17: 150(1909). 

*Udden— Pop. sci. mon. 49: 663 (1896); MacDougal— Botanical features of North 
American deserts, p. 38 (1908). Cf. also p. 27 above. Dr. W J McGee tells me that 
the Casa Grande Ruins in Arizona have been reduced to their present dilapidated 
state largely by the sapping of the walls by drift sand. 



54 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

The phenomena of sand drift are most clearly and strikingly 
exhibited on nearly level plains of some extent, covered with loose 
sand ; and, in the main, free from vegetational or other obstructions. 
Such plains, of glacial, fluvial, marine, or eolian origin, are not 
uncommon in nature and form the sand wastes of the various con- 
tinents, as well as the sandy portions of the true deserts. 6 Borders 
of drifting sand are also found on many coasts where the sand 
supplied by the sea is carried inland by on-shore winds. 6 These natu- 

« On these sand wastes see: Gutbier — Sitzungsb. Isis Dresden 1864:42-54; 
Wesseley — Der europaischen Flugsand und seine Kultur, 1873; Mangin — Le desert et 
le monde sauvage, 1866; and works cited in the bibliography under Deminskft, 
Friedberg, Garkem, Gerasimov, Gottlieb, Graebner, Griselini, Gutbier, Hult, Ispo- 
latov, Lakin, Lehmann, Lori6, McMaster, Morlot, 0. T., W. Peters, Pravitelstven. 
Vl&tnik, Praxa, Raznochintsev, S. S., Sab ban, Solon, Stache, Suomalainen, Themak, 
Timoshchenkov, Uspenskil, V. M., Vorreith, Wahnschaffe, and H. Wolf. 

b The literature of deserts is too extensive to permit of summary. A few of the 
more important works are referred to on the following pages and cited in the bibli- 
ography. On desert geology in general see Walther — Das Geeetz der Wustenbildung, 
1900; Wohlfarth— Ziir Morphologic der Wusten, 1902; Wiszwianski— Die Faktoren 
der WQstenbildung, 1906; Penck— Geog. Zs. 15: 545-558 (1909). 

c On coastal sands and dunes see Forchhammer — Neues Jahrb. Min. 1841: 1-38, 
Andresen— Om Klitformationen, 1861; Keller— Zs. Bauwesen 31: 189-210, 301-318, 
411-422 (1881); 32: 19-35, 162-179 (1882); Wesseley— Flugsand, p. 25-31 (1873); 
Jentzsch, in Gerhardt'e Handbuch dee deutschen Dunenbaues, p. 41-124 (1900); 
Reinke — Wise. Meeres-unters. Kiel (n. f.) 8, Erganzungsh. (1903); Ibid. n. f. 10, 
Erganzungsh. (1909). For other works and descriptions of special localities (not 
North American) see the works cited in the bibliography under About, Ailio, 
Albert, Alker, Andresen-Rabenholz, Arctowski, B., Auerbach, Bagneris, F. Bailey, 
Baschin (Dfinenstudien), Baude, Baudiesin, Bayberger, Berenberg, Berendt, Berg- 
haus, Bert, Bezzenberger, Blesson, Blijdenstein and Brants, Boase, Borggreve, von 
dem Borne, Bortier, Braine, Branner (Amer. jour. sci. (4) 16: 307 [1903]), Br6- 
montier, J. C. Brown, Brliel, Buffault, Camerer, Chambrelent, Cockayne, Coincy; 
F. W. Conrad, Czerny (p. 27), Dahms, Dawkins, Deecke, De la Beche, Delamarre, 
Delfortrie, C. W. Doreey (Bull. Phil. Bur. agr. 3: 22 [1903]), Doss, Duffart, 
Duregne, Edmonds, Elie de Beaumont (Lecons, vol. 1, pp. 195-220), Engell, Engler, 
Fabre, Faye, Feilberg, Feldt, Fisher, Foote, Foss, Frombling, Archibald Geikie 
(Textbook, pp. 441-443), Gillet-Laumont, Girardin, Goursand, Grand jean, Hagen, 
T. S. Hall, Hallier, Harder, Harshberger, Hartig, Hauser, Hautreux, Hesselman, 
Heywood, Hodgkin, Hooker and Ball (pp. 81, 324r-325), Hiibbe, Hull, Jachmann, 
Jentzsch, Keilhack, Kennard and Warren, Kinahan, Wm. King and Foote, Klinge, 
Klinsmann, Knuth, G. C. A. Krause, Labat, de Lambrardie, Laval, Laveleye, 
Lehmann, Leiviska, Le Mang, Linck, Lindner, Lorentzen, Lorenzen, Lori6, Maack, 
McNaughton, Magalhaes-Mesquita, Marshall, Massart, Maw, Meier, Meinicke, Meyn, 
Mickwitz, Monckton, Mortensen, M tiller, E. Naumann, Nilsson, Parran, Pechuel- 
Loesche, E. Philippi, Pigeon, Poboguin, Poisson, Poore, Pravitelstven. Viestnik, Prest- 
wich, Razeburg, Reclus, C. Reid, Reinke, Riefkohl, Rosberg, Saint-Jours, Samanoe, 
Schumann, Sokolov, Sprenger, Stapff, Staring, Steenstrup, Suomalainen, Tassin, 
Thesleff, Thomson, Toepfer, Topley, Ussher, Vasselot de Regne\ Walther (Einleit- 
ung, p. 839-844), Webber, Weigelt, Wellsted (vol. 2, p. 110), Wery, Wessel, Weule, 
Willkomm, Wilmer, Alec Wilson, T. C. Winkler, Wutzke, Zeiee, Zernecke, and 
Zobriet; also the authorities on dune-control cited on pages 74-75 below. 

Published notices and descriptions of North American dune localities (coastal and 
otherwise) are given in the following list: 

Cape Cod: T. Dwight— Travels in New England and New York, vol. 3, p. 91-92 
(1822); Rept. Mass. Commissioners of Cape Cod and East Harbors, 1854; Rept. Chief 



DRIFTING SAND AND SAND DUNES. 55 

ral sand areas of whatever origin are, of course, seldom perfectly 
level, or entirely free from obstructions, but it is convenient to analyze 

of Engineers U. S. Army, 1876: 181-190, 1879: 273-275, 1886: 574^577, 1903: 
87, 783-784; Westgate— U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. plant ihd. Bull. 66, 1904; Allorge— 
Ann. geog. 15: 443-448 (1906). 

New Jersey Coast: Salisbury — The Physical Geography of New Jersey, Final rept. 
N. J. Geol. surv. 4: 161-167 (1898); Gifford— Rept. N. J. Geol. surv. 1899, Forests: 
233-318; Harshberger— Proc. Acad. nat. sci. Phila. 1900: 623-371. 

Cape Uenlopen, Del.: Rothrock— Proc. Acad. nat. sci. Phila. 1889: 134-135. 

Cape Henry, Va.: Kearney— Contrib. U. S. nat. herb. 5: 332-337 et al. (1901); 
Darton— U. S. Geol. surv. Geol. atlas U. S. folio 80 (Norfolk) (1902). 

The Hatteras Banks, N. C: Kerr— Bull. Phil. soc. Wash. 6: 28-30 (1884); Kear- 
ney—Contrib. U. S. nat. herb. 5: 261-319 (1900); Cobb— Nat. geog. mag. 17: 310-317 
(1906), Jour. Elisha Mitchell sci. boc. 22: 17-19 (1906); J. H. Pratt (and Bond)— 
ibid. 24: 125-138(1908). 

Pacific coast: Lamb— Forester 3: 94 (1897); Davy— U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. plant 
ind. Bull. 12: 65-57 (1902); H. P. Baker— Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 18: 214 (1906); 
Humphrey— Plant world 12: 79-82, 152-157 (1909). 

Adair Bay (Gulf of California): Sykes, in Hornaday — Camp fires on desert and 
lava, p. 231 (1908); MacDougal— Bull. Amer. geog. soc. 40: 719 (1908). 

Southern end of Lake Michigan: £. J. Hill— Garden and forest 9 : 353-354, 372-373, 
382-383, 393-394 (1896); Cowles— Bot. gaz. 27: 95-117, 167-202, 281-308, 361-391 
(1899); Coulter— Proc. Ind. acad. sci. 1906: 122-128; de Vries— Album der natuur 
1906-7: 129-141, 161-178. 

Along the Columbia River: Hitchcock — Nat. geog. mag. 15: 44 (1904); Willey — 
Sci. Amer. supp. 65: 113, 120-121 (190b). 

Arkansas River Valley (eastern Colorado and western Kansas): Hay — U. S. Geol. 
surv. Bull. 57: 44-45 (1890); Ha worth— Univ. Geol. surv. Kans. 2: 276-279 (1897), 
U. S. Geol. surv. Water supp. pap. 6: 24-25 (1897); Darton— U. S. Geol. surv. 
Prof. pap. 52: 35(1906). 

Sheyenne Delta, North Dakota: Willard — Story of the Prairies, 5th ed., p. 94-95 
(1908). 

Northeastern Iowa: McGee — Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 11, 1: 453 (1891). 

Western Iowa: Shimek — Bull. Lab. nat. hist. Univ. Iowa 5: 374 (1904). 

Central Illinois: McDonald— Plant world 3: 101-103 (1900); Hopkins and Pettit— 
111. agr. expt. stat. Bull. 123: 246 (1908). 

Minnesota: Upham — Final rept. Geol. and nat. hist. surv. Minn. 2: 418 (1888); 
Sardeson— Amer. geol. 20: 392-403 (1897); Elftman— ibid. 21 : 90-109 (1898); C. W. 
Hall and Sardeson— Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 10: 34&-360 (1899). 

Nebraska (sand-hill region): Hayden — Geol. surv. Wyoming, p. 108 (1872); Ryd- 
berg— Contrib. U. S. nat. herb. 3: 135-137 (1895); Todd— U. S. Geol. surv. Bull. 
158: 64 (1899); Darton— Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 21, IV: 549 (1901); U. S. 
Geol. surv. Prof. pap. 17 : 13, 15, 23 (1903); Lyon — Bailey's cyclopedia of agriculture, 
vol. 1, p. 346 (1907); Stevens— IJ. S. Geol. surv. Water supp. pap. 230: 220(1909). 

Eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plains (Idaho): Bradley — Ann. rept. U. S. 
Geol. and geog. surv. terr. 6: 211-212(1872); Russell— U. S. Geol. surv. Bull. 199: 
24, 140-141 (1902), Bull. 217: 30 (1903); Waring— U. S. Geol. surv. Water supp. pap. 
220: 11 (1908). 

The Deserts of the Great Basin: Gilbert— U. S. Geol. surv. Monog. 1: 332 (1890); 
Russell— U. S. Geol. surv. Monog. 11: 153-156 (1886); Spurr— U. S. Geol. surv. 
Bull. 208: 108 (1903); S. H. Ball— ibid. Bull. 308: 36, 159, 196 (1907). 

Alamogordo Desert, New Mexico: MacBride — Science (n. s.) 21: 90-97 (1905); 
MacDougal — Botanical features of North American deserts, pp. 11-16 (1908). 

Colorado Desert: Gunther— Sitzungsb. K. bay. Akad. Wiss. Munich 1907: 139- 
153; MacDougal— Bull. Amer. geog. soc. 39: 708 (1907), Botanical features of North 



56 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

the phenomena by considering an ideal level plain of uniform and 
vegetationless surface on which the sand would drift back and 
forth from day to day, a with a tendency to accumulate in the direc- 
tion toward which the winds most frequently blew. This drift 
would be limited in area by borders of mountains, water, or vegeta- 
tion, but in the direction of prevailing winds the stoppage would 
be only temporary, for the sand would tend to accumulate just 

American deserts, p. 38 (1908); Mendenhall — U. S. Geol. surv. Water supp. pap. 225: 
9-10, 26-27 (1909); Tolman— Jour. geog. (1909). 

Chihuahua Desert (Mexico): Hesse- Wartegg— Mexico; Land und Leute,p.25(1890); 
Hill— Eng. min. jour. 83: 663 (1907); Hovey— Bull. Amer. mus. nat. hist. 23s 
404-405 (1907). 

Northern Alaska: Schrader— U. 6. Geol. surv. Prof. pap. 20: 95 (1904); Black- 
welder— Amer. jour. sci. (4) 27: 459-466 (1909). 

Nova Scotia: L. W. Bailey— Proc. Trans. N. S. Inst. sci. 9: 180-194 (1896). 

Sable Island (off Nova Scotia): Hahn— Meer und Kttste 1: 105-151 (1901); Saun- 
ders— Rep. Canada exp. farms 1901: 62-77, 1902: 55-58. 

Porto Rico: Dorsey et al— Field oper. Bur. of Soils 1902: 803, 805. 

Dune areas are included in the following sheets of the Topographic Map of the 
U. S. (U. S. Geol. surv.): Norfolk, Va.; Sandy Hook, N. J.-N. Y.; Ocean City, 
Md.-Del.; Barnegat, N. J.; Long Beach, N. J.; Green Run, Md.-Va.; Toleston, Ind.; 
Laldn, Pratt, Lamed, Kinsley, Kingsman, Hutchinson, Great Bend, and Dodge, 
Eans.; Springfield, Colo.; Brown's Creek, St. Paul, and Camp Clarke, Nebr.; and 
Arroyo Grande and Guadeloupe, Cal. 

In the course of the soil surveys conducted by this Bureau dune sands have been 
found and reported in the following areas (the references are to the Reports of Field 
Operations of the Bureau of Soils): Merrimack County, N. H. (1906: 60-61); Rhode 
Island (1904: 63, 65, 67); Long Island, New York (1903: 103, 116); Madison 
County, N. Y. (1906: 140); Niagara County, N. Y. (1906: 106, 107, 109); Salem, 
N. J. (1901: 136); Dover, Del. (1903: 150); Worcester County, Md. (1903: 174, 
182-183); Norfolk, Va. (1903: 237, 246-247); Raleigh-Newbern, N. C. (1900: 200); 
Chowan County, N. C. (1906: 230); Lee County, S. C. (1907: 341); Orangeburg, 
S. C. (1904: 200, 201); Sumter County, S. C. (1907: 319-320); Charleston, S. C. 
(1904: 213, 221); Escambia County, Fla. (1906: 359, 361); Jefferson County, Fla. 
(1907: 374); Meigs County, Ohio (1906: 725); Tippecanoe County, Ind. (1905: 
797); Marshall County, Ind. (1904: 699); Newton County, Ind. (1905: 761, 767, 
768, 769); Winnebago County, 111. (1903: 768, 769); Sangamon County, 111. (1908: 
715); Tazewell County, 111. (1902: 470, 471, 473); Biloxi, Miss. (1904: 363); 
Dallas County, Ala. (1905: 462-163); Allegan County, Mich. (1901: 98-99); Cass 
County, Mich. (1906: 748); Manuring, Mich. (1904: 588-589); Superior, Wis.-Minn. 
(1904: 760-762); Crookston, Minn. (1906: 884); Ransom County, N. Dak. (1906: 
976, 979, 984); Carrington, N. Dak. (1905: 935, 936); North Platte, Nebr. (1907: 
823-824, 830); Sarpy County, Nebr. (1905: 901); Kearney, Nebr. (1904: 868); 
Riley County, Kane. (1906: 938); Wichita, Kans. (1902: 635, 636); Garden City, 
Eans. (1904: 90&-904); Lower Arkansas Valley, Colo. (1902: 740-741); Waco, Tex. 
(1905: 579); Vernon, Tex. (1902: 372); Corpus Christi, Tex. (Advance Sheets 1908i 
Corpus Christi Area, 20); Blackfoot, Idaho (1903: 1035); Minidoka, Idaho (1907: 
915-916, 917, 919, 921); Salt Lake Valley, Utah (1899: 101); Provo, Utah (1903: 
1127,1128-1129); Pecos Valley, N.Mex. (1899: 62-63); Solomonsville, Ariz. (1903: 
1059); Salt River Valley, Ariz. (1900: 294); Yuma, Ariz. (1902: 781-782; 1904: 
1029); Imperial, Cal. (1901: 592; 1903: 1235); Indio, Cal. (1903: 1253); San 
Luis Valley, Cal. (1903: 1104); Ventura County, Cal. (1901:528, 538); Los 
Angeles, Cal. (1903: 1269, 1270, 1272); and Santa Ana, Cal. (1900: 390). 

a Cf. Cornish— Geog. jour. 15: 29-30 (1900). 



BAND DUNES. 57 

inside the limiting mountains until it overtopped them; to fill up 
bordering water courses; or to slowly encroach on a vegetal border. 
If the winds were insufficiently constant this would not take place, 
as the accumulations of one storm would be swept away in another 
direction by the next. Also, if the mountains were too high, or the 
bodies of water too wide or too deep (as, e. g., the sea), or swift 
enough to remove the sand as rapidly as delivered, 6 the barrier 
might never be surpassed. A vegetal border is just as difficult to 
overcome, for vegetation tends to encroach on the sand plain as 
much as the plain tends to encroach on the vegetation, and to decide 
whether the plants will tie down the sand or the sand overwhelm 
the plants there is always a struggle, the outcome of which is largely 
dependent on the climatic factors which control the rapidity and 
vigor of vegetal growth. Those sand wastes of Central Asia which 
were once vegetation-covered and populous seem to have been 
invaded by the sand only after the death of the vegetation conse- 
quent upon increased aridity. 

SAND DUNES. 

On areas of loose sand there soon develop by the action of the 
eolian agencies themselves, hills or ridges of sand — the "dunes" — 
concerning the formation and structure of which much has been said 
and written.* Dunes are of many forms, which they owe to many 

a For an example of mountains nearly covered by drifting sand, see Hornaday — 
Qampfires on desert and lava, pp. 347-348 (1908); cf. also p. 162. If there are gaps 
in the mountains the sand may be driven through to form wide fan-shaped plains — 
the so-called "sand glaciers." For descriptions of these, see: Stelzner — Geologie 
argentinischen Rep., vol. 1, p. 292 (1876); C. W. Thompson—The Atlantic, pp. 289-291 
(1878); King, quoted by Pumpelly — Amer. jour. sci. (3) 17: 139, footnote (1879); 
Brackebuscb— Peterm. Mitth. 39: 166 (1893); Cornish— Geog. jour. 9: 286 (1897); 
Philippi- Ber. deut. Sudpolar Exped., Fahrt von Kiel bis Kapstadt, p. 28 (1902), 
andZs.deut.geol.Ges.56: Monatsb.: 65(1904); Hume— Cairo sci. jour. 2: 318(1908). 

& For an example (near Gaza in Palestine) of the stoppage of a dune by a small 
creek, see note by Hull— Geog. jour. 9: 303 (1897). See also Albert — Actas Soc. 
dent. Chile 10: 186 (1900). 

« Huntington— Pulse of Asia, especially pp. 188-189 (1907). 

<*For general discussions of dunes and dune formation, see Reclus — Bull. Soc. geog. 
France (5) 9: 193-221 (1865), The Ocean (English ed.), vol. 1, p. 198-214(1873); 
Gunther— Geophysik, vol. 2, p. 616-619 (1885); Bouthillier de Beaumont— Arch. sci. 
phys. nat. Geneva (3) 16: 383-386 (1886); Sokolov— Die Dttnen, Bildung, Entwick- 
lung und innerer Bau, 1894; Penck— Morph. der Erdoberflache, vol. 2, p. 38-50 (1894); 
Cornish— Rept. Brit, assoc. 1896: 857; Geog. jour. 9: 278-309 (1897), and other 
papers cited in the bibliography; Bertololy — Krauselungsmarken und Dttnen, 1900; 
Bs*chin— Centbl. Bauverwaltung 20: 231-232 (1900); Richthofen— Fuhrer fui 
FofBchungsreisende, p. 345-352, 432-442 (1901); Toula— Deut. Bunds. Geog. Stat. 
14: 12-19 (1892); Foureau — Documents scientifiques mission saharienne, vol. 1, 
p. 213-237 (1904); Walther— Wustenbildung, chap. 11 (1900); Jentzsch— Gerhardt's 
Handbuch deut. Dunenbaues, p. 1-124 (1900), Schrift. naturf. Ges. Danzig (n. s.) 11 : 
Ixi-lxiii (1904); Cholnoky— Fflldtani Kdzlony 32: 106-143 (1902). Many more 
special works are cited elsewhere. Resumed of dune science are given in all the 
major text-books of geology. Some unimportant experiments on dune formation are 
reported by Courty— La Nature, 31, Ii 211 (1903). 



58 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

and variable factors, but the initial impulse to dune formation is, in 
most cases, furnished by some relatively fixed obstacle in the plain 
of drifting sand. These obstacles may be rocks, buildings, etc., but 
they are more likely to be simply clumps of vegetation, which collect 
and hold the sand in the manner already described. If the supply 
of sand be plentiful, the sand heap soon outgrows and kills the vege- 
tation to which it owes its prigin and becomes itself an "obstacle" 
about which still more sand will accumulate. An isolated heap of 
this sort on an open plain, and free from the disturbing effects of 
other dunes, irregular topography, etc., may be considered a typical 
or normal dime, though the natural forms are usually far more com- 
plex. Under the influence of a wind sensibly constant in direction 
and velocity, such a simple dime exhibits the action of principles 
which apply to all dunes and which when once discovered can readily 
be applied to forms of greater complexity. 

The collection of sand into a dune does not mean that it has lost 
its proclivity to drift, for, unless fixed, the dune itself moves more 
or less rapidly in the direction of the prevailing wind. 6 The sand 
grains are drifted up the windward side and fall over the crest and 
down the lee side, and the dune is thus quite literally rolled 
over and over across the plain. The rate of advance depends on 
the amount of moving sand, e the frequency and violence of the 
effective winds, and to some extent on the topography of the coun- 
try. The smaller dunes always move faster. Wesseley* observed 

a On the formation of dunes behind obstacles, see Ehrenberg — Abh. K. Preuas. 
Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1827: 73-88; Reade— Geol. mag. (2) 2: 587-588 (1875); Borg- 
greve— Verh. naturh. Ver. Rheinl. Westf. 32: Cor.-bl.: 69-72 (1875); Schirmer—Le 
Sahara, p. 157-158 (1893); Webber— Science (n. s.) 8: 658-659 (1898); Bertololy— 
Krauselungsmarken und Dttnen, p. 121-123, 122-130, 134-135 (1900); Walther— 
Wttstenbildung, p. 122-124, 128 (1900); Reinke— Sitzungsb. K. preuss. Akad. Wise. 
Berlin 1903: 281-295; Foureau — Documents scientifiques mission saharienne, vol 
1, p. 222-223 (1903); Williams— Iowa Geol. surv. 16: 462, 490-491 (1905); Gessert «r 
Naturw. Wochens. 21 : 525 (1906); Giinther— Sitzungsb. K. Bay. Akad. Wiss. Munich 
1907: 144 etseq.; Beadnell — An Egyptian oasis, p. 83 (1909); and the authorities 
on the accumulation of sand by vegetation cited in note 6, p. 50. Gholnoky does 
not believe that dune formation is initiated by obstacles (Fdldtani Kdzlony 32 : 136 
[1902]). 

&The "prevailing wind" here is really the wind which prevails during the dry 
season, or in general when the sand of the dunes is in condition for movement. This 
is, of course, not necessarily the same as the prevailing wind for the whole year. 
Wesseley — Flugsand, p. 52 (1873). See also note a on page 60 of this bulletin, and 
Gruner— Erl. geol. Spez.-Karte Preuss., Lief. 68, Bl. Wilsnack, p. 17 (1896); Leh- 
mann — Jahresber. Geog. Ges. Greifswald 10: 371 (1905); Barron — Topography be- 
tween Cairo and Suez, p. 117-118 (1907); J. H. Pratt^-Jour. Elisha Mitchell sci. 
soc. 24: 128 (1908); and Bowman— Bull. Amer. geog. soc. 41: 150 (1909). 

« And to some extent on its properties, especially its moisture content. 

* Flugsand, p. 61 (1873). 



SAND DUNES. 59 

a movement of 7 feet a year on the Hungarian sand plains. Among 
the coastal dimes of north Europe velocities of from 3 to 24 feet a 
year are cited by A. Geikie; a 7 to 30 feet by Wesseley; 6 1 to 17 
feet by Wahnschaffe, c 50 feet by Fisher, d 20 feet by Lehmann,* 18 
feet by Berendt/ etc. The Gascon coastal dunes move inland 6 to 
7£ feet a year according to Br6montier,f 62 to 75 feet a year accord- 
ing to filie de Beaumont,* 14 feet a year according to Bagneris,' 
16£ feet a year according to Marsh,' and 33 feet a year according 
to Bert.* According to Cobb* a large crescentic dune on the Cur- 
rituck Banks, North Carolina, has been moving at an average rate 
of 200 feet a year for twenty years. Halligan 411 records 60 feet a 
year on the coast of New South Wales. Braine's* careful measure- 
ments of the rate of advance of South African coastal dunes gave 
values ranging from zero to over 300 feet a year. In several cases 
the same dime advanced at different rates at different parts 
of the crest. The average advance for the locality is probably 
between 50 and 80 feet a year. Olsson-Seffer* observed an advance 
of 42 feet in one year by some dunes at Veracruz, Mexico, Albert* 
gives the yearly advance of the Chilean dunes as in some places over 
a thousand feet, and filie de Beaumont T notes a 'dune on the coast 
of Brittany which advanced at the rate of 1,762 feet a year. Accord- 
ing to Walther* velocities of 65 feet a day can be attained by dunes 
in the Kizyl-kum desert, though the average in this locality is but 
20 feet a year. 

In the desert between the Jaxartes and the Oxus the dunes move 
40 feet northward during the winter, but in the summer the prevailing 

« Text-book, vol. 1, p. 443 (1903). 

*Loc. cit. 

eUrsachen der Oberflachengeetaltung, etc., p. 256-258 (1901). 

d Forest Protection (Schlich), p. 625 (1895). 

«Zs. Ges. Erdk. Berlin 19: 374 (1884). 

/Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 22: 173-180 (1870). 

9 Quoted by Czemy— Peterm. Mitth. Erganzungsh. 48: 28 (1876) 

*Lecons de geologie pratique, vol. 1, p. 208 (1847). 

'Manual de Sylviculture, p. 300 (1878). 

J The earth as modified by human action, ed. of 1885, p. 564. 

*Les Dunes de Gascogne, p. 7 (1900). 

'Jour. Eliaha Mitchell sci. soc. 22: 18 (1906). 

»Proc. Linn. soc. New South Wales 31 : 632 (1906). 

"Proc. Inst. civ. eng. 150: 389-390 (1902). 

o Similar irregularities have been observed by many investigators. Cf. Berendt— 
Geologie des Kurischen Haffes, p. 214 (1868); Gottfriedt— Korrespbl. Naturforscherver. 
Riga 21 : 113-120 (1875). 

P Jour, geol. 16: 563 (1908). 

9 Actas Soc. cient. Chile 10: 315 (1900). 

* Lecons de geologie pratique, vol 1, p. 202-204 (1847). 

* Wttstenbildung, p. 119 (1900). 



60 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

winds are in the opposite direction and the dunes move 60 feet south- 
ward, the net result being a southward movement of 20 feet a year. 
The result of the process of migration is that dunes tend to form 
comparatively gentle slopes toward the wind (where the sand is 
blown up) and steep ones to leeward, where the sand has fallen over 
the crest. In the ideal case £he leeward slope has that angle at 
which the sand will just remain at rest — usually about 30°- -though 
slightly greater slopes are occasionally found. 6 

<» Walther — Wustenbildung, p. 122 (1900). A similar case has been observed in 
the Kaveri delta, India, by Wm. King and R. B. Foote — Mem. Geol. but v. India 4: 
261 (1865). On the migration of dunes see also Jordan — Die geographische Resultate 
der von 6. Rohlfs gefuhrten Expedition in die libysohe Wuate, p. 26 (1875); Bu 
Derba-^s. allg. Erdk. n. s. 8: 473 (1860); Lenz— Timbuktu, vol. 2, p. 58 (1880); 
Xeilhack— Jahrb. K. Preuss. geol. Landesanst. 1896: 194-198; Bertololy— Krauae- 
lungsmarken und Dunen, pp. 161-172 (1900;; Gerhardt — Handbuch deut. Dunenbaues, 
pp. 130-170 (1900); Baschin— Zs. Ges. Erdk. Berlin 1903: 423-425; Hedin— 
Scientific results, vol. 2, pp. 402-409 (1905); Beadnell— An Egyptian oasi*, p. 203 
(1909); Geog. jour. 35: 389-391 (1910); and especially the many data collected by 
Ivchenko— Ann. geol. min. Rues. 9, 1: 244-254 (1908). 

& The slopes of 60° to 80° reported by Meyen (Reise der Prinzess Louise, vol. 2, 
p. 43), Walther (Einlekung in der Geologie als historische Wissenschaft, pp. 792, 794), 
Engler (Naturw. Wochens 17 : 278 [1902]), and other writers are almost certainly due to 
.errors of observation ; the great probability of which has been pointed out by Cholnoky 
(FOldtani Kdzlony 32: 108-109 [1902]). Slopes as steep as these are impossible for 
dry sand, and in fact the reports of slopes of 40° and over are much open to suspicion, 
though such slopes may be formed in cases where the sand is moist or otherwise 
cemented and has been eroded by undercutting. For instances see Baschin — Zs. 
Ges. Erdk. Berlin 1903: 428; Hedin— Scientific results, vol. 1, pp. 121-122 (1904). 
These can not be considered dune slopes. On the other hand, the maximum of 23° 
to 24° given by Chamberlin and Salisbury (Geology, vol. 1, p. 27) is certainly too 
low for moving dunes. 

The following measurements are found in the literature: 

Cape Henry, Virginia: 45°, Kearney — Contrib. U. S. nat. herb. 5: 334 (1901). 

Gape Hatteras, North Carolina; 35°, Bond — Jour. Elisha Mitchell sci. soc. 24: 132 
(1908). 

Clatsop Beach, Oregon; 40°, Diller — Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 17, I: 450 
(1896). 

Dune Park, Michigan; 30°, Cowles— Bot. gaz. 27: 191 (1899). 

Gascon Coast; 29° to 30°, Reclus— La terre, vol. 2: p. 239 (1868); 32° to 40°, 
Walther — Einleitung in der Geologie als historische Wissenschaft, p. 845 (1894). 

North German Coast; 45°, Berendt — Schrift phys. dkon. Ges. Konigsberg 9: 140 
(1868); 41° (maximum), Hagen— Handbuch Wasserbaukunst 3: 149-172 (1863). 

Denmark; 30° (average), Forchhammer — Neues Jahrb. Min. 1841: 2, 6. 

Island of Sylt; 33°, Baschin— Zs. Ges. Erdk. Berlin 1903: 429. 

Hungary; 27° to 32° (average 30°), Weseeley— Flugsand, pp. 27, 28, 54 (1873); 
34.5°, Cholnoky— Foldtani Kdzlony 32: 108 (1902). (This is the greatest slope ever 
observed by this author.) 

Kharga, Egypt; 30° to 33°, Beadnell— An Egyptian oasis, p. 203 ^1909). 

Capetown, South Africa; 30° (average), maximum is 32°, Braine— Proc. Inst. civ. 
eng. 150: 387(1902). 

Turkestan 30° to 40°, Mushketov— Nature 34: 237 (1886). 

Tarim Basin; 26° to 39° (many measurements, mostly between 31° and 33°), 
Hedin— Through Asia, vol. 2: p. 790 (1899); Peterm. Mitt. Ergftnzungsh. 131: 



SAND DTJNBS. 61 

The crescentic shape frequently observed in isolated dunes has 
been similarly explained. The sand is blown around the ends and 
stretches out in long points to leeward, forming a more or less perfect 



^ 




r 



^ ^ ^ 



c * 







^ 



? 




Flo. 1.— Group of crescentic dunes in the desert near Bokhara (after Walther). 



crescent. Plate I, figure 2, shows a typical dune of this form in the 
delta of Carrizo Creek in the Colorado Desert, and figure 1 (after 

243-244 (1900); Central Asia and Tibet, vol. 1 : pp. 247, 264, 268, 272 (1903); Scientific 
results, vol. 1: p. 270 (1904). 

Transcaspian Desert; 30° to40°, Radde— Peterm. Mitt. Erganzungsh. 126: 11-12 
(1898). 

South Australian Coast (?); 36° (maximum), Wilkinson — Jour. & Proc. Roy. soc. 
N. S. Wales 16; 94 (1882). 

The following measurements have been made by the present writer: Gypsum 
dunes of the Alamogordo Desert, 32°, 32.6°, 33°, 34°; crescentic dunes of the Carrioz 



62 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATEBIAL BY THE WIND. 

Walther) shows a bird's-eye view of a group of such dunes in the 
Trans-Caspian Desert. Dunes of this form are found in nature 
only where the winds blow mostly in one direction and where the 
dunes are not interfered with by the topography of the country or 
by each other. In most cases the typical form is variously modified 
and obscured. Characteristic examples have, however, been observed 
in many localities; as, for instance, in Arabia by Wellsted," Lady 
Blunt b and Euting; c in the central and west Asian deserts by 
Burnes, d Forsyth/ Middendorff/ MacGregor,* Mushketov,* L6czy,< 
Walther/ Kein,* Radde,* Hedin, TO Cholnoky, n Ivchenko, McMahon,* 

Davis,* Pompeckj, 1 " and Stein;* and in the Sahara by Nachtigal,* and 

— — — - 

Creek delta, Colorado Desert, 31.5°, 31.8°, 31.9°, 32°; dune southwest of Fallon, Nev., 
31°; dune area south of Las Animas, Colo. (Arkansas Valley), 32°, 32.3°; littoral dune 
at Hermosa, Cal. (near Los Angeles), 31°, 33.5°; coastal dune area southwest of San 
Francisco, Cal., 31°, 31.1°, 31.5°, 31.6°. 

The angles of rest of various dry pulverulent materials have been investigated 
experimentally by Auerbach (Ann. Phys. (4) 5; 170-219 [1901]), who found (p. 180), 
for the four kinds of sand examined, values ranging from 34.2° to 35.8°. The angles 
of rest of the dry sand dunes which were being undercut by the Tarim River (Eastern 
Turkestan) were measured by Hedin as from 32° to 34° (Scientific results, vol. 1 : 
p. 167 [1904]). A similar slope on the dune lands southwest of San Francisco, Cal., 
was measured by the present writer as 31.2°. 

The lee slope of crescentic dunes of granular snow at Winnipeg, Canada, was 
measured by Cornish (Geog. jour. 20: 151 [1902]) as 30°. The angles of rest (and 
resultant slopes) of the volcanic lapilli and scoria of the cinder cone at Lassen Peak, 
Oregon, vary from 30° to 37° according to the size of the material (Diller — U. S. Geol. 
surv. Bull. 79: 11 [1891]). 

^Travels in Arabia, vol. 1, p. 411 (1838). 

6 A Pilgrimage to Nejd, vol. 2, p. 242-243 (1881). 

cVerh. Ges. Erdk. Berlin 13: 267 (1886). 

d Travels into Bokhara, vol. 3, p. 1-2 (1834). 

* Jour. Roy. Geog. soc. 47: 9 (1877). 

/Mem. Acad. imp. sci. St. Petersburg 29: 29 (1881). 

Wanderings in Baluchistan, p. (1882). These same dunes were later visited 

by McMahon, who observed no change of form. (Geog. jour. 9: 309 [1897]). 

h Nature 34: 237 (1886), Fflldtani K6zl6ny 17: 269-275 (1887), Deut. Rund. Geog. 
Stat. 12: 149(1890). 

<Reise Grafen Szechenyi in Ostasien, vol. 1, p. 506 (1893). 

/Bull. Soc. imp. nat. Moscow (n. s.) 11 : 437-445 (1897); Peterm. Mitt. 44: 207-208 
(1898); Wttstenbildung, p. 123 (1900). These dunes are shown in fig. 1, p. 61. 

*Ber. senckenb. naturf. Ges. 1898: cxxiv. 

1 Peterm. Mitt. Erganzungsh. 126: 11-12 (1898). 

m Through Asia, vol. 1, p. 488, 492, vol. 2, p. 789-790 (1899); Peterm. Mitt. Ergan- 
zungsh. 131 : 238 (1900); Scientific Results, vol. 1, p. 232 (1904). 
»F6ldtani KSzlony 32: 106 (1902). 

©Ann. geol. min. Russie 7, I: 51-54, 226-229 (1904); 8: 135-188 (1906). 
PGeog. jour. 28: 337 (1906). See al*o note (in discussion) ibid. 9: 306 (1897). 
q Carnegie Inst, of Washington Pub. 26: 42, 44, 57 (1905). 
rCentbl. Min. 1906: 373-378. 

* Ancient Khotan, p. 242 (1907). 

* Sahara und Sudan, vol. 2, p. 68 (1881). 



BAND DUNES. 63 

by Holland; • in India by Oldham; b in the Gascon "landes" by 
Grandjean e and Buffault; d near Dresden by Gutbier; e on the west 
coast of Africa by Gentz; f in East Africa by Gessert; * in Chile by 
Meyen;* in Peru by Poppig,' Tschudi,' Bollaert,* Abercromby,* 
Douglass,"* Sears,* and S. I. Bailey; in the Colorado Desert by 
Holmes,? MacDougal,? and Tolman; r at Rufus, Oregon (along the 
Columbia River) by Westgate f and the writer; on the Hatteras 
Banks by Cobb,' etc.* 

a Bull. Soc. g£ol. France (3) 9: 508-^51 (1881), 10: 30-47 (1882). See also Hol- 
land — Geologie du Sahara algerien, plate 23, fig. 5 (1890). 

& Jour. Asiat. soc. Bengal 45, II: 102 (1876); Mem. Geol. surv. India 34: 141-148 
(1903). 

«Bull. Soc. geog. comm. Bordeaux (2) 19: 184 (1896). 

<* fitude sur la cdte et les dunes de M6doc, p. 95 (1897). See also Marsh — The earth 
as modified by human action, ed. of 1885, p. 540. On other crescentic coastal dunes 
see Jen tzsch— Gerhard t's Dunenbaues, pp. 87-88 (1900); and Baschin — Zs. Gee. Erdk. 
Berlin 1903: 422-428. 

'Sitzungsb. Isis Dresden 1864: 42-54. On the fossil crescentic dunes of the 
German heaths see Solger— Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 57, Monatsb.: 179-190 (1905); but 
see p. 64, below. 

/Deut. Kol. Ztg. 19: 93-94 (1902). 

fNaturw. Wochens. 21: 525 (1906). 

AReise der Prinzess Louise, vol. 2, p. 43 (1835). 

< Reise in Chile, Peru und auf dem Amazonenstrome, vol. 1, pp. 140-142 (1835). 

J Peru, Reiseskizzen, vol. 1, p. 336 (1846). 

* Jour. Roy. geog. soc. 21 : 99-129 (1851). 
'Quart, jour. Roy. meteor, soc. 16: 120 (1890). 

»E1 Kosmos (Arequipa, Peru) no. 21, Dec. 30, 1892; Appalachia 12: 34-45 (1909). 

»Bull. Amer. geog. soc. 27: 262 (1895). 

©Ann. Astron. obs. Harv. coll. 39: 287-292 (1906). 

V Field Operations, Bureau of Soils 1903: 1235. 

9 Bull. Amer. geog. soc. 39: 708 (1907); Botanical features of North American 
deserts, p. 38 (1908). 

'The Crescentic dunes of the Sal ton Sea. These dunes were visited in June, 1909, 
by Dr. B. £. Livingston and the writer, who found conditions practically unchanged 
since Tolman's visit. 

• Unpublished observations. 

'Jour. Elisha Mitchell sci. soc. 22: 17-19 (1906). 

« These dunes are often called "barchans." On their general nature and formation 
see Cornish — Geog. jour. 9: 278-309 (1897); Oldham — Loc. cit. supra; Mushketov — 
Deut. Runds. Geog. Stat. 12: 148(1890); Cholnoky— Foldtani Kozlony 32: 111-123 
(1902). Crescentic dunes of drifting snow have been described by Cornish — Geog. 
jour. 20: 151 (1902); Cholnoky — loc. cit., p.116; Ferrar — National Antarctic exped. 
1901-4, Nat. hist. 1: 84 (1907); von Staff— Zs. deut. dster. Alpenver. 37: 49 (1906), 
and Tschirwinsky — Zs. Gletscherk. 2 : 104-112 (1907). Quite analogous crescentic 
forms are sometimes formed from loose sand or gravel under flowing water. The 
author has seen them on sand-sprinkled street pavements over which a thin sheet 
of rain water was flowing. Cornish has observed them in beach shingle (Geog. jour. 
11: 639 [1898]). The author observed at Fallon, Nev., in July, 1909, a dune of 
crescentic shape almost entirely fixed by vegetation. It is impossible to say 



64 MOVEMENT OP SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

A common variation of the crescentic form is that produced by 
the joining of two or more adjacent dunes as they increase in size. 
Several good examples are shown in fig. 1, where at a two dunes, 
and at b three dunes have joined. At c are three other dimes which 
are likely soon to do so. If only two or three dunes join, the final 
result is usually simply a larger dune of the crescentic form," but if 
the number of joining dunes is large, there is a tendency to produce 
more or less irregular forms of great complexity. Sometimes, either 
by the union of isolated dunes or possibly in other ways, there will 
be formed long and passably straight ridges transverse to the ruling 
wind direction and frequently in series parallel to each other, like 
huge ripple systems. Such transverse ridges are similar to isolated 
dunes in their proclivity to migration, in their slope relations, etc. 

whether this is a barchan which has been grown over with plants or whether the 
crescentic form is accidental. 

Mention should perhaps be made of the unusual crescentic dunes whose points face 
the wind instead of stretching to leeward. These occur on certain coasts and are 
generally believed to be formed by the lag of the flanks of an ordinary rounded dune 
as it moves forward. The sand at the edges of the dune being thinner, is believed 
to be more easily fixed by vegetation or held by ground water rising from below. 
The central higher part is therefore the more free to move, and gradually leaves the 
flanks behind. This hypothesis explains the occurrence of such dunes mainly on 
coasts, for it is exactly here that strong winds are combined with a relatively strong 
tendency toward fixation of the sand. On these dunes see Sokolov — Die Dun en, 
pp. 07 etseq. (1894); Bertololy — Krauselungsmarken und Dttnen, pp. 144-145(1900); 
Jentzsch— Gerhardt's Dttnenbaues, p. 87(1900); Cholnoky— Fflldtani K6zl6ny32i 
123-125 (1902); Lehmann— Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 57, Monatsb.: 264-265 (1905), 
Jahresb. Geog. Ges. Greifswald 10 : 351-379 (1905). Dr. W J McGee tells me that he 
has observed many instances among the dunes of western Nebraska. I have myself 
observed one on the Pacific coast near San Francisco. The fossil crescentic dunes of 
Galicia and of north Germany may be of this type. See Friedberg — Atlas geol. 
Galicyi 16: 33-37 (1903); Solger— Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 57, Monatsb.: 184-185 
(1905), Verh. deut. Geographentags (Danzig) 15: 159-172 (1905), Monatsb. deut. geol. 
Ges. 1908:5^-59; Romer— Kosmos (Lw6w) 31: 10-12, 334-362 (1906); Verh. geol. 
Reichsanst. 1907: 48-55; Jentzsch— Monatsb. deut. geol. Ges. 1908: 120-123. 
Solger' a last article (loc. cit.) points out important differences between these reversed 
crescentic dunes (or " parabolic dunes") and the typical barchans. 

It is, of course, possible that some observations of crescentic dunes whose points 
face the wind may be in error, due to the dunes having been observed during a wind 
contrary in direction to that by which they had been formed. For a case of this sort 
(Meyen and Poppig on the South American dunes) see Bertololy, loc. cit., p. 153. 
Barchans are, however, very sensitive to changes in wind direction and are rapidly 
modified in form by a reversed wind. See Hedin — Geog. jour. 8: 361 (1896); Wal- 
ther— Bull. Soc. imp. nat. Moscow n.s. 11 : 443-445 (1897); Baschin — Zs. Ges. Erdk. 
Berlin 1903: 427-428 (1903); Hedin— Scientific resulte, vol. 1, p. 277-278 (1904); 
Beadnell— -An Egyptian oasis, p. 205 (1909). 

« A dune in which this process is almost complete is shown at d in fig. 1. On the 
union of crescentic dunes see also Hedin — Scientific results, vol. 1, pp. 351-354 
(1904). 



SAND DUNES. 65 

They are frequently to be found in deserts • and are responsible for 
the well-known wave-like surface of these areas. Coastal dunes are 
also usually linear and transverse to the prevailing wind, but are 
not so likely to be regular in form as are the ridges of the desert, 
being largely determined by the shape of the coast line, the amount 
of sand supplied at various points, etc. 

In addition to these forms, all of which have their greatest exten- 
sion in a direction transverse to the wind, there are also dunes 
which stretch out parallel thereto. The precise nature of the 
processes which give rise to these longitudinal dimes is very uncer- 
tain, but such forms seem to occur most readily where the supply 
of sand is small relative to the strength of the wind. 6 Where 
more sand is available (or the wind less regnant) the dunes are 
transverse. 

The brief discussion of dunes above given is based on the theories 
of dune formation which find general acceptance at present. It is 
possible, however, that too little stress has been laid upon the effect 

« For instance in India see Strahan — Gen. Kept. Surv. India dept. 1882-83, 
App.: 3-4. (Cf. also Note 6 below). In Central Asia: Hedin — Through Asia, vol. 1, 
p. 499, vol. 2, pp. 777, 791 (1899), Petenn. Mitth. Erganzungsh. 131: 245 (1900); 
P. M. Sykee— Geog. jour. 19: 161 (1902). In Arabia: Wellsted— Travels in Arabia, 
vol. 1, pp. 80-87 (1838); Palgrave— Narrative of journey through Arabia, p. 62 (1865); 
Phillips— Quart, jour. Geol.soc. 38: 110 (1882); Zwemer— Geog. jour. 19: 61 (1902). 
In the Sahara: Tristram— The great Sahara, pp. 300-302 (1860); Choisy— Documents 
Mission Algerie, p. 323 (1890); Holland— Bull. Soc. geol. France (3) 10: 30 (1882). 
In Australia: Sturt— Central Australia, vol. 1, pp. 183-186, 233, 251, 336, 338-339, 
371, 379, 380, 405 (1848), vol. 2, pp. 26, 33-36, 42, 45 (1849); Carnegie— Spinif ex and 
sand, pp. 178, 249-252, 377 (1898). It appears, however, that these often-cited Aus- 
tralian ridges are composed not really of sand, but of ' ' loam " covered with sand. See 
Sturt, loc. cit., vol. 1, p. 379, and Gregory — Dead heart of Australia, pp. 65, 109 
(1906). Their true nature and origin remain in doubt. Transverse ridges of drifted 
snow occur in the arctic regions. See, e. g., Wrangell — Narrative, p. 244 (1840). 

& On the nature and formation of longitudinal dunes see Blanford— Jour. Asiat. soc. 
Bengal 45, II: 92-93, 97-103 (1876); Medlicott and Blanford— Geology of India, 2d ed. 
(Oldham), p. 455 etseq. (1893); Cornish— Geog. jour. 9 : 292-293 (1897), 20 : 153,160 
(1902); Blake— Quart, jour. Geol.soc. 53: 228-229(1897); Beadnell— Geol. jour. 35 : 
380 et al. (1910). It is possible the longitudinal dunes may be formed by the erosion 
of the troughs rather than by accumulation (see Cholnoky — Foldtani K5zl6ny 32 : 141 
[1902]). This is probably true of the longitudinal snow dunes of arctic and antarctic 
latitudes (Philippi— Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 56, Monatsb. 66 [1904].) The first stage of the 
dune of accumulation is, however, longitudinal, and consists simply of a long tongue 
of sand stretched out behind the inducing obstacle. See Bertololy — Krauselungs- 
marken und Dunen, pp. 12&-130 (1900), and cf . Reade— Geol. mag. (2) 2 : 587-588 
(1875); and Gunther— Sitzungsb. K. Bay. Akad. Wiss. Munich 1907: 139-153. 

«The best discussions are the excellent articles of Cornish (Geog. jour. 9 : 278-309 
[1897]), and of Cholnoky (Fdldtani Kdzlony 32 : 106-143 [1902]). See also the works 
cited on page 57 above and elsewhere in this chapter. 

53952°— Bull. 68—11 5 




66 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATEBUL BY THE WIND. 

of the eddy behind the dune in determining or modifying its structure. 
The nature of the eddy thus produced is indicated by the diagram, 
figure 2 (after Darwin) , where the directions of the moving air are 
indicated by the stream lines and arrows. This back eddy not only 
blows sand up the lee slope, thus maintaining or even increasing its 
steepness, but it is also active in excavating and keeping clear the 

trenches between the dunes 
of a dune complex. 6 The 
action becomes apparent to 
the eye when the crest of a 

Fig. 2— Ideal diagrams of air currents showing tendency of dune f orms the sky line, for 

^to) WWMdnpri ^ to ^ todlWtlOI,fl<a,ter there is then ****> risin g 

from the crest, a thin stream 

of "dune smoke," c which is undoubtedly simply sand blown upward 

by the current produced at the meeting point of the eddy and the 

main wind. It is probable that this eddy, perhaps in modified form, 

is responsible for the crater-shaped hollows occasionally found at 

the tops of large dunes,* and perhaps for other anomalies of dune 

structure. 

<* See, however, Cornish — Geog. jour. 15 : 7, 22, 23 (1900); Bertololy — Krauselungs- 
marken und Dttnen, pp. 137-139 (1900); Hedin— Scientific results, vol. 1, pp. 246-250 
(1904); and Lomas— Trans. Liverpool geol. boc. 10; 187 (1905-6). 

& The action of heavy winds in excavating these troughs has been noticed among the 
Gascon dunes by Grandjean — Bull. Soc. ge*og. comm. Bordeaux (2) 19 : 183-184 (1896). 
Similarly Foureau (Documents scientifiques mission saharienne, vol. 1, p. 236-237 
[1904]) has noticed that the troughs between the Sahara dunes do not tend to fill up, 
but that the materials of the (presumably) original surface can still be seen at their 
bottoms. Hedin has observed similar conditions in some of the troughs between dunes 
in the Takla-makan desert (Through Asia, vol. 1, pp. 457, 472 [1899]; Peterm. Mitth. 
Erganzungsh. 131 1 243, 244 [1900]; Central Asia and Tibet, vol. 1, pp. 268, 279 [1903]; 
and especially, Scientific results, vol. 1, pp. 246-250, 413 [1904]). 

c Mares— Ann. Soc. meteor. Paris 12: 284-289 (1864); Zittel— Peterm. Mitt. 20: 
185(1874); Grandjean— Bull. Soc.ggog. comm. Bordeaux (2) 19: 182(1896); Albert— 
Actas Soc. cient. Chile 10: 171 (1900); Hedin— Through Asia, vol. 1, p. 516 (1899); 
Central ABiaand Tibet, vol. 1, p. 272 (1903) ; Stein— Sand-buried ruins of Khotan, p. 429 
(1903); Beadnell— Geog. jour. 86: 387 (1910). 

<* My attention was first called to this phenomenon by Dr. W J McGee, who has 
observed that the most lofty (and therefore most exposed) dune of any complex fre- 
quently has on its summit a hollow surrounded on all sides by a raised rim. Similar 
hollows have been observed in the Capetown dunes by Braine (Proc. Inst. civ. engs. 
150: 387 [1902]), in the dunes at Mogador (Moroccan coast) by Maw (Hooker and 
Ball's Morocco and the Great Atlas, p. 453 [1878]), and on the English coast by Shone 
(loc. cit. infra). Hedin observed among the dunes of the Takla-makan desert circular 
hollows which he believed due to the meeting of two crescentic dunes, facing in oppo- 
site directions (Through Asia, vol. 2, p. 828 [1899]; Peterm. Mitth. Erganzungsh. 131 : 
238, 243 [1900]). Cf. also Reclus— Bull. Soc. geog. France (5) 9: 205-206 (1865); 
Mushketov— Deut. Runds. Geog. Stat. 12: 149 (1890); Cholnoky— F8ldtani K6zl6ny 



WIND-FORMED SAND RIPPLES. 67 

The actual forms of natural dunes are of course exceedingly com- 
plex, expressing in any individual case the resultant of many and ever- 
varying factors, of which the degree of constancy in the direction of 
the wind is doubtless the most important, and next to this the relation 
between the amount of available sand and the wind velocity. ' The 
topography of the underlying surface is also important and the phys- 
ical properties of the sand are not without influence. 

WIND-FORMED SAND RIPPLES. 

Among the most interesting of the minor phenomena of sand-drift 
is the formation of the systems of superficial ripples which are fre- 
quently produced on smooth surfaces of drifting sand/ and which 
resemble the ripples that occur on the sandy bottoms of streams or on 
sandy beaches. The mechanism of ripple formation is not perfectly 
clear, and it is not improbable that in this case, as in so many others, 
forms apparently the same may result from quite dissimilar causes. 
The formation of the typical eolian ripples is, however, probably con- 
nected with the tendency of all moving fluids to take on a sinusoidal 

82: 138 (1902); Beadnell— Geog. jour. 35: 387 (1910). It is easier .to imagine these 
formed by eddies, and in any case they must be kept open by this means if they are 
to endure. Brunhes, following out his theories of the importance of erosion by whirl- 
winds, considers isolated circular hollows among dunes as formed in this way (Mem. 
Accad. Nuovi Lincei (5) 21 : 129-148 [1903]). While this may be true in certain caseB, 
it seems hard to imagine the circumtances under wnich a vertical eddy would be regu- 
larly produced on the top of a high and approximately conical dune. On the other 
hand, it is easy to see that the top of such a dune might be hollowed out by the hori- 
zontal eddies set up by winds blowing up the dune slope from different directions at 
different times. It may be, as suggested by Shone (Geol. Mag. (3) 10: 323 [1893]), 
that the action of the eddy is sometimes initiated by a slight sinking of the center of 
the sand heap under the action of rain. 

«As, for instance, its cohesion. See GQnther — Sitzungsb. K. Bay. Akad. Wiss. 
Munich 1907: 139-153; and analogous observations on snow dunes by Cornish 
(Geog. jour. 20: 153 [1902]). 

*Maw— Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 28: 88 (1872); Rae— Nature 29: 357 (1884); 
Walther — Denudation in der Wuste, p. 523 (1891) ; Cornish — Rept. Brit. Assoc. 
1896: 794-795, Geog. jour. 9: 280 et seq. (1897); Baschin— Zs. Ges. Erdk. Berlin 
84: 408-424 (1899); Hedin— Through Asia, vol. 1, p. 515, vol. 2, p. 790 (1899); 
Bertololy — Kr&uselungsmarken und DQnen, pp. 99-105 (1900); Ivchenko — Ann. 
geol. min. Russie 7, I: 223-226 (1904), 8: 140-142 (1906); Joly— Sci. proc. Roy. soc. 
Dublin (n. s.) 10: 328-330 (1904); Geinitz— Naturw. Wochens. J9: 1025-1031 (1904); 
Hedin — Scientific results, vol. 2, pp. 410-440 (1905); etc. Eolian ripples in moder- 
ately coaree gravel have been described by Richardson — Rept. Yorkshire phil. soc. 
1902: 47; and Oldham— Mem. Geol. surv. India 34: 141 (1903). Similar ripples 
occur on drifting snow. See Cornish — Rept. Brit, assoc. 1900: 816-817, 1901s 
.398-399, Scott, geog. mag. 17: 1-11 (1901), Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 58, Proc.: ii, iv 
(1902), Geog. jour. 20: 137-173 (1902), Quart. Jour. Roy. meteor, soc. 35: 14&-160 
(1909); von Staff— Zs. deut. oster. Alpenver. 37: 45-48 [1906] and Giraud— Geo- 
graphic 3: 345-347 (1901). 



68 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

motion at high velocities.* Such a system of regularly recurring 
eddies in the air would naturally impress itself more or less exactly 
on the loose sand beneath. 5 

THE PROPERTIES OF BLOWN SANDS. 

Drifting sands may be of the most varied materials, ranging from 
the nearly pure limestone sands of coral-fringed coasts to the quartz 
sands of equal purity found on some beaches and in the older deserts. 
Interesting dune areas of nearly pure gypsum sand occur in New 
Mexico c and in Utah.* Dunes of clay aggregates are reported from 
Texas.' 

In general, the composition of any sand is dependent upon 
that of the rocks from which it was derived; and since most drifting 
sands are much mixed and derived from many and varied rocks, they 
possess, when not too long exposed to the action of the disintegrating 
agencies, a high degree of qualitative if not quantitative heteroge- 
neity. On long exposure to mechanical disintegration and removal 
there is, as already described, a tendency for sands to become siliceous, 
and the remarkable purity of some desert sands/ is no doubt thus 
attained. Even in these extreme cases there is usually, however, 
some slight admixture of other minerals as is shown (amongst other 
evidence) by the not inconsiderable productivity of the sands when 
rendered stationary and supplied with water.? 

In mechanical composition dune sands are somewhat more uniform. 
As the result of numerous mechanical analyses, Udden* concludes 

^ , — i  i * 1 

a See the experimental investigations of Reynolds on flowing water (Phil, trans. 
Roy. soc. 174: 935-982 [1884]) ; and the theoretical deductions of Helmholtz (Crelle's 
Jour. Math. 55 : 25-55 [1858]; Monateb. E. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1868 : 215-228). 
In connection with the latter papers see Rayleigh — Proc. London math. soc. 11 : 57 
(1880); and Kelvin— Nature 23: 45-46, 70 (1880). For an observation of sinuosities 
in natural air currents see Baddeley — Whirlwinds and dust Btorms in India, p. 52 
(1860). 

& See Baechin— Zs. Ges. Erdk. Berlin 34: 408-424 (1899); Centbl. Bauverwaltung 
20: 231-232 (1900). 

« Mentioned by the early explorers. Described by G. Gibbs — Amer. nat. 4 : 695-696 
(1870); MacBride— Science (n. s.) 21: 91 (1905); Brady— Mines and Minerals 25: 
529-530 (1905); and MacDougal — Botanical features of North American deserts, pp. 
11-16 (1908). 

41. 0. Russell— Geol. mag. (3) 6: 289 (1889). 

« Coffey, George N.— Jour. geol. 17: 754-755 (1909). 

/Walther — Einleitung in Geologie als Historische Wissenschaft, p. 795 (1893-4); 
Schirmer — Le Sahara, p. 156 (1893); Doss — Eorrespbl. Naturforscherver. Riga 39: 
31-40 (1896); Bertololy— Krattselungsmarken und Dunen, p. 5 (1900), etc. 

9 For details concerning the chemical and mineralogical composition of eolian and, 
other sands see Walther — Einleitung in der Geologie als Historische Wissenschaft, p. 837 
(1894); Relgers— Neues Jahrb. Min. 1895, 1:16-74; Sabban— Mitt. Grossh. Meckl. 
geol. Landesanst. 8: 20-52 (1897); Neuber— Deut. Runds. Geog. Stat. 27: 241-247 
(1905); Warren— Tech. quart. 19: 317-338 (1906). 

*The mechanical composition of wind deposits, pp. 9-26 (1898). 



THE PKOPEETIES OF BLOWN SANDS. 69 

that most drifting sand is composed of grains ranging in diameter 
from 0.5 to 0.125 mm. a Indeed, the blown sand of any one locality 
is likely to be even more uniform than this, though sands from differ- 
ent areas will sometimes differ more widely as a result of varying 
strength of wind, etc. This uniformity is a natural result of the 
means by which the sands have been collected, and is to be expected 
in the light of the process of air sorting, as described on pages 35-37; 
The shape of the grains is largely dependent on the history of the 
sand. Desert sands formed by insolations! disintegration 6 and not 
much rolled about are angular/ while sand grains subjected to much 
abrasion by either eolian or aqueous transport have the well-known 
rounded form of stream-worn materia!.* The degree of rounding 
carries no indication as to the means by which it was produced. If 
anything, the eolian sand is likely to be the more rounded, for eolian 
abrasion is just as complete as and probably more rapid than that 

<* This conclusion is in accord with the results of the few mechanical analyses of 
dune sands which have been made by the Bureau of Soils, and also with the results 
of analyses cited by Thoulet--Bull. Soc. min. France 4: 263 (1881); Sabban— Mitt. 
Grossh. Meckl. geol. Landesanst. 8: 43-49 (1897); FrQh— Vierteljs. naturf. Gee. 
Zurich 44: 174-175 (1899); Oldham— Mem. Geol. surv. India 84: 150 (1903); Galu- 
nov— Lfesnoi zhur. 83: 1217-1224 (1903); Lehmann— Jahresb. geog. Gee. Greifawald 
10: 372 (1905); and Juritz— Trans. South African phil. soc. 18: 28 (1907). See also 
Keilhack— Chemztg. 29: 723 (1905), and Atterberg— ibid. p. 1074 (1905); and 
Table XII on p. 168 below. 

5 By insolational disintegration is meant the mechanical splitting of rocks and rock 
fragments due to unequal expansion (especially of the grains of different minerals) 
under the rapid and intense changes of temperature which occur in the desert. See 
Fraas— Aus dem Orient, pp. 176-177 (1867); Walther— Denudation in der WOste, pp. 
481-500 (1891), Wustenbildung, pp. 176-177 (1900); Schirmer— Le Sahara, pp. 143-144 
(1893); Obruchev— Verh. Imp. min. Ges. St. Petersburg (2) 88: 245-249 (1895) 
Goodchild— Trans. Edinb. geol. soc. 7: 205-206 (1897); Chamberlin and Salisbury- 
Geology, vol 1, pp. 44-48 (1904); Ivchenko— Ann. geol. min. Rusb. 7, I: 45-46 (1904) 
Barrell— Jour. geol. 16: 176-179 (1908); and Lozinski— Bull. Intern, acad. sci. Cracow 
1909: 1-25. Other observations have been made by Wellsted — Travels in Arabia 
vol. 2, p. 79 (1838); Darwin— Journal of researches, ed. of 1901, p. 318; Sturt — Central 
Australia, vol. 1, p. 180, 240, 244 (1849); Livingstone— Missionary travels, p. 149 (1857), 
Zambesi, pp. 429,516(1865); Philippi— Viage al Disierto del Atacama, pp. 111-112 
(1860); Vatonne, in Mircher— Mission de Ghadames, pp. 245, 271, 276 (1863); Jor- 
dan — Physische Geographic lybischen Wuste, p. 127 (1876); Walther— Verh. Ges. 
Erdk. Berlin 15: 249 (1888); Murray— Proc. Roy. geog. soc. (n. s.) 12 s 464-466 
(1890); Branner — Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 7: 255 (1896); Barron and Hume — Topogra- 
phy and Geology Eastern Desert of Egypt, pp. 285-286 (1902); Stahl— Vegetations- 
bilder, 2, Heft 4, Tafel 24 and text (1904); Mac Dougal— Botanical features North 
American deserts, pp. 77-79 (1908); Stein — Geog. jour. 34: 14 (1909), etc. 

cSee, e. g., Walther— Denudation in der Wuste, Plate VII; C. C. Parry— Rept. 
U.S. Mex. Boundary Surv., vol. 1, II: p. 10 (1857); Emory— ibid., I: p. 40; 
La Touche— Mem. Geol. surv. India 85: 40 (1902); J. Ball— Aswan Cataract of the 
Nile, p. 64 (1907). 

d For instances of well-rounded sands in deserts see Blake — Pacific Railway Repts., 
2: 20 (1855), 5: 119 (1856); Holland— Rev. sci. (3) 1: 610 (1881); Phillips- Quart, 
jour. Geol. soc. 38: 111 (1882); J. Ball— Aswan Cataract, p. 57, Plate III (1907); etc. 



70 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

produced under streams or waves." The only difference is that 
eolian rounding extends to particles so small that they would be 
unaffected by water transport, 6 and this fact has been used as a proof 
of the eolian origin of certain loessial deposits, the finest grains of 
which are well rounded. c 

The uniformity and coarseness (as compared with soil in general) 
of drifting sand makes it exceptionally open in texture. It has been 
shown by Slichter d that for spherical grains of uniform size (a con- 
dition nearly approached by dune sands) the closest possible arrange- 
ment of the grains leaves 25.90 per cent of unoccupied space, while the 
loosest arrangement leaves 47.64 per cent, regardless of the size of 
spheres. These percentages of pore space are, however, not large 
More important is the relatively large size of the individual spaces, 
which enables water to move into and through dune sands more 
readily than is the case with more normal soils of less mechanical 
uniformity. The rates both of absorption and of drainage are 
greater than in deposits composed of or containing finer material. 
Reference should be made, however, to the observation of Wesseley, e 
later repeated by Shaler/ that dry dune sands sometimes offer con- 
siderable resistance to the penetration of water. The sand grains 
become wetted very slowly and the intergranular capillary films are 
not readily set up. This may occur in certain cases, but it is probably 
not a property of all sands, and in no case does it apply when water 
is actually covering the general surface. 

Although amply absorptive, sands have little power of retaining 
moisture. All added water flows at once to lower levels and the 
amount held by capillary action is far less than in finer materials.? 
The water content of sands above the ground-water level is therefore 

a See Sorby— Quart, jour. Geol. boc. 36, Proc.:50, 57-61 (1880); Phillips— Quart- 
jour. Geol. soc. 37: fr-28 (1881); Klemm— Zb. deut. geol. Ges. 34: 779 (1882); 
Goodchild— Trans. Edinb. geol. soc. 7: 208-211 (1897); Mackie— ibid, pp. 298-311; 
Bonney — Geog. jour. 9: 302 (1897); especially Mackie's article. 

& Daubr6e — G^ologie expe>imentale, pp. 250 et seq. (1867); and Sorby's article cited 
in last note. Cf . also on the limit of attrition of beach sands, Shaler — Bull. Geol. soc. 
Amer. 5:208(1894). 

cSee, for instance, Bauer's observations on the Meissner loess (Zs. Naturw. 62: 
330-331 [1889]); and Fruh's table of the shape of loess grains (Vierteljahrsch. naturf. 
Ges. Zurich 44: 174-175 [1899]). 

d Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. 19, II: 306 et seq. (1899). Kemna has made the 
same calculations (Bull. Soc. beige geol. 15: Proc. verb. 122-128 [1901]). Some 
actual measurements by Ramann give values of 42.2 to 44.1 as the per cent of pore space 
in dune sands (Zs. Foret- Jadgw. 30:370-371 [1898]). 

e Flugsand, p. 60, 62 (1873). 

/ Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 5: 211 (1894). 

9 See the experiments of l/oughridge (Rept. Cal. agr. expt. stat. 1892-4: 80-100 
[1894};, also Bull. JO, Bur. of Soils, U. S. Dept. of Agr.; and E. J. Kohler— Physika- 
liache Eigenschaften des Sandes, 1906, where further literature is cited. 



THE PROPEBTIES OF BLOWN SANDS. 71 

lower than in normal soils, and this explains the xerophytic character 
of all dune floras, even in regions of ample rainfall.* The overdrain- 
age of sandy lands is, however, partially compensated by the slight- 
ness of the evaporational losses to which they are subject. It has 
been shown by Buckingham 6 in this laboratory that evaporation 
from all soils takes place almost entirely from the surface, and that the 
water in the lower layers can be lost by evaporation only by being 
first raised to the surface by capillary action.* This "capillary 
rise" can take place only when the moisture-films surrounding the 
soil grains are continuous from the upper to the lower layers of the soil. 
The process of mulching, by destroying this continuity, prevents or 
retards the rise and loss of the soil moisture. In sands the capillary 
films are less numerous, less closely interwoven, and more easily 
broken, so that when evaporation is at all rapid the surface layer is 
dried out faster than new moisture can be supplied by capillary rise, 
and in consequence the connection with the lower moist layers is 
broken and the rise and loss of water is prevented. Thus, although 
evaporation from the surface may be very rapid on account of the 
loose and open texture, the total evaporation from sands is usually 
less than from more normal soils. The low capillary capacity of 
sands causes on them the same results which are produced on the 
soils of arid regions by the intensity of evaporation. The dry surface 
layer acts as a natural mulch and protects the layers below. d Over- 
drainage and not evaporation, therefore, is responsible for the char- 
acter of xerophytic dune flora, though the dryness of the surface layer 
does prevent the growth of shallow-rooted plants, and also the 
germination of most seeds which find lodgment thereon. The plants 

« Massart— Bull. Soc. roy. bot. Belg. 32: 7-43 (1893); Cowles— Bot. gaz. 27: 95-117, 
especially p. 109 (1899); Adamovic— Bot. Jahrb. 33: 563-670(1904); Olsson-Seffer— 
Bot. gaz. 47 : 85-126 (1909), New phytologist 8 : 37-49 (1909). On dune flora in general 
Bee Wesseley—Flugsand, pp. 93-125, 329-332, 339-343 (1873); Warming— Vidensk. 
medd. Naturh. for en. Copenhagen 43: 153-202 (1891); Erikson— Bihang K. Sveneka 
vet.-akad. handl. 22, III, no. 3 (1896); Vuyck— De plantengroei der duinen, 1898; 
Massart — Rec. Inst. bot. Leo Errera 7: 167-584 (1907); and the words cited in the 
bibliography under Alpers, Andresen-Rabenholz, C. Bailey, Baruch, Benzon, von 
Borbas, B0rgesen and Paulsen, Brackebusch, Brit ton, Bruyne, Buchenau, Buffault, 
Cockayne, Coulter, Cowles, Davy, Ebner, Focke, Graebner, Hansen, Hanusz, Hapke, 
Harshberger, C. A. Hart and Gleason, E. J. Hill, Humphrey, Ispolatov, Jannicke, 
Kalmuss, Kearney, Kerner, Klinge, Klinggraeff, Knuth, Koch, Liebe, McDonald, 
Mankowski, Massart, Mertens, G. F. W. Meyer, Mttller, Nilsson, Ndldeke, Pancifc, 
Pound* and Clements (pp. 246-262), Ratzeburg, Razeburg, Reclus, Riefkohl, Royer, 
Saj6, Schaefer, Senden et al., Sprenger, Suomalainen, Swellengrabel, Tansley, Thes- 
leff, Viborg, and Wery. Bibliographies are given by Cowles — Bot. gaz. 27: 388-391 
(1899); and Massart— Rec. Inst. bot. Leo Errera 7: 519-537 (1907). 

6 Bull. 38, Bur. of Soils, U. S. Dept. Agr., pp. 9-18 (1907). 

* This is, of course, in a soil without plant cover. Transpiration is excluded. 

d See Bull. 38, Bur. of Soils, U. S. Dept. Agr., pp. 18-24 (1907). 



72 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATEBTAL BY THE WIND, 

which are best adapted to dune life* are fairly deep-rooted, and 
often propagate themselves by means of roots extending beneath the 
surface. 6 

The constant presence of moisture a few inches below the surface of 
all dunes, desert or humid, has been frequently observed. Where 
the water table is close to the surface this internal moisture may be 
due to capillary rise, but the height to which water will rise in uniform 
sand is not great, and in the majority of cases the dune moisture 
must be rain or dew which has been absorbed at the surface and 
retained.* This is especially the case in the desert and it is this 
property of sand which makes possible the little agriculture which the 
desert will support. The occasional rainfall sinks at once into the 
sand, and, protected from evaporation, flows easily and quickly to the 
lower layers, becoming available to plants growing in the oases 
situated in depressions of the surface. The frequent existence of 
running, or rather moving, water within easy reach of the surface in 

« See the papero cited on p. 71, especially those of Gowles. 

ft As, e. g., the well-known sand-binder, the beach grwBB(AmmophUa armaria). A 
photograph showing the means of propagation of this plant is given by Westgate — Bull. 
65, Bur. of Plant Ind., U. 8. Dept. Agr., Plate II (1904). 

c Forchhammer — Neues Jahrb. Min. 1841 * 5; Andresen — Om Klitformationen, pp. 
106-110 (1861); Lenz— Timbouctou, vol. 2, pp. 54, 61 (1886); Laurent— Memoire but 
le Sahara, pp. 11-13 (1859); J. G. Brown — Pine plantations on the sand wastes of 
France, pp. 86-87 (1878); Wilkinson— Pe term. Mitth. 38: 72 (1892); Gerhardt— 
Handbuch des Dunenbaues, p. 103 (1900); Cornish— Geog. jour. 15 x 12 (1900); Harsh- 
berger— Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1900 x 626; Richthofen— Fuhrer fur For- 
schungsreisende, p. 117(1901); Benbow— Agr. gaz. N.S.Wales 12 x 1252(1901); Fippin 
and Rice — Field operations, Bur. of Soils 1901 : 99; Braine — Proc. Inst. civ. eng. 
150: 389 (1902); Macbride— Science (n. s.) 21 x 93 (1905); H. P. Baker— Proc. Iowa 
acad. sci. 13 x 209 (1906); MacDougal— Botanical features of North American deserts, 
p. 90 (1908), etc. The presence of moisture in dune sands is well illustrated at many 
points in the Colorado Desert (and probably elsewhere) by the greenness of the bushes 
(mainly Covillea tridentata) growing thereon, while bushes growing on less sandy soils 
are yellow and faded. 

<*See Andresen's experiments (Om Elitformationen, pp. 106-110 [1861]); and cf. 
Holland— Compt. rend. Soc. geog. Paris 1890: 158-165; Rohlfs— Zs. Ges. Erdk. 
Berlin 28: 296-305 (1893); and Braine— Proc. Inst. civ. eng. 150: 389 (1902). In 
the heart of the Takla-makan desert Hedin dug a. well. The sand was moist 3 feet 
below the surface and continued so to a depth of 10} feet, when it became perfectly 
dry (Through Asia, vol. 1, p. 533 [1899]; Peterm. Mitth. Erganzungeh. 131: 244 
[1900]). 

It is of course possible, as suggested by Oleson-Seffer (New phytologist 8x 39-44 
[1909]), that some dune moisture may be due to internal dew formation, the water 
coming from lower layers moistened by the ground waten. Buckingham's experi- 
ments above cited indicate, however, that the amount of water thus transferred can 
not be great. 

<See Kearney— Bur. plant ind., U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 86, (1905); Laurent— 
Mlmoire sur le Sahara, p. 14 (1859). On the absorption and storage of water by the 
dune sands of the Arkansas Valley, see Darton— U. S. Geol. surv. Prof. pap. 52: 84 
(1906), and Slichter— ibid. Water sup. pap. 153: 54 (1906). 



THE PROPERTIES OF BLOWN SANDS. 73 

depressions and along dry water courses is a commonplace of desert 
geology. The native wells of the arid southwest, the water holes of 
the Kalihari, the "soakages" of central Australia are all evidences 
that in these deserts at least the aridity is of the surface only. Even in 
the deserts of the most complete aridity, as, for instance, the Takla- 
makan, ground water can be gotten by digging in wide areas con- 
tiguous to the borders and to internal depressions or stream valleys. 
Of course, this underground water may sometimes be derived from 
lower water-bearing strata whose supply originates outside the 
desert basin. Such are probably the artesian strata of the Sahara, 
Central Australia, parts of Arizona, etc. ; and Lyons ° believes that all 
the oases of the Libyan Desert are situated on the summits of anti- 
clines and fed by waters rising from below. In most cases, however, 
external supply is impossible and the desert ground water must be 
from rainfall in the desert basin and on its watershed, which rainfall 
is absorbed and conserved in the deep sandy soils. Travelers in the 
desert speak often of the "intense evaporation" which leaves the soil 
dry a few minutes after a heavy shower. Of course, evaporation is 
intense, but the disappearance of the rain water from the surface soil 
is due as much to absorption as to evaporation. 

Though dune areas are usually barren, the sands are not infertile in 
the sense that they lack the mineral elements of plant food. 6 Exceptfor 
an occasional occurrence of nearly pure quartz, drifting sand contains 
the ordinary soil minerals in sufficient quantities to sustain the growth of 
plants, and wherever dunes or other sandy tracts have been reclaimed 
they have proven perfectly capable of supporting an agriculturally 
valuable vegetation. The great potential fertility of desert soils is 
well known and all travelers and residents therein have noticed the 
rapidity with which the desert will spring to life after a rain. e The 
barrenness of dune areas is due to lack of water and to instability of 
surface rather than to any deficiency of mineral plant nutrients; but 
like all loose, porous soils, dune sands lack humus on account of the 
activity of the processes of oxidation. The vegetable matter is 
"burnt out," and both for this reason and on account of the physical 
disadvantages of sandy structure, dune sand seldom forms soil of 

a Quart, jour. Geol. boc. 50: 531 (1894). On the theory of Courbis that the great 
dunee of the Sahara owe their position and fixity to the escape of water underneath 
their site, see Courbie— Compt. rend. Soc. ge\>g. Paris 1890: 114-119, 256-261; Hol- 
land— ibid., pp. 158-165; Gamier— ibid., pp. 305-306; Bernard— ibid., pp. 320-323; 
and Blanc — Ibid . , pp . 363-372 . Of. the observations of Horusi tzky on the underground 
source of the moisture of the dunes of northwestern Hungary (Foldtani K6zl6ny 84: 
87S-375 [1904]). 

& Wesseley— Flugsand, pp. 42-47, especially p. 47 (1873). 

c See, e. g., Wellsted- Travels in Arabia, vol. 1, p. 182 (1838); PrzhevalskH— Reisen 
in der Mongolie (German ed.), p. 491 (1881); Schirmer— Le Sahara, pp. 22-23 (1893); 
W. J. H. King— Masked Tawareks, p. 226 (1903); etc. 



74 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

unusually high value. Suitable plants will, however, grow very well 
on it, and many dune areas now waste could be agriculturally utilized 
if properly handled. 

THE CONTROL OF DRIFTING SANDS. 

The first step in the control and utilization of dune areas is the stop- 
ping of sand movement and the establishment of a stable and perma- 
nent surface. Such fixation is sometimes profitable because of the 
value of the lands thus made available for agriculture, but more often 
the work of control is rendered advisable on account of the encroach- 
ment of the moving sands on more valuable land or on works of man. 
In many parts of the world coastal dunes have caused great damage to 
agricultural lands and in some cases to harbors, seashore villages, 
etc.° Interior moving dunes are no less troublesome and have fre- 
quently to be fought by the railways which pass through them as well 
as by the owners of adjacent lands and buildings. In the United 
States drifting sands have proven a menace on Cape Cod and Cape 
Hatteras, at the southern end of Lake Michigan, along the Columbia 
River in Oregon and Washington, at San Francisco, and in many 
small areas elsewhere. 6 The interior areas of drifting sand in North 
America are fortunately not extensive. 

According to the methods usually employed, the fixation of a dune 
area begins with the planting of some grass or similar plant which 

<* See filie de Beaumont — Lemons de geologie pratique, vol. 1, pp. 199-213 (1847); 
Andresen— Om Klitformationen, pp. 223-23G (18(31); Reclus— Bull. Soc. g£og. France 
(5) 9: 210-212 (1865); Wesseley— Flugsand, pp. 221-222 et al. (1873); Topley— Pop. 
eci. rev. 14: 138 (1875); Czerny— Peterm. Mitth. Erganzungsh. 48: 28 (1876); 
Marsh — The earth as modified by human action, pp. 565-567 (1885); Merrill — Eng. 
mag. 2: 602 (1892); Gifford— Ibid., 14: 605 (1898); Le Mang— Deut. geog. Blatt. 22: 
240-245 (1899); Gerhardt— Ilandbuch deut. Dunenbaues, 150-170 (1900); Davy— 
U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. plant ind. Bull. 12: 56-57 (1902); Millar— Chambers's jour. (6) 
8:236-237 (1905); Cobb— Nat. geog. mag. 17: 313-314 (1906); J. H. Pratt— Jour. 
Elisha Mitchell sci. soc. 24: 125-138 (1908); Gray— Buried City of Kenfig, pp. 13-35, 
(1909); and the works cited on pp. 54-56 above and note c below. 

& See the works cited on pp. 54-56 above. 

c Any extended discussion or review of the literature of dune control is outside the 
scope of this bulletin. The general methods employed (with special reference to 
European conditions) are fully described by Gerhardt — Handbuch des deutschen 
Dunenbaues (1900). See also Wesseley — Der europaiBchen Flugsand und seine Kultur, 
(1873); Fisher— Forest protection, pp. 524-538 (1895); and A. S. Hitchcock— Bull. 57, 
Bur. plant ind. U. S. Dept. of Agr. (1904). The procedure employed in Cape Colony, 
South Africa, is described by Braine (Proc. Inst. civ. eng. 150: 376-397 [1902]); 
that in use in Australia, by Benbow (Agr. gaz. N. S. Wales 12 : 1249-1254 [1901]), and 
Maiden (Jour. Proc. Roy. soc. N. S. Wales 37: 82-106 [1903]); and that of the 
Chilean coast by Albert (Actas Soc. cient. Chile 10 : 135-317 [1900], 11 : 129-151 [1901]). 

The important North American literature, so far as known to the author, is Scrib- 
ner— Yearbook U. S. Dept. Agr. 1894: 421-436, 1898: 405-420; Gifford— Eng. 
mag. 14: 603-614(1898); Saundere— Kept. Canada expt. farms 1901 : 62-77, 1902: 
55-58; Davy— U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. plant ind. Bull. 12: 56-62 (1902); West-ate— 
U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. plant ind. Bull. 65(1904); J. Fletcher— Canad. forestry jour, li 



THE CONTROL OF DRIFTING BANDS. 75 

will bind the surface and protect it from attack by the wind. The 
particular plant which is most useful in any individual case depends 
upon the general ecological environment as well as upon the efficiency 
of the plant as a sand binder, and many different plants have been 
successfully used in different parts of the world. Of these the mar- 
ram or beach-grass (Ammophila arenaria) 6 hoA been found particularly 
useful in temperate climates, and especially so upon coastal dunes. 6 

182-184 (1905); H. P. Baker— Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 13: 209-214 (1906); Bond in J. H. 
Pratt— Jour. Elisha Mitchell sci. boc. 24 : 125-138 (1908); Zavitz— Kept, on reforest, of 
waste lands S. Ont. (1909); and the reports of the Massachusetts commissioners and of 
the United States engineers, cited on p. 54-55 above. 

Other literature on dune control is given in the bibliography under A. R., About, 
Agieev, Alker, Bagneris, F. Bailey, Bale, Bang, Batky, Baude, Bayberger, 
Bechtel, Begg von Albansberg, BernatskH, Bert, Blelov, Bidrn, Blijdenstein, 
Boitel, von Borbas, Bortier, J. G. Brown, Buffault, Burgsdorf, BykovskH, Cham- 
brelent, Chumakov, W. R. Clarke, Clav6, Cockayne, Cotton, Crawford, Curzon 
(pp. 55-58), Davydov, Dehillotte-Ramordin, Delamarre, Deminskft, Elisfeev, Engler, 
Fabre, Faye, Feilberg, Gee, Gerhardt, Girardin, Gleditsch, Grempe, Hartig, Hedin 
(Khorasan och Turkestan, vol. 1, p. 239), H easel man, Hey wood, Hofschneider, Hubeny, 
Hubert, IvanovBkfl, Izvfestifa M-stva zemled. gosud. imushchestv., Jentzsch, Kargl, 
Karsten, Keffer, Kerner, Kirk, Klinsmann, Knupffer, Kolesov, Konoval, Kostfaev, 
Kozakovskil, Krasilshchikov, Kummer, Lakin, Laveleye, Lefort, Le Mang, Lidbeck, 
Lindner, Lomonosof , Lozovskid, Luiggi, M., M. P., McNaughton, Makarov, Malakhov, 
Mankowski, Marker, Marshall, Mattusch, Meguscher, Molnar, Montin, Muller, Nege- 
lein, Nikitin, Nilsson, Paletskil, von Panne witz, Pfeil, Poisson, Ploe'tz, Pravitelstven. 
Vfestnik, Privat-Deschanel, Raspopinskn, Rauner, Reclus, Reinke, Riston, Saj6, 
Salomon, Samanos, Schelten, Schreber, Schumacher, Sharin, Siemssen, Sobolev, 
Spasskft, Sprenger, Stewart, Titius, Tolle, Tourgee, Travers, Tslolkovskfl, U. S. -Forest 
service, Vasselot de Regne", Viborg, Vfernleev, Volkov, Weidenkeller, Whitcombe, 
Willey, and Witsch. Wesseley (Flugsand, pp. 256-264) gives a list of Hungarian and 
German articles. Most of the early Hungarian literature there cited is not included 
here. Much of the extensive Russian literature is also omitted but will be found, for 
the most part, in the columns of the Lfesnol zhurnal. 

a The general principles underlying the action of vegetation as a protection against 
wind erosion have been discussed on pp. 28-29. 

& Also known as Ammophila arundinacea, Psamma arenaria, and Amnio arenaria. 

« On its use see A. S. Hitchcock — Bull. 57, Bur. plant ind. U. S. Dept. Agr. (1904); 
Westgate — Bull. 65 of the same bureau, 1904; etc. On its use in the interior of Aus- 
tralia see Maiden — Agr. gaz. N. S. Wales 6: 7-12(1895). On sand-binding plants in 
general see Viborg — Beschreibung der Sandgewachse, etc., 1789; Cleghorn — Hooker's 
jour. bot. 8: 52-54 (1856); Borggreve — Verh. naturh. Ver. preuss. Rheinl. Westf. 
32, Cor.-bl.: 69-72 (1875); Barrande— Bull. Soc. geog. Paris (6) 17: 376 (1879); Craw- 
ford—Trans. Proc. Bot. soc. Edinb. 14: 351-355 (1883); von Borbas— Bot. Centbl. 
19: 92-94 (1884); Buchenau— Abh. naturw. Ver. Bremen 10: 397-412 (1889); 
Clarke, in Watts— Diet. econ. prods. India 6: 455-457 (1893); Scribner— Year- 
book U. S. Dept. Agr. 1894: 421-436, 1898: 405-420, Bull. Div. of Agrostology, 
14: 78 (1898); Gerhardt— Zs. Bauwesen47: 453-466 (1897); Davy— U. S. Dept. Agr. 
Bur. plant ind. Bull. 12: 57-62 (1902); Saj6— Prometheus 13: 769-773 (1902); 
Roberts— Kansas Agr. expt. stat. Bull. 121: 139-141 (1904); Bessey— Vegetations- 
bilder 3, Heft 2: text for Tafeln 7 and 8 (1905); Kirk— Rept. N. Z. Dept. 
Agr. 15 : 180-185 (1907); Massart— Rec. Inst. bot. Leo En-era 7: 268-272 (1907); Gill- 
Jour. Dept. Agr. South Aust. 11: 1030(1908); and the general works on dune control 
above cited and on dune flora cited on p. 71. 



76 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

After the preliminary fixation has been accomplished dune lands 
are in the vast majority of cases best put into forest, not alone 
because trees are excellent protectors against wind action, but because 
they can be made to yield a considerable financial return without 
any danger of again starting the sand drift. Thus the pine planta- 
tions on the great "landes" of Oascony not only fix the dunes and 
protect the country from their encroachment, but furnish as well a 
considerable revenue in the form of turpentine, rosin, and wood.* 
In general, however, trees can not be made to grow on naked dunes, 
and hence the necessity for a preliminary fixation with grasses or 
other hardy plants. 

The fixation of a dune not only prevents damage to plants by the 
actual moving of the surface, but it betters the quality of the soil 
itself by causing the retention of the finer products of weathering 
and decay which are winnowed out of moving sands and blown clear 
away A stationary dune always contains much dust, 6 which greatly 
betters the soil both physically and chemically and enables it to 
support a more varied and valuable flora. 

The fixation of dunes, and especially of coastal dunes, often takes 
place by natural processes. The force of the on-shore breezes 
decreases rapidly with distance from the beach, e and the rate of 
inland movement of the dunes soon decreases sufficiently so that the 
hardier of the plants can take possession and begin the work of fixation. 
With increasing permanence of surface and progressive decay of the 
sand, plants of less hardihood can and do take hold until finally 
natural forests arise and the fixation becomes complete.' On most 

« The reclamation of these great sand wastes was begun by Bremontier in 1787, and 
forms probably the most extensive and best known example of dune utilization. For 
' further details see Bremontier— Jour, l'ficole polyt. Paris 2 : 61-70 (1797) and Ann. 
ponts chauss. 5: 145-191 (1833); Gillet-Laumont,Tessier and Chassiron — Rapporteur 
les M6moires de M. Bremontier (1806); also reprinted in the Ann. ponts chauss. (loc. 
cit. pp. 192-224); J. C. Brown — Pine-plantations on the sand wastes of France (1878); 
Poore — Essays on rural hygiene, pp. 353-369 (1894); Grand jean— Bull. Soc. geqg. 
comm. Bordeaux (2) 19: 238-246 (1896); Le Mang— Deut. geog. Blatt. 22: 235-255 
(1899); Bert — Les Dunes de Gascogne (1900); Duregne — Actes Soc. linn. Bordeaux. 
57: 1-10 (1902); Engler— Naturw. Wochens. 17: 277-282, 292-295 (1902), etc. 

6 Shaler— Bull. Geol. boc. Amer. 5: 211-212 (1894). Cf. Atterberg— Chemztg. 
29: 1074 (1905). This conclusion is confirmed by a number of mechanical analyses 
of sand from fixed and moving dunes made in the Bureau of Soils on samples collected 
by the writer. 

c On account of the higher resistance of land surface to the air currents; see Thos. 
Stevenson— Jour. Scott, meteor, soc. 5: 103-108, 348-351 (1880); Nature 25: 607 
(1882), 27: 432-433 (1883); Sokolov— Die Dttnen, pp. 9-12 (1894). 

& On natural fixation see Travers — Trans. New Zealand inst. 14 : 91 (1882); Bracke- 
busch— Peterm. Mitt. 89: 157 (1893); Cowles— Bot. gaz. 27: 300 et seq. (1899); 
Adamovic— Bot. Jahrb. 33: 560-561 (1904); Massart— Aspect* de la vegetation en 
Belgique, vol. 1, plates 10-13 (1908); Stevens — U. S. geol. surv. Water-supp. pap. 
280: 220 (1909); Humphrey— Plant world 12: 81-82 (1909); etc. 



DUST STORMS AND DUST PALLS. 77 

coasts this natural fixation would become operative within a com- 
paratively short distance from the shore were nature's processes 
allowed to remain undisturbed. In fact, before human interference 
began all coasts where sand is driven landward were probably pro- 
tected by a belt of these naturally fixed and forested dunes. The 
present trouble with coastal dunes is due almost entirely to the unre- 
stricted exploitation of the timber, which left the sands exposed 
and ready to recommence their drifting. Nor does the trouble stop 
here, for improvident grazing and cutting of new growth prevents 
the natural fixation which would otherwise take place. It is essen- 
tial for the safety of much coastal land that the shore-line growth 
be carefully and firmly protected against exploitation. Protection 
is cheaper than reclamation. 

DUST STORMS AND DUST FALLS. 

All strong winds pick up much dust from the soil surface, and if 
loose material be plentiful the wind storm will become a dust storm 
and the air so thickly filled with dust that it will be difficult to 
see or to breathe. Such storms are the sudden paroxysms of atmos- 
pheric transport, quite analogous to the floods of streams and rivers. 
They are striking, unusual, and abnormally intense manifestations of 
that eolian translocation which is constantly going on more quietly 
and more slowly and probably in much greater total amount. 

Dust storms are of occasional occurrence everywhere, but they find 
their especial province on the great steppes or high semiarid plains 
of the continental interiors, where the soil is comparatively thinly 
covered by vegetation and the winds find nothing' to break their 
force. On the great plains of this character in eastern Europe and 
the contiguous portions of Asia dust storms are of almost daily 
occurrence during the drier seasons of the year. In the deserts also 
all strong winds are dust laden and a tremendous quantity of mate- 
rial is moved, both as fine dust and as drifting sand. The quantity 
of the latter is often so great that small objects are rapidly buried 

a For instance, the drifting sands of Gape Hatteras were probably started by timber 
cutting just after the civil war (Cobb— Nat. geog. mag. 17: 313, note [1906]). The 
cutting of the forests on the North German coast because Frederick I needed money 
has since cost the German Government (in reclamation work) many times the amount 
obtained for the timber (Mailer— Das Buch der Pflanzenwelt, vol. 1, p. 16 [1857]). 
For other notices of the starting of sand drift by improvident exploitation, see Reel us — 
Bull. soc. geog. France (5) 9: 216-218 (1865); Travers— Trans. New Zealand inst. 
14: 90-93 (1882); March— The earth as modified by human action, ed. of 1885, p. 556; 
Hey wood— Report on drift sands, 1893; Thesleff— Medd. Geog. fftren. Finland 
2: 36-77 (1894); Lorenzen— Die Natur 48: 424-426 (1899); Fabre— Compt. rend. 
Cong. geol. intern. 8: 790-791 (1900); Bertololy — Krauselungemarken und Dunen, 
p. 163 (1900); Adamovic— Bot. Jahrb. 33: 561 (1904); Pratt— Jour. Elisha MitcheU 
•ci.aoc.24: 125-138(1908); and the various works on dune control cited on pp. 74^75. 



78 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

and tracks of men or animals obliterated in a few moments. 9 The 
tales 6 of the burial of caravans and armies by sand storms are 
doubtless fabulous, 6 but these storms are really very. severe and it is 
difficult, though perhaps not actually dangerous, to face them. 4 

But the desert storms carry much fine dust in addition to the drift- 
ing sand, and this dust is of even greater importance geologically 
and to the soil, for fine materials are not confined to the desert as is 
the sand, but can be, and are, carried across its borders into the 
more humid areas beyond. This subject has already been briefly 
discussed and it has been pointed out that the removal of weathered 
material from desert areas is entirely effected in this way, both by 
the action of storms and by the cor^stant carrying of small quantities 
of dust by ordinary winds. 

There are thus two general types of dust storms. The one blows 
dust from place to place over the steppes or other regions of poorly 
protected soil, attacking the surface as it goes; the other collects 
dust from the desert and carries it outward over and into regions 
which it can not attack and where no new load can be obtained. 
The distinction between these two types is convenient rather than 
necessary; they are marked by no essential differences in nature; 
they are separated by no sharp line. It is, of course, apparent that a 
dust storm may originate in a steppe area, collect dust there and 
carry it outward as does a storm of the desert class; while, on the 
other hand, so long as a dust storm is within the confines of the 
desert, it parallels exactly the behavior of a storm of the steppes. 
The utility of the distinction lies in the fact that the storms of the 
steppes carry dust into other areas far less often than do those of the 
desert. Furthermore, the behavior of the desert storms within the 
desert is of little interest. Only their external effects are of importance. 

It has already been pointed out on page 48 that in storms of the 
steppe character, and in fact in all storms blowing over an attackable 
surface, the materials of the load do not remain the same from place 
to place, but that there is a constant interchange between the air and 

o For an instance see Wellflted — Travels in Arabia, vol. 1, p. 88 (1838). 

& £. g., the army of Cambyses (Herodotus, book III, chap. 26). See also the legends 
of the burial of cities in the Takla-makan desert, quoted from early travelers by 
Stein— Sand buried ruins of Khotan, pp. 430, 439 (1903). 

c See Palgrave — Narrative of journey through Arabia, vol. 1, p. 17 (1865); Holland — 
Rev. sci. (3) 1 : 612 (1881). 

<* For first-hand descriptions of desert sand storms see Tristram — The great Sahara, 
p. 331 (1&50); Duveyrier— Les Touareg du Nord, p. 40 (1864); Benjamin— Bull. 
Amer. geog. soc. 18: 33 (1886); Borton — Trans. New York acad. sci. 9: 115-116 
(1890); Schaubert-Globus 71: 93 (1897); Hedin— Through Asia, vol. 1, p. 516, 
542 (1899); W. J. H. King— Masked Tawareks, p. 133-134 (1903); Stein— Sand buried 
ruins of Khotan, pp. 428-429 (1903); J. W. Gregory— Dead heart of Australia, p. 98 
(1906); etc. Albert describes a similar storm in the dune area on the Chilean coast 
(Actas Soc. cien. Chile 10 : 171 [1900]). 



DUST STOBMS AND DUST FALLS. 79 

the soil. The result of this interchange is that in passing over such 
country dust storms may neither raise nor lower the mean level of 
the surface, for the material removed is in general replaced by other 
material deposited. It does not follow that dust storms have no. im- 
portant action, for it is precisely this interchanging translocation which 
most highly promotes the mixing of soils — perhaps the most important 
(agriculturally at least) of the varied geologic activities of the wind. 
In the western part of the United States dust storms of both types 
are of frequent occurrence. The desert storms arise in the arid 
basins of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and southern California, and 
carry dust sometimes westward toward the Pacific slope and some- 
times eastward into the plains region of Oklahoma and Texas. The 
storms of the steppe type occur on the Great Plains extending from 
northern Texas and northeastern New Mexico northward through 
Oklahoma, eastern Colorado, western Kansas, Minnesota, and the 
Dakotas well toward the Arctic Circle. Udden a has collected 
accounts of thirty-nine storms during 1894 and 1895, one or more of 
which occurred in each of fourteen States. He estimates that on the 
average for the country between the Rocky Mountains and the 
Mississippi River the minimum yearly number of such occurrences 
is two and the maximum four, while for the Great Basin and the 
Western Slope the figures are five and twenty, respectively. Many 
instances occurring before and after the period examined by Udden 
are recorded in the columns of the Monthly Weather Review. 6 The 
conditions in Australia are quite similar to those in the Western 
United States, and dust storms are of frequent occurrence. 6 China 

« Pop. flci. mon. 49: 655-664 (1896). 

6E. g., 23: 13, 15-19, 52, 130, 381 (1895); 2»: 465 (1901); 80: 29 (1902); 33: 
350 (1905); 85: 583 (1907); 36: 103 (1908). See also Amer. geol. 3: 397-399 (1889); 
Tarr— Amer. nat. 24: 455-459 (1890); Somers— Science 21 : 303(1893); Hershey— 
Amer. geol. 23: 380-382 (1899); Russell— U. S. Geol. suit. Bull. 19»: 18, 21 (1902); 
Reagan— Science (n. a.) 28: 653 (1908); and Mendenhall— U. S. Geol. sur v. Water 
sup. pap. 225: 27 (1909). Dust storms, mostly of local origin, in the Central and 
Eastern States are described in the Monthly weather review 17: 89 (1889); 23: 130 
(1895); 30: 269 (1902); 31: 536 (1903); 87: 156 (1909); and by Cutting— Archives 
of sci. 1: 81-85 (1870); Somers— loc. cit.; J. W. Moore— Science (n. s.) 15: 714 
(1902); McLouth— Rept. Mich. acad. sci. 4: 168-173 (1902); Verrill— Science (n. s.) 
15: 872 (1902); Baskerville and Weller— ibid. p. 1034; Lindsey— ibid. 19: 893 
(1904). Keyes has published observations on the dust storms of the Missouri Valley 
(Amer. jour. sci. (4) 6: 299-304 [1898]). 

c Sturt— Central Australia, vol. 2, p. 97 (1849); Tenison-Woode— Jour, Proc. Roy. 
soc. N. S. Wales 16: 7&-79 (1882); Smyth— Nature 30: 170 (1884); H. C. Rus- 
sell— Quart, jour. Roy. met. soc. 13: 311-312 (1887); Brittlebank, Stickland, and 
Shephard— Vict. nat. 13: 125 (1897); Steel— Rept. Austr. assoc. adv. sci. 7: 334-335 
(1898); Phipson— Chem. news 83: 159-160, 253 (1901); Liversidge-^Jour. Proc. Roy. 
«oc.N.S.Wales36: 255-272(1902); Mullen— ibid. 37: 144(1903); Chapman and Gray- 
son— Vict, nat. 20: 17-32 (1903); Dixon— Nature 67: 203 (1903); Dove— ibid.; P. 
Marshall— ibid. 68: 223(1903); Noble— Mon. weath. rev. 82; 364-365(1904); Krebe— 
Beitr. Geophys. 8: 34 (1906), 



80 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

is subject to storms of the desert type, arising in the central Asian 
deserts, and similar phenomena are encountered in other parts of 
the earth. b Even in the Arctic regions dust storms are not un- 
known. 6 The well-known falls of sirocco dust in southern Europe 
will be later discussed in detail. 

Showers of fine dust sometimes occur unaccompanied by any strong 
wind. Such an occurrence must be regarded simply as the final 
stage of a dust storm which has lost its velocity and is depositing its 
load. Indeed, if the dust has been traveling in the higher strata of 
the atmosphere it may fall into and be deposited by winds very 
different in direction from that by which its transport has been 
effected. Similarly the dust may be carried down by rain or snow, 
causing the muddy rains, black snows, etc., frequently mentioned 
in the daily press. 

MATERIAL MOVED BT DUST STORMS. 

The amount of material carried by dust storms is naturally diffi- 
cult to determine, but is certainly quite considerable. From various 

« W. H. Johnson—Jour. Roy. geog. boc. 37: 1-47 (1867); Przhevalskfl— Mongolia 
2: 219 (1876); Pumpelly— Amer. jour. Bci. (3) 17: 139 (1879); Guppy— Nature 24: 
126 (1881); Harrington— Amer. meteor, jour. 3: 79-82 (1886); Lehzen— Globus 56: 
361 (1889); Minssen— Annalen Hydrog. 80: 552 (1902); Takagi— Kiaho Sh. 25: 219- 
232 (1906). 

b in Egypt: Barron and Hume — Topography Eastern desert of Egypt, pp. 93-97, 
287 (1902). In Arabia: Wellsted— Travels in Arabia, vol. 2, p. 150 (1838); von 
Benko— Reise Schiffes "Frundsberg," p. 61 (1888); Walther— Einleitung in der 
Geologie als historische Wissenschaft, p. 578 (1894); Oesselmann — Annalen Hydrog. 
30: 552(1902); Annales Hydrog. (2) 24: 159 (1902); Prager— Annalen Hydrog. 81: 
22-23 (1903). In India and Central Asia: Baddeley — Whirlwinds and dust storms in 
India (I860) and articles cited in the bibliography; Durand — Compt. rend. Assoc. 
Franc, avan. sci. 7: 474-477 (1878); Cook— Quart, jour. Roy. meteor, soc. 9: 137-147 
(1883); Obruchev— Geog. Zs. 1 : 261 (1895); Hedin— Through Asia, vol. 1, p. 446, 458- 
463, 468, 498 (1899), Scientific results, vol. 1, p. 247-248, 289-293 (1904); Abbe— Mon. 
weath. rev. 29: 175 (1901); Morozsevich— Bull. Comm. geol. St. Petersburg 22: 48-49 
(1903); Huntington— Pulse of Asia, p. 97, 157, 299 (1907). In Persia: Tietze— Jahrb. 
geol Reichsanst. 27 : 347-348 (1877); Benjamin— Bull. Amer. geog. soc. 18 : 33 (1886); 
Schaubert— Globus 71: 93-94 (1897). On the steppes of southeastern Europe and 
adjacent portions of Asia: Middendorff— Sibirisch'e Reise, vol. 4, p. 385 (1875); Neh- 
ring— Tundren und Steppen, p. 127 (1890); Klossovskfl— Ciel et terre 15: 559-566 
(1895); Heintz— Poln. entsik. russ. selsk. khoz. 8: 50-51 (1903). In South America: 
Darwin— Journal of researches, p. 133, ed. of 1901; Christison— Jour. Scott, meteor, soc. 
5: 335-347 (1880); Annalen Hydrog. 17: 350-351 (1889); Bodenbender— Peterm. 
Mitth. 89 : 237 (1893); Machon— Bull. Soc. Vaud. sci. nat. (4) 39 : xxxiii (1903). In 
Europe: Buchholz— Wetter 10 : 144(1893); Yates— Nature 55 : 508(1897); Denham— 
ibid. 65: 317 (1902); Fry— ibid. p. 317; C. Reid— ibid. p. 414; Mill— Quart, jour. 
Roy. meteor, soc. 28: 229-252(1902); Marriott— Nature 67 : 391(1903); Boeddicker— 
Symons's meteor. mag.4:3: 2-4 (1908). In Iceland: Thoroddsen— Peterm. Mitt. 31i 
285, 287, 290, 291, 293, 330, 332 (1885); Meunier— Compt. rend. 136: 1713-1714 
(1903). 

c See Davison— Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 50; 479 (1894) and authorities there cited. 



MATEBIAL MOVED BY DUST STORMS. 81 

indirect data Udden ° has made a series of estimates of the amount 
of solid material suspended in the air during a dust storm, and has 
obtained values ranging from 160 to 126,000 tons per cubic mile of 
air. The wide variation is due to the varied, indirect, and inaccurate 
character of the data upon which the estimates are based. Taking 
very conservative values derived from these estimates, and using 
rather more accurate data for the number, velocity, and duration of 
dust storms in the Western States, he concludes that on the average 
about 850,000,000 tons of dust is carried 1,440 miles each year, thus 
doing in this region alone about 1,225,000,000,000 "mile tons" of 
transport. 

The amount of material suspended in the air during a dust storm 
is not, however, so good a measure of the translocation thus effected 
as are measurements of the material actually deposited on the surface 
or removed therefrom. The deposits made by the dust storm of 
January 11-12, 1895, in Indiana, were measured at several points 
and found to vary from 1.50 grams per square meter (4 tons per 
square mile) to 3.79 grams per square meter (10.5 tons per square 
mile). 6 The thickness of the deposit was measured at Rockville, 
Ind., and found to be about 0.02 inch. At this point the quantity 
of dust was 1.5 grams per square meter, which is the minimum 
observed, and it is therefore probable that at other points the layer 
of deposited dust had a thickness as great as, if not greater than, the 
value given. It is difficult to generalize from so meager data, but 
in the light of the known frequent occurrence of dust storms over 
the States west of the Mississippi, it seems not extreme to estimate 
the mean annual deposit* over this area as not less than 0.01 inch/ 
In some places the rate of deposit is much greater/ but even at the 
figure given soil would accumulate at the rate of 1 inch per century, 
which is quite rapid in comparison with most geologic processes. 

Estimates of the deposit by two Australian storms are given by 
Chapman and Grayson ? as 17.5 grams per square meter (50 tons per 

«Pop. sci. mon. 49: 658-663 (1896). 

&Mon. weath. rev. 23: 17-18 (1895). 

c Campbell— Mon. weath. rev. 23: 18 (1895). 

d Desert areas must, of course, be excluded since it is largely there that the dust 
originates and the tendency is toward a lowering rather than a raising of the surface. 
There are, too, occasional places other than deserts where the soil is removed rather 
than deposited. It might be more correct to say "mean annual transfer " instead 
of "mean annual deposit." See in this connection p. 48 above. 

« Keyes estimates the annual deposit of the dust storms along the Missouri River 
as 0.01 inch (Amer. jour. sci. (4) 6: 302 [1898]), and Shimek estimates the rate of 
accumulation of Mississippi Valley eolian loess as 1 mm. (0.04 inch) a year (Bull. 
Lab. nat. hist. Univ. Iowa 5: 320 [1904]). 

/ For instance, the deep drifts of soil deposited by the storm of April 15, 1895, in 
western Kansas and described in the Mon. weath. rev. 23 : 130 (1895). 

Vict. nat. 20: 21-22 (1903). 

63952°— Bull. 68—11 6 



82 MOVEMENT OP SOIL MATEKIAL BY THE WIND, 

square mile) and 12.5 grams per square meter (35.5 tons per square 
mile), respectively. So much soil was blown about during the dry 
seasons of 1827 to 1830 in South America that the boundaries of 
many estates were obscured and in some cases permanently lost. 
The quantities of dust carried into Europe by dust storms originating 
in the Sahara are estimated on pages 97 et seq., below. 

Inside the deserts much larger quantities of sand and dust are 
moved about, but it is impossible to distinguish between the drifting 
sand of the dunes and the finer material carried by dust storms. As 
already mentioned, the general tendency is toward a lowering of 
the desert surface, but there are undoubtedly many cases of local 
accumulation of dust as well as of drifting sand. Rohlfs b describes a 
storm which covered his party an inch deep with sand; Zittel c 
records the deposit of 26 cm. of sand on his tent in one storm; and 
Jordan d mentions the deposit of 25 inches on a level spot under sim- 
ilar circumstances. According to Noble e drifts of sand 12 feet 
deep were produced in three months in Australia. 

It is probable that in all these cases the deposit was largely drift 
sand, but Hedin' records that the winter dust storms of the Tarim 
basin deposit so much impalpable dust on the vegetation that it 
causes the sheep that eat it to have strangles, and Huntington,? in 
the same region, found it necessary to brush his writing paper every 
ten or fifteen minutes to prevent his pen being clogged by deposited 
dust. 

DISTANCES OF TRANSFER 

The theoretical considerations controlling the distance of trans- 
port have been discussed on pages 47-49, and it is there pointed 
out that authentic instances of long transport are rare, because of 
the usual impossibility of identifying the dust and the consequent 
necessity for relying upon indirect evidence as to its source. Occa- 
sionally evidence is furnished by the simultaneous existence of the 
same storm over considerable areas, or by the possibility of tracing 
the path of the storm by observations made along its path. Udden 
in his examination of western dust storms, alrekdy cited,* records 
the areas thus covered by seven storms (all for which data were 

o Darwin— Journal of researches, p. 133, ed. of 1901. 

fcPeterm. Mitth. Erganzungsh. 25: 11 (1868). 

cjahresb. geog. Gee. Munich 4-5: 258 (1875). 

* Kftlnische Zeitung, Apr. 14, 1874, quoted by Walther (Denudation in der Wttete, 
p. 504), who cites other similar occurrences. 

«Mon. weath. rev. 32: 364 (1904). 

/Through Asia, vol. 2, p. 798 (1899). On deposit by these storms see also Scientific 
results, vol. 1 , p. 291-293 (1904). The deposits may, perhaps, aggregate 2 or 3 meters 
in a century. 

9 Pulse of Asia, p. 157 (1907). 

A Pop. sci. mon. 49: 656 (1896). 



DISTANCES OF TRANSFER. 83 

available) as 80, 120, 140, 216, 270, 300, and 400 miles in the longest 
observed direction, giving an average of 218 miles. A Chinese dust 
storm is known to have existed simultaneously from Hankow to 
Chinkiang, i. e., over 450 miles. It should be mentioned that these 
are minimum values, since they represent the distances between 
points where the storms were observed and recorded. The storms 
may have covered much wider areas. 

The dust which fell in Missouri on February 6 and 7, 1895, must 
have come from western Kansas and Nebraska, as all the intervening 
country was covered with snow and ice. 6 A similar case is reported 
from Norway. 6 On April 2, 1892, there fell on a ship 95 miles west 
by south of Nagasaki a yellow dust which must have come from the 
interior of China and have been carried by the wind to the place 
where it was observed,* 1 a distance of at least 1,000 miles. The 
Australian dust storms have several times reached New Zealand , e a 
distance of about 1,500 miles. Even better examples of long dis- 
tance translocation are the dust storms originating in the Sahara 
and traveling over southern and central Europe, as discussed on 
pages 88 et seq. Dust from these storms has been observed in 
northern Germany' and in England,? a distance of about 2,000 
miles.* 

DUST WHIRLWINDS. 

Among the most striking of arid region phenomena are the dust 
whirlwinds or columns of whirling dust-filled air, a few inches to 
several feet in diameter, and from a few feet to hundreds of feet in 
height. They may be seen nearly every hot day, sometimes running 
rapidly over the surface; sometimes remaining nearly, if not quite, 
stationary, but never losing their rapid rotation. They usually last 
only a few minutes, but occasionally persist much longer. One 
observed by Pictet lasted for over five hours.' They are largest and 
last longest on the flat, bare plains of the desert, and are usually 
seen in a calm or when only a light breeze is blowing, although their 

a Guppy— Nature 24: 126 (1881). 

*Mon. weath. rev. 23: 52 (1895). 

cSee Livereidge— Jour. Proc. Roy. soc. New South Wales 36: 250 (1902). 

d Milne — Nature 46: 128 (1892). A similar storm occurred on March 31-April 1, 
1863. See Pumpelly— Amer. jour. sci. (3) 17: 139 note (1879). 

«For instance, see Marshall — Nature 68: 223 (1903); Chapman and Grayson — 
Vict. nat. 20: 29 (1903); Noble— Mon. weath. rev. 32: 364 (1904). 

/Judd — Nature 63: 514 (1901); Hellmann and Meinardus— Monograph cited on p. 
90 below. 

fMill and Lempfertr-Quart. jour. Roy. meteor, soc. 30: 57-91 (1904). 

* The distance covered by the storm of March 9-11, 1901, is given by Walther at 
2,500 miles (4,000 kilometers). Naturw. Wochens. 18 : 604 (1903). 

< Colladon— Arch. sci. phys. nat. Geneva (3) 2 : 37-39 (1879). 



84 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND, 

occurrence in windy weather is not unknown. The rotation seems 
to be indiscriminately clockwise or contra-clockwise, as frequently 
one as the other. 

These whirls have been noticed by many travelers in desert and 
steppe regions b and have been carefully observed by Baddeley c in 
India, and by Pictet d in Egypt/ They are frequent in China / and 
on the pampas of South America,* and occasionally occur during the 

a Baddeley — Whirlwinds and dust storms in India, p. 5 (I860). It is possible 
that the whirls occurring in windy weather are simply convectional eddies, and not 
formed by the causes producing the typical calm weather whirls. See p. 88 below. 

& Burnes — Travels into Bokhara, vol. 3, p. 40 (1834); Stephenson — Bibl. univ. (n. s.) 
6: 155-156 (1836); On*ed— Schumacher Jahrb. 1838: 228-254; Goebel, Claus, and 
Bergmann — Reise in die Steppen sudlichen Russlands, vol. 1, p. 202(1838); Peltier, 
in Becquerel — Traite experimental de Electricity et du magn6tisme, vol. 6, p. 
184-189(1840); Martins— Ann. m6teor. France 1: 225-244 (1849); Muncke, in Geh- 
ler's Physikalisches Wfirterbuch, vol. 10, p. 1635-1723(1842); W. Reid— Attempt to 
develop the law of storms, 3d ed. ( p. 469 (1850); Junghuhn — Java, vol. 2, p. 572, 584 
(1854); Belt^-Phil. Mag. (4) 17: 47^53 (1859); Tristram— The Great Sahara, p. 67 
(I860); Schlaefli— Zs. Meteor. 5: 469-472 (1870); Tietze— Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 
27: 347-348(1877); Durand— Compt. rend. Assoc, franc, avan. sci. 7: 475(1878); 
Hooker and Ball— Marocco and the Great Atlas, p. 122 (1878); H. H. Russell— Quart, 
jour. Roy. met.soc.6: 48(1880); Cook— ibid., 9: 141(1883); Faye— Compt. rend. 97: 
12&-127 (1883); Russell— Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 3: 197 (1881-82); Wolkowitz— 
Annalen Hydrog. 15: 437 (1887); Brewer— Bull. Amer. geog. soc. 21: 211 (1889); 
Abercromby — Quart. Jour. Roy. meteor, soc. 16: 121-125(1890); Hume — Geol. mag. 
(3) 9: 559 (1892); Carnegie— Spin if ex and sand, p. 254-272 (1898); Hedin— Through 
Asia, vol. 1, p. 485, 497 (1899); Fischer— Zs. Ges. Erdk. Berlin 35: 411 (1900), 
Peterm. Mitt. Erganzungsh. 133 : 122 (1900), Mitt. geog. Ges. Hamburg 18 : 154 (1902); 
Wright— Quart, jour. G6ol. soc. 57: 244-250 (1901); Cummins — Science gossip 
(n. s.) 8: 161-166 (1901); Fountain — Mountains and forests of South America, p. 278- 
279 (1902); Russell— U. S. Geol. surv. Bull. 199: 19 (1902); Ivchenko— Ann. geol. 
min. Russie 7, I: 48, 50, 221-222 (1904); Gregory— Dead heart of Australia, p. 26, 
120-121 (1906); Young— Survey notes (Egypt) 1: 105-108 (1906); Craig— ibid. 
357, 374 (1907); Huntington— Pulse of Asia, p. 148 (1907); Pearson— Nature 81: 500 
(1909); and authorities cited in following notes. Whirls will form not only in desert 
and steppe regions, but also over any bare surface subject to overheating by the sun 
(see the theory of origin outlined on the following pages). Thus they have been 
observed on paved streets, even in winter (Procter — Mon. weath. rev. 33: 154 
[1905]); on the burned-over moors of Germany (Miethe — Prometheus 10: 795-796 
[1899]) ; and in similar places elsewhere. 

c Phil. mag. (3) 37 : 155-158 (1850), Jour. Asiat. soc. Bengal 19 : 390-394 (I860), 21 : 
140-147, 264-269, 333-336 (1852), and Whirlwinds, etc. (1860). On the Indian whirls see 
also C. A. Gordon-^Jour. Asiat. soc. Bengal 23: 365-381 (1854); and Chatterjea— Proc. 
Asiat. soc. Bengal 1865 : 124-125. 

<* Quoted by Colladon — Arch. sci. phys. nat. Geneva (3) 2: 35-42 (1879). See 
also report in Prometheus 8: 347-348 (1896). 

* See also the studies of Reye (Die Wirbelsturme, 1872), and of Weyher (Lea 
tourbillons, 1887). 

/ Richthofen— China, vol. 2, p. 550 (1877); Krebs— Globus 88: 124 (1905). 

9 Humboldt — Aspects of nature, English ed. of 1850 (Sabine), vol. 1, pp. 36, 150. 
See also authorities cited on p. 80, note *. 



DISTANCES OF TRANSFER, 85 

dry season even in the humid regions. 9 One of the most interesting 
phenomena in connection with dust whirls is the occurrence of 
systems of several whirls, each revolving rapidly about its own center 
and also moving about a common center in a more or less perfect 
circle a few rods in diameter. Such a system was noticed by Bad- 
deley, 6 and others have been observed in North Carolina,* in Kansas,* 
and in South Africa/ Douglass/ and later the present writer have 
observed such systems in process of formation out of single large 
whirls of the usual type. 

Baddeley 9 believed that dust whirls were of electrical origin and 
that the whirling column was an entity composed of "some form of 
electricity" or of "a permanent, indestructible form of imponderable 
matter hitherto undescribed. " He was able' to obtain charges from 
conductors inserted in the dust columns and from wires projecting 
into the atmosphere while dust clouds were passing.* In one case the 
current so obtained was sufficient to cause the deposit of silver from 
silver cyanide solution.' With advancing knowledge of the nature 
of electricity this theory has become untenable, and it seems probable 
that any electrical charges are effects rather than causes.' The 
mutual friction of innumerable fine particles suspended in very dry 

« Instances in England are described by Taylor — Nature 38: 415(1888); Lovel — 
ibid. 40: 174 (1889), 48: 77 (1893); Upcott— Rept. Marlborough Coll. nat. hist, 
eoc. 1901: 90; Boys— Symons's met. mag. 39: 134 (1904); and Clough— ibid. 
40: 104-105 (1905). On the continent: vom Rath— Ann. Phys. Chem. (Pogg.) 
104: 631-640 (1858); Quincy— Bull. Soc. sci. nat. Chalon-sur-Sadne 28: 183-186 
(1902); "R. V. "—Wetter 19: 117-118 (1902); and Schiefer— ibid. 21 : 260-261 (1904). 
In Iceland : Ciel et terre 3 : 331 (1882). The dust-whirls of Mexico have been described 
by Virlet d'Aoust^Bull. Soc. geol. France (2) 15: 129 et seq. (1857), Compt. 
rend. 83: 890-892 (1876). The dust-whirls in semiarid North America are described 
by Nipher— Nature 18: 488 (1878), 20: 456(1879); I. C. Russell— U. 8. Geol. surv. 
Monogr. 11: 154 (1886); "M."— Amer. met. jour. 2: 285-286 (1885-6); Merrill— 
Eng. mag. 2 : 600-601 (1892); Walther— Verh. Ges. Erdk. Berlin 19:52-65 (1892); and 
R. T. Hill— Eng. min. jour. 85: 687 (1908). 

h Whirlwinds, etc., p. 7 (1860). 

c Kimball— Mon. weath. rev. 30: 316 (1902). 

d Mon. weath. rev. 27: 111 (1899). 

« Cummins — Science gossip (n. s.) 8: 163 (1901). See also a description in Nature 
25:291(1882). 

/ Amer. met. jour. 11 : 405 footnote (1895). 

g Works cited on p. 89, note*. The quotations are from "Whirlwinds and dust 
storms in India." 

* Loci cit., especially the article in the Phil, mag., and p. 13, 32-33 and 53-54 
in "Whirlwinds and dust storms. " Electrical phenomena in connection with dust 
whirls have also been recorded by Peltier — Becquerel's Traite experimental electri- 
cite" et magn^tisme, vol. 6, p. 184-189 (1840); and Cook — Quart, jour. Roy. meteor, 
soc. 9:141-143(1883). 

< Loc. cit. (Phil. mag. (3) 37: 158). 

i As was indeed suggested by Faraday in a letter to Baddeley in 1850. (Quoted 
in Baddeley 'a book, p. 4). 



86 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

air would be likely to generate charges of considerable magnitude. 
That the electrical manifestations are merely incidental and not 
always present is further indicated by the inability of Fictet to obtain 
any charge from a well-developed whirl near Cairo. It is now 
believed that dust whirls occur when the layer of air next to the 
ground becomes overheated by contact with a bare surface highly 
heated by the direct rays of the sun. This overheated air may 
remain for some time in an instable condition, but sooner or later 
something will disturb the equilibrium and the air will rush suddenly 
upward, leaving a space to be filled by the inrush of air from the 
sides. The mutual interference of these inrushiug currents causes 
the whirl. 6 A whirl once formed by the action of the side currents 
will be maintained by the uprush of heated air constantly supplied 
by the hot surface. The spiral motion, once started, tends to main- 
tain itself and the whirl acts as a chimney to remove the hot surface 
air to higher levels. Unless general atmospheric conditions (such 
as winds, etc.) interfere with its existence, the whirl will continue so 
long as the supply of overheated air is kept up. This explains the 
longer life of whirls in the hot deserts, and the brief continuance of 
those in humid and vegetation-covered areas where the ground surface 
is not so highly or so uniformly heated. 

This theory is in accordance with the facts that whirls occur 
most often on level surfaces, bare of vegetation, and while the sun 
is shining; that the interior of the column is much hotter than the 
surrounding air; c an,d that they occur most frequently during 
calms.* Minute dust whirls have in fact been artificially produced 
by heating an iron plate on which fine silica had been sprinkled.* 
Great whirlwinds have also been several times noticed over fires 
where much air was rising in a body/ Similar whirlwinds occur 

a Coliadon — Arch. sci. phys. nat. Geneva (3) 2: 39 (1879). Electrical phenomena 
have also been observed in connection with ordinary dust falls when' no whirls are 
present. See Amaduzzi — Riv. sci. ind. 1901: 61; and Chauveau — Ann. Soc. 
meteor. France 51: 77 (1903). 

b On this theory of dust whirls, see Buchan — Handy book of meteorology, 2d ed., 
p. 306 (1868); Reye— Die Wirbelsturme, pp. 46-54 (1872); Davis— Elementary meteor- 
ology, pp. 36-37 (1894); etc. 

cPictet, in Coliadon— Arch. sci. phys. nat. Geneva (3) 2: 38-39 (1879); and 
Khanykov — Soc. geog. Paris Rec. voy. m&n. 7: 448-449 (1864). 

* When winds are blowing the surface air is usually too much mixed and disturbed 
to become greatly overheated. Cf. Horner — Ann. Phys. (Gilbert) 73: 95 (1823). 

« Wood — Phil. mag. (5) 47 : 349 et seq. (1899). On the artificial formation of whirl- 
winds by the mutual interference of air currents, etc., see Vettin — Ann. Phys. Ghem. 
(Poggendorf)102: 246-256(1857); Hallier— ibid. 112:343-344 (1861), 114:657-^60 
(1861); and Weyher— Les tourbillons, 1887. 

/Redfield — Amer. jour sci. 36: 50-59 (1839); Olmsted — Proc. Amer. assoc. adv. 
aci. 4: 361-365 (1850), Amer. jour. sci. (2) 11: 181-187 (1851); DaviB, quoted by 
Abbe— Mon. weath. rev. 34: 164 (1906); and note in Pacific Rural Press 2: 183 
(1871). 



DI8TANCB8 OF TEA N8 FEB. 87 

above the craters of volcanoes during eruptions, and over heated 
layers of fresh lava and ashes. 6 

According to the theory just explained, the air of the whirl moves 
in an ascending spiral, and the suspended dust which makes the 
whirls visible may be considered as derived from the soil and carried 
upward by the whirling air. c The rapid rotation of the lower end 
of the whirl furnishes the abrasive action necessary to loosen the 
soil. The heated air, carrying its load of dust, ascends in the spiral 
until it reaches the point where its density is the same as that of 
the surrounding air, when it spreads out more or less horizontally, 
leaving the dust which it carries to fall earthward and to be blown 
here and there by the winds. In hot climates, where the over- 
heating of the surface air is considerable, whirls may reach great 
heights, and since they are able to carry more and coarser material 
than can be handled by ordinary winds, they are very important 
agents in supplying dust to the winds and in enabling the latter to 
attack the surface. The erosive activity of whirlwinds has been 
pointed out by Brunhes, d and Virlet d'Aoust* mentions the exist- 
ence, on the slopes of the Mexican mountains, of soils composed of 
material lifted by whirlwinds from the plains below. 

Tornadoes and waterspouts are apparently similar to the dust 
whirls just described, but have probably a different origin/ It is 
believed that these storms originate in the higher levels and grow 
downward to the earth. The aspirating action is not so marked as 
in the dust whirls, and the great damage done by these storms is 
due not to it but to the violence of the whirling wind and the explosive 
action of imprisoned air in houses, etc., momentarily within the area 
of greatly reduced pressure at the center of the whirl. The water 
supposed to be sucked up by waterspouts is probably derived from 
the clouds and not the sea, since it has been found to be fresh.* 
Tornadoes always occur in connection with cyclones * and usually 

o Redfield— Amer. jour. sci. 36: 57 (1839); von Seebach— Abh. K. Gee. Win. 
Gdttingen 13: 57 (180S); Mack— Met. Zs. 18: 250-256 (1901). 

& J. Roth— Der Vesuv und die Umgebung von Neapel, p. 130 (1857); Bailleul — 
Compt. rend. 31: 8 (1850). 

c Contrary to the opinion of Faye (Compt. rend. 83 : 766, 893 [1876]), who considered 
the dust whirl as descending and the lifting of dust due to the rise, outside the whirl, of 
masses of heated air which had descended inside and escaped at the bottom. 

d Compt. rend. 135 : 1133 (1902); Mem. Accad. Nuovi Lincei (5) 21 : 129-148 (1903). 
See also Walther— WQstenbildung, p. 132 (1900). 

'Bull. Soc. geol. France (2) 15: 129 etseq. (1857). 

/On the nature of tornadoes, see Reye — Die Wirbelsturme, (1872); Davis — Ele- 
mentary meteorology, pp. 271-284 (1894), and other text-books of meteorology. 

9 Davis — Elementary meteorology, p. 283 (1894). 

*The word "cyclone" is used in its technical sense to designate the circular storms 
of wide area (100 to 500 miles). The popular application of the word to all violent 
storms, aad especially to the above-described tornadoes, is incorrect. 



88 MOVEMENT? OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

in a certain quadrant. They are probably in some way secondary 
manifestations of the larger storms set up by the various convectional 
currents occurring within it. 

It is of course possible that a tornado might occur over a desert or 
similar exposed surface, and if so it would probably move about a 
good deal of soil material, but the absence of any rising current 
precludes the lifting action which is shown by true dust whirls. 
The latter are distinguished from tornadoes by their dependence on 
local surface conditions rather than on those of the atmosphere in 
general. They are independent phenomena, not connected with any 
general storm, travel much less rapidly, and are not nearly so violent. 

The momentary dust eddies common on windy days in streets 
and fields are due simply to the wind blowing around obstructions, or 
to the mutual interference of opposing currents. Such eddies are of 
constant occurrence in the wind and become visible whenever they 
happen to be in such relation to attackable deposits as to be able to 
pick up dust. They are probably, as already pointed out, of con- 
siderable assistance in enabling the wind to acquire and support its 
load of solid material. 

EUROPEAN DUST FALLS. 

The best known and most studied of all dust storm phenomena are 
the falls of reddish dust which occur in southern and central Europe, 
sometimes alone, sometimes with rain or snow. The dust occasion- 
ally fills the atmosphere so completely that dry fogs are produced, 
and these phenomena are sufficiently common off the west coast of 
northern Africa to have earned for this part of the ocean the title of 
the "dark sea. " b From the apparent connection of this oceanic dust 
with the trade winds comes its German name of "Passatstaub" 
(trade-wind dust). In English it is usually called sirocco dust. 
Falls of this dust have been known in Europe and along the Mediter- 

*Baddeley (Phil. mag. (3) 37: 158 [1850]) mentions a "dust whirl" which was 
strong enough to crack brick walls and uproot trees. It is probable that this was a 
tornado and not a dust whirl . Doctor Baddeley did not see it himself. Such violence 
on the part of a true dust whirl would be almost inconceivable. Ivchenko has, 
however, reported whirls which were violent enough to upset a man (Ann. geol. 
min. Russie 8, 1: 139 [1906]). 

& Schmid — Lehrbuch der Meteorologie, p. 796 (1860). The dust fogs of this region 
were noted by the Arabian geographer Edrisi in the twelfth century (Tchihatchef — 
Rept. Brit, assoc. 1882: 360). For later accounts see Darwin — Quart, jour. 
Geol. soc. 2 : 26-30 (1846), also summarized in his Journal of researches, p. 5, ed. of 
1901; Hellmann— Monatsb. E. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1878: 364-403; Dink- 
lage— Annalen Hydrog. 14: 69-81, 113-123 (1886), 16: 145-149 (1888), 17: 450-454 
(1889), 19 1 313-318 (1891), 22: 140-143 (1894), 26: 246-254 (1898), 29: 30-37 
(1901), 31 : 430-438 (1903); Krebs— Beitrfige Geophysik 8 : 7-42 (1906) ; M. Jentzsch— 
Annalen Hydrog. 37 : 373-376 (1909). Similar dust fogs occur off the coast of China, 
near Australia, and elsewhere. 



EUROPEAN DUST FALLS. 89 

ranean since the earliest times. They are mentioned by Homer, B 
Virgil, 6 and Livy/ and Ehrenberg d cites a number of well authen- 
ticated cases in the first three or four centuries before Christ. The 
first known scientific description is that of Wendelin/ There is no 
reason to believe that they occurred any less frequently in former 
times than they do to-day, but owing to the incompleteness of the 
records only a small proportion of the older occurrences are now 
known. Ehrenberg's first / historical list gave 340 occurrences down 
to 1847. This was supplemented and brought down to 1870 by 
another list * giving 193 occurrences. Many falls have occurred since 
1870 and have been noticed in the literature.* The two great falls of 

a Iliad, Book 11, lines 52-54; Book 16, lines 459-460. 

*>iEneid, Book 4, line 454. 

c HiBtoriae, Book 3, chap. 10; Book 10, chap. 31. 

<* Passatstaub und Blutregen, p. 59 et seq. Professor Ehrenberg'B investigations of 
sirocco dust are the most extensive on record, the results being published in the 
Abhandlungen and the Monatsberichte of the Berlin Academy from 1844 to 1875. 
The earlier of these investigations (up to 1849) were collected and published in book 
form in 1849, under the title "Passatstaub und Blutregen. " This work contains his 
theory of the origin of sirocco dust (see p. 90 below) and the observations upon which 
it was based. His later investigations (1848 to 1871) were collected and summarized 
in an article entitled "Uebersicht der seit 1847 fortgesetzten Untersuchungen uber 
das von der Atmosphere unsichtbar getragene reiche organische Leben, " and pub- 
lished in the Abh. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1871: 1-150, 233-275. 

«Pluvia purpurea bruxellensis (1646). 

/Passatstaub und Blutregen, pp. 59-127 (1849). 

a Abh. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1871: 14-60. Many occurrences are cited 
in the early chronicles and 83 of them have been noted by Hennig — Katalog bemer- 
kenswerter Witterungsereignisse (1904). 

* Partial lists are given by Silvestri (1869-1872)— A tti. Accad. Gioenia Catania (3) 
12: 137 (1878); Macagno and Tacchini (1870-1879)— Ann. meteor, ital. (2) 1: 72 
(1879); Denza (1862-1869)— Compt. rend. 70: 534 (1870); Passerini (1813-1889)— 
A tti. R. Accad. Georg. econ.-agr. Florence (4) 24: 150 (1901); Trabert and Valentin 
(1864-1901)— Jahrb. Naturw. 17: 212-213 (1901-2); and Galli (1813-1903)— Mem. 
Accad. Nuovi Lincei (5) 21: 404-406 (1903). Many occurrences are cited in the 
columns of Wetter, the Meteorologische Zeitschrift, the Annalen der Hydrographie, 
Ciel et terre, and other meteorological periodicals. 

Literature (not elsewhere cited) on European falls of sirocco dust (and possibly 
other materials) is given in the bibliography under Abels, Alvarez, Ankert, Archen- 
hold, Assmann, Bara£, Barfod, Becke, van Bemmelen, Bijelic, l\>roi, van den 
Broeck, Gampini, Canaval, Casali, Ghauveau, Ch6neau, Chladni, Choffat, Cittadella- 
Vigodarzere, Cohn, Coles, Courty, Cramer, Daubr6e, Denza, Deschmann, DesBau, 
Dove (Gesetz der Stttrme, p. 69), Eredia, Evans, Finckh, Flammarion, Flores, Forel, 
Fournet, Friedel, Fryer, Gaberel, Galli, Ginestous, Gottsche, Gregorio, Hampe, Hann, 
Hapke, Hellmann, Hepworth, Hubner, Ippen, Jaubert, Jeremiah, Jdrschke, Jussieu, 
Karrer, Kittel, C. Knab, Korostelev, Krebs, Lais, Langell, Leopold Ferdinand, Leps, 
Lori6, Ludeling, MacCarthy, Marinelli, Mascart, Mazelle, Meinardus, Meunier, Millose- 
vich,H.C. Moore, Moureaux, Miittrich, Nell, Nicati,Ossig, Palmeri, Palmieri, Paris and 
Roncali, de Parville, Passerini, Paudler, Perry-Coste, Peschier, Phipson, Pichler, Prett- 
ner, Prior, Prohaska, Ragona, Reissek, Riccd, Richter, R6na, Rucker, M. Schuster, 
Schwarz, Schwedoff, S6billant, Sccchi, Seeland, Seidl, Silvestri, Souza-Brand&o, 
Sprenger, Stefano, Stiglleithner, Svoboda, Symons's met. mag., Tacchini, Tacquin, 
Tarry, Teisserenc de Bort, Vacher, Valderrama, Vi venot, West, A. S. White, Wilbrand, 
Yates, and Zona. 



90 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

the last decade were those of March 9 to 12, 1901 ; and of February 22 
to 23, 1903. The former has been discussed in an admirable mono- 
graph by Hellmann and Meinardus, a and also by Valentin b and 
Vanderlinden. c The fall of February, 1903, has been discussed by 
Herrmann, d Hellmann/ Mill and Lempfert,' and Vanderlinden.? 

EARLY THEORIES REGARDING EUROPEAN DUST FALLS. 

During the Middle Ages the dust was supposed to be of extra- 
terrestrial origin,* and the falls were regarded with great terror, which 
was accentuated by the bloodlike appearance of the rain drops 
charged with dust.* Sementini ' gives a graphic account of the fright 
of the people during a fall of dust at Gerace, in Calabria, Italy, on 
March 14, 1813, on which occasion the popular terror was intensified 
by the accidental breaking out of a fire which brought conviction 
that the end of the world was at hand. 

The cosmic theory was succeeded by that of Ehrenberg* who 
believed that there existed in the upper atmosphere a mass of per- 
manently suspended living matter (mainly diatoms) in microscopic 
particles, and that dust falls occurred whenever this upper stratum 
was so distorted as to come in contact with the land surface. Ehren- 
berg was led to adopt this view because he found in the various sam- 
ples of fallen dust which came under his examination diatoms repre- 
senting every part of the world, especially some which he considered 
characteristic of South America. Some of these diatoms were living, 
and he therefore felt bound to assume that they came from an aerial 
ocean of life which was continually being replenished by organisms 
lifted by air currents from all parts of the earth's surface. His 
especial interest in the organic remains of the air dust blinded him to 

« "Der grosse Staubfall vom 9 bis 12 Mare 1901 in Nordafrika, Sud- und Mittel- 
europa, " Abh. K. pre use. meteor. Inst. 2, No. 1, 1901. 

* Sitzungsb. Kaiserl. Akad. Wise. Vienna 111, 11a: 727-776 (1902). 
c Ciel et terre 22 : 257-262 (1901). 

* Annalen Hydrog. 31 : 425-438, 475-483 (1903). 
t Meteor. Zs. 20: 133-135 (1903). 

/Quart, jour. Roy. meteor, soc. 30: 57-91 (1904). 
9 Ciel et terre 24: 44-59 (1903). 

* See Arago — Astronomie populaire, vol. 4, pp. 208-216 (1857); and Quetelet— 
Physique du gldbe, chap. 4, p. 322 (1861). 

' Ehrenberg has collected the accounts given by the early chroniclers of the appear- 
ance of bloody rain, blood on articles of food, etc. (Monatsb. K. preuss. Akad. Wise. 
Berlin 1850: 215-246). Many of these appearances are to be ascribed to bacterial 
action, etc., and not to dust falls. It is claimed that rain which fell at Oppide Mam- 
ertina, Italy, May 15, 1890, actually contained true blood, believed to be from birds, 
Passerini— -Atti. R. Accad. econ.-agr. Georg. Florence (4) 24s 150 (1901). 

J Jour. Chem. Phys. (Schweigger) 14 : 130-132 (1815). 

* Paesatstaub und Blutregen, pp. 57, 163 et seq. (1849). 



EARLY THEORIES REGARDING EUROPEAN DUST FALLS. 91 

the indications of terrene origin offered by the inorganic constitu- 
ents, and his observations of the occurrence in European air dust of 
diatoms apparently characteristic of South America and other far 
countries may be explained by assuming that these forms actually 
exist in Europe or Africa, but have never been reported, although, for 
that matter, there is no insuperable objection to believing them actu- 
ally carried, though perhaps in small number, from South America or 
even places still farther away. The atmosphere always contains a 
great deal of permanently suspended dust, and diatom fragments, 
being light in proportion to their surface area, are likely to remain 
long in suspension and be carried far and wide. It is quite possible 
that any air dust collected in Europe would contain a few particles, 
diatomaceous and otherwise, which had come from other continents. 
The evidence is now conclusive that the major part of the typical 
sirocco dust is from the desert of the Sahara." 

* It is necessary, of course, to except local showers of material derived from the 
neighborhood, and the part of all fallen dust which is of local origin. (See p. 106.) 
Showers of material other than sirocco dust also occur occasionally, as, for instance, 
pollen from pines and similar trees. On such occurrences see GSppert — Ann. Phys. 
Chem. 21 : 550-578 (1831); Kaemtz— Meteorology— English trans, by Walker, p. 465 
(1844); Amer. jour. sci. 39: 399 (1840), 42: 195-197 (1842); Arago— Oeuvres com- 
pletes, vol. 12, p. 469 (1859); Ernsts-Nature 4: 68 (1871); Bureau and Poiason— 
Compt. rend. 83 : 194-196 (1876); Carpenter— Nature 20 : 195-196 (1879); A. Wilson— 
ibid., 266-267 (1879); Mon. weath. rev. March, 1879, p. 16; Tissandier— La Nature 
1887, II : 62; C. Turner— Nature 66 : 157 (1902); Forel— Bull. Soc. vaud. sci. nat. 39 1 
L (1903); Sci. Amer. 88: 243 (1903); Jaubert— Ann. Obs. Montsouris 5:333 (1904). 
A fall of lichens with rain has been reported from Persia by De Candolle — Geographic 
botanique raisonnee, vol. 2, pp. 614-615 (1855). Small live fish are said to have fallen 
at Madras, India (Harriots-Struggles through life, vol. 1, pp. 141-142 [1809]); at 
Singapore (Castelnau— Compt. rend. 52: 880-882 [1861]); at Winter Park, Fla.,in 
June, 1893 (T. R. Baker— Science 21 : 335 [1893]); and at Tillers Ferry, S. C, in 1901 
(Mon. weath. rev. 29: 263 [1901]). There is a well-authenticated case of the fall in 
the Gothard Alps on August 30, 1870, of a considerable quantity of crystals of common 
salt, one of which weighed 0.76 gram. (Kenngott — Viertelj. naturf. Gee. Zurich 15 x 
377-379 [1870] ; Vogler— Flora 89 : 86-89 [1901]) . Falls of terrestrial pebbles and small 
stones weighing from a fraction of a gram to several grams are recorded by Phipson — 
Rept. Brit. Assoc. 1864, Trans, sees.: 37; Nordenskiold — Ofvers. K. Vet.-akad. forh. 
41,VI:3-15(1884);Meunier— Compt. rend. 113: 100-101(1891); and Rollier— Actes 
Soc. helv. sci. nat. 90, 1: 248-258 (1907). A turtle 6 inches by 8 inches and a stone 
fragment I inch by } inch, both incased in ice, fell at Vicksburg, Miss., on May 11, 1894 
(Abbe— Mon. weath. rev. 22: 215 [1894]). 

Certain cases of red or pink colored snow are caused by the growth of microscopic 
plants, especially the Protococcus nivalis. See de Saussure — Jour. nat. phil. chem. 
arts 1: 511-513 (1797); Peschier— Bibliotheque univ. 12:259-265 (1819); Bauer- 
Quart, jour. sci. 7 : 222-229 (1819); Annal. chimie 12 : 72-88 (1819) ; Bauer— Phil, trans. 
110: 165-173 (1820); Kaemtz— Meteorology, English trans, by Walker, pp. 455-456 
(1844); A. P. de Candolle— Verhandl. Schweizer Ges. 1825: 26-28; Darwin-Journal 
of researches, p. 327, ed. of 1901; L. J. Agassiz — Rept. Brit, assoc. 1840, trans.: 143; 
Arago— Oeuvree completes, vol. 12, p. 472-488 (1859); L. Fischer— Mitth. naturf. 



92 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

THE SAHARAN ORIGIN OP SIROCCO DUST. 

The Saharan origin of sirocco dust was suggested by Lavagna* 
in connection with a discussion of the fall of November 27-28, 1814, 
and probably by even earlier writers, but the suggestion was opposed 
by Ehrenberg, and has gained general acceptance only within the 
last twenty-five years. 6 The character of the dust itself suggests a 
desert origin, as it consists very largely of very fine splinters of 
quartz and a still finer claylike dust often gathered into flocks or 
aggregates c which is probably the final dfibris from the disintegration 
of the feldspathic and similar minerals. Mica flakes are found in 
nearly all samples, as is to be expected in view of their high surface 
mass ratio and consequent facile flotation. Other minerals fre- 
quently present, though always in small quantity, are feldspars 
(orthoclase and probably plagioclase also), calcite, magnetite, zircon, 
rutile, tourmaline, hornblende, epidote, and apatite. Pyrite, hema- 
tite, chromite, ilmenite, garnet, augite, talc, and gypsum have been 
occasionally found.* The reddish color is probably due to ferru- 

Ges. Bern 1867: 210-213; Wittrock— Botaniska not. 1883: 76-79; van Haast— 
Nature 30: 55 (1884); and notes in Nature 63: 471-472 (1901); and Symons's 
meteor, mag. 36: 33-34 (1901). 

Black and gray rains and snows are sometimes caused by the presence in the atmos- 
phere of much smoke from industrial establishments, great fires, etc. See Arago — 
Oeuvres completes, vol. 12, p. 466 (1859); W. N. Shaw— Jour. San. inst. 23: 323 
(1902). Many notes of occurrences are given in the columns of Nature. 

One of the most interesting of the early theories regarding the nature of sirocco dust 
is the statement of Meyer and Stoop (Ann. gen. sci. phys. nat. 2 : 269-271 [1819]) that 
the red rain which fell near Bruges on November 2, 1819, was colored by the presence 
of a comparatively large quantity of dissolved chloride of cobalt. This is highly 
improbable, and the error is probably to be ascribed to faulty analyses. The rain may 
have contained traces of cobalt (see p. 121 below) but hardly more than traces. 

aGiorn. fis. chim. stor. nat. (2) 1: 32-36 (1818). 

& It was strongly opposed by Silvestri in 1876 (Atti Accad. Gioenia Catania (3) 12 : 
146-151 [1878]); and by Casali even so late as 1901 (Reeto del Carlino, Bologna, April 
15-16, 1901, through Flores— Boll. Soc. geol. ital. 22: 81 [1903]). 

c Lais— Nature 16: 197-198 (1877); Editorial— Mon. microscopic jour. 18: 159 
(1877); Max. Schuster— Si tzungsb. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Vienna 93: 84 (1886); 
Camerlander— Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 38: 289 (1888). 

<*For mineralogical examinations of sirocco dust see Dufrenoy — Compt. rend 
13: 62-63 (1841); Cannobio— ibid., 215-219; Reissek— Ber. Mitt. Freunden Naturw. 
4: 153 (1848); Hellmann— Monatsb. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1878: 402; Sil- 
vestri— Atti Accad. Gioenia Catania (3) 12: 123-151 (1878); Macagno and Tacchini— 
Ann. meteor, ital. (2) 1 : 68-69 (1879); von Lasaulx— Tschermak's min. Mitth. (n. s.) 3 : 
528(1880); Max. Schuster— Sitzungsb. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Vienna 93: 83-85 (1886); 
Camerlander— Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 38: 288, 291, 297-298 (1888); Ginestous— 
Compt. rend. 123: 1093-1094 (1896); Dinklage— Annalen Hydrog. 26: 253 (1898); 
Hellmann and Meinardus — Der grosse Staubfall, p. 54 et seq., 90 (1901); Becke — Anz. 
Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Vienna 38 : 107-109 (1901), Met. Zs. 18 : 31&-321, 462-463 (1901); 
Achiardi— Atti R. accad. econ.-agr. Georg. Florence (4) 24: 143-147 (1901); Frflh — 



THE SAHARAN ORIGIN OF SIROCCO DUST. 



93 



ginous matter. Diatoms and other organic materials are not infre- 
quently present in considerable amount. 

It is probable that the rarer minerals mentioned belong largely, if 
not entirely, to the local material which is necessarily intermixed 
with all eolian deposits, for if these minerals do exist in the true 
African dust (as is not impossible) it is probable that they are in 
the form of particles far too fine for detection and determination. 
They form the claylike and apparently amorphous portion which is 
always present. 

Table V. — Chemical analyses of sirocco dust 



Number 


I.a 


n.6 


III.6 


IV.« 


V.d 


VI«. 


VII./ 


vm.f 






T*f»lity. .... 


Tyrol. 


Palermo. 


Palermo. 


Naples. 


Taor- 
mina, 
Sicily. 


Lamber- 

hurst, 

England. 


Tunis, 
Africa. 


Desert 
dust 




from 
Biskra. 


Date of fall 


Mar. 31, 
1847. 


Apr. 14, 
1874. 


May 17, 

1879. 


Mar. 10, 
1901. 


Mar. 19, 

1901. 

• 


Feb. 22, 
1903. 


Mar. 10, 
1901. 








SiOi 


15.90 

9.58 

17.42 

16.90 

3.26 

3.29 


65.04 

.40 

2.45 

6.80 

3.16 

1.96 

.02 

1.12 

14 41 


64.00 
.24 
1.56 
7.00 
2.58 
1.90 
1.17 
1.16 

13.69 


49.40 

21.52 

7.65 

7.08 


42.48 
21.19 
7.95 
8.16 
2.89 
3.56 
3.39 


50.50 
20.20 
7.23 
9.50 
2.43 
2.53 
1.28 


73.45 
2.36 
4.50 
5.25 


68.90 


AlfOt 


.09 


FetOt 


1.53 


CaO 


7.37 


MgO 


2.08 


KtO 


2.96 

2.84 

.22 

3.77 




1.32 


NajO 




.79 


p,o» 






Trace. 


COi 


33.49 


4.81 


6.71 


6.48 


13.28 








4.15 


21.97 


21.98 


8.19 


23.49 


20.36 


9.50 


7.22 



a Oellacber— Wiener Ztg., June 2, 1847, quoted by Ebrenberg, Passatstaub und Blutregen p. 27 (1849). 
b Macagno and Tacchinl— Ann. meteor, ital. (2) l: 66 (1879). 
ePalmerl— Rend. R. Accad. scl. fls. Naples (3) 7: 157 (1901). 

d Analysis by Simmonds, quoted by Thorpe— Nature 68 : 222 (1903). An analysis of the material soluble 
In hydrochloric acid is also given. Cf. also Judd— Nature 63: 514 (1901). 
« Thorpe— Nature 68: 54 (1903). Analysis of material soluble in hydrochloric add is also given. 
/ Bertalnchand— Compt. rend. 132: 1153 (1001). 
o Analysis by Macagno, quoted by Tacchinl— Trans. R. Accad. Llncei (3) 7: 135 (1883). 

The diemical composition of sirocco dust is also in perfect accord 
with the Saharan hypothesis, as is apparent from a comparison of 
analyses 1 to 6 of Table V with analysis 7 of the same table, which 
represents the dust which fell in Tunis, Africa, in March 1901, and 

Met. Zs. 20: 174 (1903); Basarow— La Nature 31, II, nouv. sci.: 6 (1903); Forel— 

Bull. Soc. vaud. sci. nat. (4) 39s xxvii (1903); Mill and Lempfert — Quart, jour. 

Boy. meteor, boc. 30: 74-75 (1904); Prinz— Ciel et terre 24: 25, 80, 293-300 (1903). 
For purposes of comparison there is appended a mineralogical analysis by Thoulet 

of Band from near Wargla, in the Sahara (Bull. Soc. min. France 4: 268 [1881]): 

Per cent. 

Quartz 89.46 

Feldspar 9.47 

Calcium carbonate and clay 67 

Chloride of potassium and sodium 17 

Hematite, chroma te, garnet, olivine, amphibole, pyroxine, etc. . . .23 

100.00 



94 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

with analysis 8, which represents the fine material separated by 
water elutriation from a sample of desert sand collected at Biskra, 
in the Sahara. In order to make them of value for comparison all 
the analyses are expressed in percentages of the ignited weight, and, 
where necessary, they have been recalculated to bring them to this 
basis. The percentage of loss on ignition is given separately in the 
last line of the table. The analyses of European sirocco dust are 
as uniform as could be expected when allowance is made for local 
admixture; thus the low silica in No. 1 is due to the large amount of 
calcium carbonate, which in turn is probably due to the presence 
of calcareous material derived from the neighborhood. The most 
noticeable and surprising difference between the Sahara dust (analysis 
8), and that fallen in Europe is in the content of alumina. It would 
seem that the amount of this constituent present in European dust 
must have its source elsewhere than in the desert sands. It may 
perhaps come from laterite deposits south of the desert, but it is 
more probably due to the local admixture of kaolin clays. It is 
noticeable that the analyses of Palermo dust (Nos. 2 and 3) corre- 
spond almost exactly, even in alumina content, to the analysis of 
Sahara dust. From the situation of Palermo it is to be expected 
that dust fallen there would be rather unusually free from local 
admixture, and likely to represent the true African material with 
greater exactness than would dust fallen farther north. The Tunis 
analysis (No. 7) is remarkable only for the high silica. It is probable 
that the European dust is lower in this constituent because of its 
removal by elutriation during translocation. The finest material 
being more largely nonsiliceous the process of air sorting would tend 
to eliminate silica, and the material would be expected to become more 
and more siliceous the nearer the point of collection to the point of 
origin. Material collected at the place of origin ought therefore to 
be the most siliceous of all, and from this point of view the silica 
content shown by analysis 8 may seem too low. However, this 
dust was removed from the desert sand by water, not by air, and is 
therefore likely to be more largely composed of the finer particles. 
Water elutriation permits of much more accurate separations than 
does the air elutriation, which takes place in the more or less variable 
currents of natural winds. The dust of analysis 8 may have under- 
gone in water a sorting equivalent to that which would be produced 
by a long air voyage. 

oThifl could be settled by an examination of the dust for free alumina, but the 
analytical methods are unfortunately so unsatisfactory that the results are incon- 
clusive. See Thorpe—Nature 68: 223 (1903). On the relation of sirocco dust to 
laterite see Doelter— Mitth. naturw. Ver. Steiermark 38: xlvii-xlviii (1901); and 
Ippen— Centbl. Min. 1901: 57&-582. 



THE SAHARAN ORIGIN OF SIROCCO DUST. 



95 



In Table VI are given the maximum, minimum, and average values 
of the principal constituents as calculated from twenty-six of the 
best European analyses found in the literature. Analyses 1 to 7, 
inclusive, of Table V are included. As before, all analyses are reduced 
to percentages of the ignited weight, and the per cent loss of weight 
on ignition is given separately. No great accuracy can be ascribed 
to these figures. The analyses were made by many different methods 
and many of them are incomplete. The number of determinations 
entering into the average for each constituent is given in the first 
column of the table. 

Table VI. — Average chemical composition of sirocco dust* 



Constituent. 



BiOt 

AliO. 

FetOi 

CaO 

MgO 

KtO 

NaiO 

PtO, 

COt 

Loss on Ignition 



No. of 
analyses. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


20 


73.45 


15.90 


19 


28.50 


.24 


19 


17.42 


1.56 


24 


16.90 





17 


3.77 


Trace. 


9 


3.66 


1.02 


8 


3.39 


.03 


3 


1.16 


.22 


20 


33.49 


3.77 


24 


36.40 


4.00 



Average. 



67.5 

14.3 

8.0 

8.3 

1.7 

2.5 

1.7 

.8 

12.4 



16.5 



« The analyses used in compiling this table are the following: 

Analyses I to VII of Table V. 

Dust fallen on ship on the Atlantic. O. W. Qibbs— Ann. Phya. Cham. (Poggendorf) 71 1 567 (1847). 

Fallen at Idrla. Italy, April 14, 1813. Vauquelin— Ann. chlra. phys. (2) 89: 438-442 (1828). 

Fallen at Verpilliere. France, October 16, 1847. Du Pasquier— Mem. Acad. sci. Lyon 1: 5-16 (1845). 

8ame fall as last, but evidently another analysis. Quoted by Ehrenberg— Passatstaub and Blutregen. 
p. 43 (1849). 

Fallen at Oraubflnden, Switzerland, Feb. 4, 1851. Will— Jabresb. relnen Chem. 1851: 883. 

Five analyses of dust fallen at Palermo, Sicily, 1870 to 1878, belonging to the same sot as Nos. n and in 
of Table V. Macagno and Tacchini— Ann. meteor, ital. (2) l s 66 (1879). 

Fallen at Naples. Italy, Feb. 25, 1879. Analysis by Scacchi, quoted by Palmeri— Rend. R. Accad. sci. fla. 
Naples (3) 7: 161 (1901). 

Fallen on Elba, Feb. 25, 1879. Roster— l'Orosi 8: 75 (1885). 

Fallen at Flume, Hungary, March 10, 1901 . Hellmann and Meinardus— Der grosse Staubfallj). 69 (1901). 

Fallen at Florence, Italy, March 10, 1901. Passerlni— Atti R. Accad. econ.-agr. Georg. Florence (4) 
24: 142 (1901). 

Fallen in the Klausthal. Germany, March 19, 1901. Hampe— Naturw. Runds. 18t 285-287 (1898). 

Two samples of that fallen at Swansea, England, Feb. 22, 1903. Flett— Quart, jour. Roy. meteor, soo. 
80: 77 (1904). 

Fallen at Buckfastleigh, England, Feb. 22, 1903. Earp— Nature 87: 415 (1903). 

Further analyses not included in Tables V and VI are given by Palmeri and by Macagno and Tacchini 
(loci ci tat 1) and by the following: Doberetner— Jour. Chem. Physlk(Schwelgger)9: 222(1813); Sementini— 
Olorn. fls. chim. stor. nat. (2) 1: 28-32 (1818): Canobblo— Compt. rend. 13: 215 (1841); Dufrenoy— Compt. 
rend. 18: 580-584 (1842); Ehrenberg— Passatstaub und Blutregen, p. 47 (1849); Bouis— Compt. rend. 56: 
974 (1863); Silvestri— Ann. sci. ind. 6, I: 107-108 (1869), quoted by Tarry— Compt. rend. 70: 1371 (1870); 
Nicatl— Bull. Soc. vaud. sci. nat. 10: 285 (1869); Camerlander— Jahrb. geol. Relchsanst. 88: 293 (1888); 
NordensklCld— Met. Zs. 11: 216-217 (1894); von John— Verh. geol. Relchsanst. 1896: 259; Ilampe— 
Naturw. Runds. 13: 285-287 (1898); Dinklage— Annalen Hydrog. 26: 254 (1898); Clerici— Boll. Soo. 

feol. ital. 20: olxix-olxxviii (1901). 21: xxix note (1902); Bared -Verh naturf. Ver. Brttnn 40: 48-54 
1901); Svoboda— Zs. landw. Versuchsw. Oest. 4: 630-631 (1901); Meunier— Compt. rend. 132: 895 (1901); 
ppen— Centbl. Min. 1901: 581; Forel— Verh. Schwelz. naturf. Qes. Aarau 8ft: 63 (1902); Prometheus 
16: 254 (1905). Qualitative analyses (lacking quantitative data) have been published by Fabronl— Ann. 
chim. phys. 88: 146-152 (1813); Max. Schuster- Sitzungsb. Kaiserl. Akad. Wlss. Vienna 93: 87-104 (1886); 
Bdhm— Met. Zs. 18: 278-279 (1901); Walt her— Naturw. Wochens. 18: 603 (1903): Herrmann (analysis by 
Lam)— Annalen Hydrog. 81: 477 (1903); and E. O. Clayton— Proc. Chem. soc. London 19: 101-103 
(1903). 

The argument of Ehrenberg ° that the sirocco dust can not be from 
the Sahara because it is red, whereas the desert sands are white, loses 
its force in the light of what was said on page 37 concerning deflation 



a Passatstaub und Blutregen, p. 30 (1849). 



96 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

from deserts. The sands contain no dust, because all dust has been 
blown away, and similarly they are white because the red and yellow 
material has likewise been removed by the wind. The reddish min- 
erals are mainly hydrated iron compounds derived from the weather- 
ing of ferro-magnesian minerals and are therefore very susceptible 
to fine division and sequent removal by the wind. Walther ° has 
observed that the dust carried by temporary rills of water in the 
desert is red, 6 and the dust, the analysis of which is given as No. 8 in 
Table V, was reddish yellow. 

But the most conclusive evidence regarding the Saharan origin of 
the sirocco dust is derived from meteorological sources. It has been 
found possible by the use of barometric data to map the path of 
several of the dust-bearing storms and trace them back to a point of 
origin in northern Africa. This was attempted in a rough way by 
Tarry c for the storms of March 10, 1869, and February 13, 1870, but 
his results were incomplete and somewhat open to question .d The 
storms of March 9 to 11, 1901, and of February 22 to 23, 1903, have, 
however, been conclusively traced to the Sahara/ These conclu- 
sions are confirmed by the observation ' that dust falls are usually 
accompanied by winds drier and hotter than are normal in European 
Idealities, thus suggesting their origin in the warmer regions to the 
south. It seems as well that there is a tendency for dust falls to 
occur most frequently in those years when the Sahara is driest.? As 
a result of the cumulative force of the facts above outlined the 
Saharan origin of the sirocco dust is now generally regarded as beyond 
question.* 

<* Denudation in der Wttste, p. 494 (1891). There is a reddish loessial deposit 
near Biskra (Grand — Sitzungsb. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Vienna 115: 545 [1906]). 

& The same observation has been made several times by the present writer in the 
deserts of North America. 

cCompt. rend. 70: 1043-1046, 1369-1372 (1870). 

<*For a criticism see Camerlander — Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 38: 309 (1888). 

« On the storm of March, 1901, see Hcllmann and Meinardus — Der grosse Staubfall, 
p. 32 et seq. (1901); Kdppen— Annalen Hydrog. 31 : 45-48 (1903); and Krebs— Frank- 
fovter Zeitung, March 18, 1901, abstracted in Globus 84: 182 (1903). On the storm 
of February, 1903, see Schiefer— Wetter 20: 259-261 (1903); Vanderlinden— 
Ciel et terre 24: 49-59 (1903); and Mill and Lempfert— Quart, jour. Roy. meteor. 
Soc. 30: 57-91(1904). 

/ Mill and Lempfert — loc. cit. in last note; Tacchini — Ann. meteor, ital. (2) li 
81-88 (1879); Forel— Bull. Soc. vaud. sci. nat. (4) 39: xxvii (1903). 

9 Erebs (Globus 84 : 183-184 [1903]) has made comparisons from 1782 to 1898, which 
seem to bear this out. His dates for dry years in the Sahara are calculated from the 
data of Bruckner (Klima-Schwankungen seit 1700 [1890]). 

* A r&ume' of considerations leading to this conclusion is given by Hellmann and 
Meinardus— Der grosse Staubfall, pp. 79-81, 89-92 (1901). See also, in addition to 
the authorities already cited: Denza — Ann. sci. ind. 7, II: 640-648 (1870); Roster — 
TOrosi 8: 76 (1885); Fruh— Met. Zs. 20: 175 (1903); and Forel— Compt. rend. 
136: 636-637 (1903), Bull. Soc. vaud. sci. nat. (4) 39: xxxiv-xxxv (1903). 



QUANTITY OF DUST DEPOSITED IN ETJBOPE. 



97 



QUANTITY OP DUST DEPOSITED IN EUROPE. 

The quantity of dust which fell on March 9 to 12, 1901, was meas- 
ured at various places in Europe, and the measurements have been 
collected by Hellmann and Meinardus. They range from 1 1 .23 grams 
to 1 gram per square meter (31.1 tons to 2.9 tons per square mile), the 
values being largest in southern Europe and decreasing toward the 
north. Some measurements which have been made on other falls are 
given in Table VII. 

Table VII. — Quantity of dust deposited on unit area in various European dust falls. 



Date. 



Oct. 16,1846 a. 
Mar. 31.1847&. 
1859 c. 
Feb., 18f.2c... 
Mar. 24, 1869 c. 
Mar. 19, 1901 d. 



Place. 



Southeastern France. 

Tyrol 

Westphalia 

Salzburg, Austria . . . . 
Camiola, Austria. . . . 
Taormlna, Sicily 



Weight of dust. 



Grams per 
square 
meter. 



0.63 
2.0 
30.0 
.08 
5.0 
2.7 



Tons per 

square. 

mile. 



1.8 
6.7 

85.8 
.24 

14.8 
7.7 



• Chauveau — Ann. 8oc. meteor. France 51 : 72 (1903). The quantity of this fall as measured at Valence. 
France, is given by Ehrenberg (Passatstaub und Blutregen, p. 42) as 0.75 gram per square meter, or 2.1 
tonsper square mile. 

6 Ehrenberg— Passatstaub und Blutregen, p. 26. Given as 103 grams per square fathom. 

« Chauveau— loc. cit. in note » above. 

d Rucker— Nature 63: 514 (1901), 64: 30 (1901). Three determinations were made and gave 1.5, 2.6, 
and 3.5 grams per square meter, respectively. Weighting the determinations according to the probable 
accuracy of each, 2.7 grams per square meter was obtained as a probably true average. 

The areas covered by the different falls vary widely. Falls occur 
occasionally in nearly every part of Europe, but it is seldom that 
the whole of the continent is affected by any one storm. The fall of 
March 9 to 12, 1901, however, was observed practically all over 
Europe. 6 The area covered is given by Hellmann and Meinardus as 
at least 300,000 square miles of land surface and 170,000 square miles 
of oc^an. The fall of February 22, 1903, covered an area nearly as 
large. c The amounts of dust actually brought into Europe by the 
various falls are difficult to determine on account of "the meager data 
available, both as to area covered and amount of deposited dust per 
unit area. The latter figure is also liable to much variation from place 
to place. A few estimates are found in the literature and are given 
in Table VIII. 



* o Der grosse Staubfall, p. 30-31 (1901). Palmeri (Rend. R. Accad. sci. fis. Naples 
(3) 7: 155 [1901]) gives two determinations of the quantity of the fall at Naples which 
are not quoted by Hellmann and Meinardus. They are 9.3 and 10.3 grams per square 
meter. The value given by Hellmann and Meinardus for Naples is 11 grams per square 
meter. Palmeri's values are probably the more accurate. 

ft See authorities cited on p. 89. 

« See authorities cited on p. 90. This fall was observed in England more widely 
fhun any other. The 'area affected in that country is given by Mill and Lempfert 
Quart, jour. Roy. meteor, soc. 30: 57 [1904]) as 20,000 square milea. 

63952°— Bull. 68—11 7 



98 



MOVEMENT OF BOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 



Table VIII. — Total quantities of dust deposited in Europe by various falls. 



Date. 



I8fi0« 

18836 

1864* 

February, 1888'.. 

March &-12, 1901 «. 
Do.*. 



Do.« 

February 22, 1903 /. . 



Location. 



Westphalia 

Canary Islands 

Silesia 

Silesia and environs 

Europe 

North Africa (approximated) 



Total. 
England... 



Kilograms. 



1,200,000,000 

6,900,000,000 

400,000,000 

12,852,000 

1,782,200,000 
1,600,000,000 



3,282,200,000 
9,100,000,000 



Tom. 



1,325,000 

6,600,000 

440,000 

14,147 

1,960,420 
1,650,000 



8,610,420 
10,000,000 



•Chauveau— Ann. Soc. mlteor. France 51 1 72 {1903). 



b von Fritsch— Allgemeine Geologic, n. 212 <1888). The quantity is given as 3,944,000 cubic meters. 

erase speci 
true specific gravity of tne dust material Is about 2.5. See Macagno and Taochini— Ann. meteor, ital. (2) 1 : 



In changing this to kilograms I have 
fall, p. 31) for the ave 



iflc gravity 



ie, p. 21 z <1888). rne quantity is given as 3.944,000 cubic meters, 
used the value given by Hellmann and Melnaraus (Der grosse Staub- 
kvity of siroooo dust, namely, 1.5. This allows for entangled air. The 



66 (1879); and Silvestri— Atti Acead. Gioenia Catania (3) 19: 133 (1878). 
eCohn— Abh. Schles. Qei. vaterl. Kultur 1864 1 31-50. 



4 Camerlander— Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 3S: 304 (1888). This value is intended as a minimum estimate. 

grosse Staubfall, p. 
/Mill and Lempfert— Quart, jour. Roy. meteor, soc. 80 1 57(1904). This estimate is admittedly based 



• Hellmann and Meinardus— Der 



31 (1901). 
*or. soc. ; 
on Insufficient data and is probably too high. 

Of these, only that of Hellmann and Meinardus for the fall of 
March 9 to 12, 1901, can claim any degree of accuracy. It is based 
upon a number of observations of the amount of dust per unit area, 
and the calculations of areas covered, etc., were made with care. The 
other estimates depend upon such inadequate data that they can 
scarcely be considered more than guesses. In spite of this unsafe- 
factory nature of the estimates it is apparent that the total quantity 
of sirocco dust which falls in Europe is quite large. From the figures 
of Hellmann and Meinardus, the European area covered by the fall 
of March 9 to 12, 1901, is seen to be 437,500 square kilometers 
(168,437 square miles), while the amount of this fall was 1,782,200,000 
kilograms. 6 The average fall on this occasion was therefore 4,780 
kilograms per square kilometer, or 4.78 grams per square meter 
(12.3 tons per square mile). At a specific gravity of 2.0 C this would 
give 2,390 cubic centimeters of dust per square meter of surface, or 
a layer 0.239 mm. thick. And if a storm as violent as that of March, 
1901, be assumed to occur once in five years, or if the total dust ac- 
cumulation from the less violent storms during five years' time be 
assumed equal to that carried by the storm of March, d 1901, there 

a Der grosse Staubfall, p. 31 (1901). 

©Table VIII. 

cThe specific gravity is taken higher in this case than in Table VIII, because we are 
hwe dealing with the rate of growth of the soil by the addition of dust, and on becoming 
a part of the soil the dust loses much of the pore space which it possesses when freshly 
(alien and in a loose, unpacked condition. It is still necessary, however, to take a 
specific gravity lower than that of the actual material of the dust, because the soil 
itself is to a certain degree loose and porous; 2.0 seems a fair average value. 

d This does not seem excessive in view of the fact that there have occurred since 
1900 two storms (March, 1901, and February, 1903) each of which produced a deposit 
of probably about the amount given. The other less extensive storms (of which some 
ten or twelve are recorded in this period) would probably bring the total quantity 
deposited since 1900 up to two or three times the assumed value. Accurate data are 
lacking for the years previous to 1900, but there is no reason to think that the average 
deposit was greatly less than at present. 



THE CONTINUAL DRIFT OF BOIL MATERIAL WITH THE WIND. 99 

will be 0.239 mm. of dust deposited every five years, or 4.78 mm. per 
century, and in the three thousand odd years during which we have 
authentic historic evidence for the occurrence of these storms there 
will have been added to the soil in the regions affected 143.4 mm., 
or over 5} inches, of material from the desert. This estimate will 
be much too low for Italy, southern France, and the Tyrol, because 
the storms are there more frequent than assumed, and the amount of 
dust deposited by each storm is greater. On the other hand, the 
estimate is probably too high for England and northern Germany. 

It does not follow that the surface of southern Europe has actu- 
ally been raised 5} inches in the last thirty centuries, or that its soil 
now contains a quantity of desert dust which would, if collected, pro- 
duce a layer of that thickness. The processes of soil loss and decay 
affect the wind-deposited material as well as that from other sources, 
and it, like everything else in the soil, is continually being both sup- 
plied and removed. The important point is that wind-borne material 
is being supplied to the soil of southern Europe at a rate which is 
geologically quite rapid. This conclusion is confirmed by the geologic 
evidence of the removal of thick strata which must once have covered 
the Sahara. There is no reason to believe that physiographic con- 
ditions in the Sahara have been during recent geologic time essentially 
different from those at present existing, and the degradation of 
this area must therefore be ascribed almost entirely to deflation. 6 
Of course, not all of the dust has been deposited in Europe. Most of 
it has fallen in Africa itself A in Asia Minor, and in the Mediterranean 
Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. 

THE CONTINUAL DBIFT OF SOIL HATBBIAL WITH THE WIND. 

The phenomena exhibited by drifting sand and by dust storms 
differ only in degree from what is continually taking place everywhere 
in the form of the slow and unnoticed drift of soil material backward 
and forward by the winds. c It is only under exceptional circum- 
stances that the amount of material being so transported at any 
one instant becomes great enough to be perceptible to the senses, 
but there are many evidences that much unnoticed transport does 
exist, and that over considerable periods of time its results exceed 
in importance those of the more spectacular manifestations of the 
same action. Dust storms are paroxysms. They form the intensive 
phase, the continual drift the extensive one, of the phenomena. It is 
the continually drifted material which forms the transient part of 
the dust of the atmosphere— transient because it remains in sus- 
pension only under the action of the wind and sinks more or less 
rapidly when the wind fails. 

a This question is fully discussed by Walther— Wustenbildung, Chapter I (1900). 
ft Zittel opposes this conclusion (Geol. Bau libyBchen Wuste, p. 18 [1880])* 
cQt. Menzel— Kosmos 2: 237-239 (1905). 



100 MOVEMENT 0# SOIL MATEBIAL BY THE WIND, 

ACCUMULATIONS OF DUST. 

The measurement of the amount of this drifting soil while it is 
actually in transport is almost impossible, and the evidence of the 
existence of the action is dependent on more or less indirect data, an 
important item of which is the well-known fact that dust rapidly 
accumulates in all places where it can remain undisturbed. This 
does not mean that dust reaches only protected places, but that it is 
only there that it can accumulate in sufficient quantity to become 
perceptible. Also the dust which falls on the soil is immediately 
incorporated therewith, and unless in some way very different from 
the soil material can not be distinguished from it, while dust which 
settles in houses, etc., at once becomes noticeable on account of its 
contrast with its environment. Just as much or more dust settles in 
the fields, but it belongs there and is unnoticed. When because of 
difference of color between the dust and the soil (as, for example, in 
the case of sirocco dust),° the presence of snow on the ground, or 
similar reasons, the field dust becomes perceptible, its amount is seen 
to be considerable. 

The presence of dust in places where it can be seen is too familiar 
to need any pf oof . The floors of unused rooms are soon dust-covered 
and deposits inches deep will accumulate in time. The beams under 
the roofs of barns and similar partially open buildings gather thick 
deposits on their upper surfaces. None of these places is particu- 
larly easy of access to the dust, and probably much more dust is 
deposited in the open fields, where every wind has full play. It may 
be argued that in the open fields the dust is not deposited but kept 
in motion, and that deposits in houses, etc., are really made because 
the wind does not have full sweep and is compelled to drop its load. 
To a certain extent this is true, but the vegetation of the open country 
forms, as already explained, an entanglement which must cause the 
progressive deposition of much of the atmospheric load. There are, 
of course, places in the open fields where dust will not be dropped, or 
will not remain if dropped; more than this, there are places where 
dust is removed (for if there were not, whence would come the dust ?), 
but there are many other places where deposit is going on much more 
rapidly than indoors. That the respective locations of these areas 
of erosion and deposition change from year to year with changes in 
vegetation, wind, etc. — that any particular field is being eroded this 
month and receiving deposits next month — does not at all weaken the 
conclusion that dust is probably being deposited (and removed) more 
rapidly in the open than in places where its presence is immediately 
perceptible. 



• Another case (cement dust) is cited by Peirce— Science (n. a.) 30: 652 (1909). 



ACCUMULATIONS OP DUST. 101 

Id Edinburgh, in 1902, Black made some measurements of the 
amount of dust deposited in an open rain gauge having a funnel 6 
inches in diameter, and found it to vary between 25 and 160 grains 
(1.62 to 10.37 grams) per month. Disregarding the values for cer- 
tain months when much dust was raised by building operations nearby, 
the maximum value is 80 grains (5.18 grams). The average for the 
eight months, the values for which are believed to be trustworthy, is 
42.3 grains (2.74 grams) per month, or 1.16 ounces (32.89 grams per 
year). This was over an area of 28.27 square inches (circle 6 inches 
in diameter), and amounts to 150 grams per square meter per month, 
or 1.8 kilograms per square meter (5,157 tons per square mile) per 
year. At a specific gravity of 2.0 this equals a layer about 0.04 
centimeter (about 0.16 inch) thick deposited in one year. Some 
other determinations made at the same time and place gave, for the 
dust deposited in an open dish, 3.8 ounces per square foot (1,159 
grams per square meter, or 3,315 tons per square mile) per year. The 
amount deposited in an open dish is naturally less than the deposit 
in a rain gauge, as the latter is much better fitted to entrap and retain 
the dust. Of course these figures are of no great quantitative value, 
as there is no assurance that the dust collected was composed of soil 
materials. However, Edinburgh is not a smoky city, and it is proba- 
ble that at least a large part of the dust was drifting soil. 6 Black 
gives no data as to its composition, but he speaks of it as ''sand/' 
which would indicate that he considered it mineral in nature. 

Professor Fry, in Cincinnati, has made some similar experiments on 
the amount of dust collected in buckets kept partly full of water and 
placed on the roofs of various buildings. 6 The dust was filtered off, 
extracted with concentrated hydrochloric acid, and weighed. The 
amount deposited at the various stations during July, August, and 
September, 1906, varied from 0.464 gram to 22.550 grams per square 
foot, with an average of 5.6 grams per square foot (60.28 grams per 
square meter) per month, or 723 grams per square meter (2,062 tons 
per square mile) per year. The months during which observations 
were made are the clearest of the year in Cincinnati, and the esti- 
mates given are probably lower than the yearly average. The mate- 
rial collected was carbonaceous and ashy, and appeared to be largely 

« Quart, jour. Roy. meteor, soc. 29? 134 (1903). For a brief notice of similar 
measurements in 1903 (less accurate because of building operations near by), see 
Symons's meteor, mag. 39: 29 (1904). 

# For data as to the composition of city dusts, etc., see p. 104. 

« This work was done for the Smoke Abatement League, of Hamilton County, Ohio, 
and was reported at a meeting of the Cincinnati Section of the American Chemical 
Society, on October 17, 1906. A short abstract was published in the Announcement 
of the Section for 1907, pp. 18-19. I am indebted to Professor Fry for kindly sending 
me a fuller report of the work than is given in this abstract. 



102 MOVEMENT OF BOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

derived from coal smoke. No attempt was made to determine the 
amount of soil material which it contained. 

The presence of much drifting soil in open fields has been shown 
by Emeia,* who collected the soil in a glass of water exposed on top 
of a low wall. He made no quantitative measurements. AUuard* 
measured the amount of blown soil (mostly volcanic dust from 
neighboring deposits) which collected in the cistern fed by the rain 
water from the roof of the observatory at Puy-de-D6me, France. 
He obtained 73 grams per square meter of roof surface during two 
and a half months. His estimate of the yearly average was 100 
grams per square meter. 

The presence of snow on the ground furnishes an indicator for the 
dust, and the dirty appearance of snow a few days old is familiar to 
all. This is especially noticeable when the snow has partially melted 
and the dust has thereby become concentrated in the residue. The 
last remnants of a snowdrift are always much discolored. Observa- 
tions on the presence of soil dust in snow have been made in Switzer- 
land by Fischer ; c in Germany by Fldgel, d Chelius/ and Emeis;' in 
England by Preece' and Irwin;* and in Canada by Rae;' and the 
deposition of dust with drifting snow has even been suggested as a 
source of the loess.' During the winter of 1887-88 in central and 
northern Saxony so much dust was moved by the wind that layers 2, 
3, and even 4 centimeters thick were found covering the snowdrifts 
in exposed locations.* On this dust layer being covered by a second 
snowfall the dust deposition was repeated and there was thus pro- 
duced a considerable thickness of interstratified layers of dust and 
snow. It is possible that the strata of ice in the high latitude tun- 
dras may have originated in a similar way, having been once on the 
surface and covered with soil transported by wind and water. 1 In 

oAllg. FoistJagdztg. 78: 403 (1902). 

ftCompt. rend. 100: 1081-1083 (1885). 

cMitth. naturf. Gee. Bern 1867: 210-213. 

*&. Met. 16: 324(1881). 

« Neu<* Jahrb. Min. 1892, 1: 226. 

/Allg. Font- Jagdztg. 78: 403-414 (1902). See also von Lasaulx— Encyclop. der 
Naturw., Abt. II 1 : 74 (1882); and note in Nature 27: 496 (1883). 

9 Nature 28 : 336-337 (1881). 

A Jour. Soc. chem. ind. 21: 533 (1902). 

< Nature 83 : 244-245 (1886). 

1 Daviaon— Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 50 : 472-487 (1894). This article contains much 
information on the collection of dust in snowdrifts. On the movement of dust with 
the great snow storms of the steppes, see Nehring— Tundren und Steppen, pp. 44-45 
(1890). 

* Bauer and Biegert—Ze. deut. geol. Gee. 40: 576-582 (1888). 

I See Leffingwell— Jour. geol. 16 : 56-63 (1908). For alternative explanations see 
Tyrrell— Jour. geol. 12: 232-236 (1904); and Stettnason— Bull. Amer. geog. soc. 42 1 
337-345 (1910). 



ACCtrMTOjATIONS OP DUST. 103 

January, 1901, there was blown onto the ice-covered surface of Lake 
Muritz (northwest of Berlin) a sheet of dust from 0.1 to 0.2 milli- 
meter thick and extending about 5 kilometers from the east bank. a 
The total quantity deposited was estimated as at least 5,000 cubic 
meters. If such quantities of dust are collected in so short a time, 
and if enough dust to be easily perceptible is gathered everywhere 
by a comparatively transient snow covering, it is apparent that the 
aggregate amount of blown dust must be very large, and especially 
is this conclusion inevitable when it is remembered that these indi- 
cations' are all observed durirg the season when most of the soil 
surface is frozen or ice covered and thereby protected from wind 
action. It seems probable that much larger quantities of dust are 
moved during the summer, though the absence of any indicator such 
as the snow prevents its presence being noticed. 

Even in regions of perpetual snow in the arctics and on high 
mountains, dust is found in and on the snow and ice, 6 and N. A. E. 
Nordenskiold c found on the ice of Greenland a deposit which he 
thought to be a new mineral species, and named cryokonite. He 
supposed it to be of extraterrestrial origin. It has since been shown 
by Hoist* and von Lasaulx' that this material is a mixture of 
ordinary minerals/ and has undoubtedly been derived from the 

a Peltz— Archiv Ver. Naturg. Mecklenburg 55: 180 (1901). 

* On the occurrence of mineral dust in arctic snow and ice see W. E. Parry— Jour- 
nal of a third voyage for the discovery of a Northwest Passage, pp. 23, 104, 155 (1826); 
McClure — The discovery of the Northwest Passage by H. M. S. "Investigator" 2ded. 
(Osborn), pp. 193, 229 (1857); M' Clin tock— The voyage of the "Fox" in Arctic seas, 
p. 146 (1859); Koldewey— The German Arctic expedition of 1869-70, English ed. of 
1874, p. 120; Flight— Geol. mag. n. s. 2: 157-159 (1875); Nares— Narrative of a voy- 
age to the Polar sea, vol. 1, pp. 149, 168-169, vol. 2, pp. 12, 59, 61 (1878); Jensen— 
Peterm. Mitth. 26: 103 (1880); Carstensen— Globus 47: 154 (1885); Greely— Three 
years of Arctic service, vol. 1, pp. 312, 398-399, vol. 2, pp. 30-31 (1886); Kindle— 
Amer. jour. sci. (4) 28: 175-179 (1909). Terrestrial dust has similarly been ob- 
served in the snow on the Himalaya Mountains (altitudes up to 14,700 feet). See 
Arthur Schuster— Rept. Brit, assoc. 1883: 12&-127; Tanner— Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc. 
(n. b.) 13: 411 (1891); and Oldham— Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 50: 486 (1894). 

c Ofvers. K. Vet.-akad. f6rh. 31 : 3-12 (1874) ; Voyage of the Vega, vol. 1, pp. 327-331 
(1881). 
4 Sveriges geol. undenSkning ser. C, No. 81, 1886. 

• Tschermak'smin.Mitt. (n.s.) 3: 519-526 (1880). On cryokonite see also Wolfing— 
Neues Jahrb. Min. Beilagebd. 7: 152-174 (1890). 

/ Quartz, mica, orthoclase, plagioclase, magnetite, garnet, eptdote, hornblende, etc., 
mainly quartz. The chemical composition of an air-dried sample was as follows: 

8iOt .' 62.25 

AUOi 14.93 

FeiOi 74 

FeO 4.64 

MnO 07 

CaO 5.09 

MgO 3.00 

KiO 2.02 

Analysis by Lindstrdm, quoted by von Lasaulx, loc. cit. See also Nordenskidld — 
Met. Zb. 11 : 215 (1894), where this and other analyses (also by Lindstrdm) are quoted 



Na«o 4.01 

PiOi n 

Cl 08 

Hygroscopic water 34 

Loss on Ignition 2. 86 



100.12 



104 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

rocks of the coast and other exposed places, and blown by the wind 
to the surface of the ice fields. 

It may be argued that the house dust, etc., is not soil material, 
but organic remains, soot, ashes, rust, etc. However, all examina- 
tions of blown dust have shown the presence therein of the ordinary 
soil minerals in addition to various matters of animal, vegetable, and 
industrial origin. For instance, dust collected from the roof of the 
National Museum at Melbourne, Australia, was largely mineral and 
contained quartz, augite, tourmaline, olivine, zircon, feldspar (ortho- 
clase, albite, labradorite, etc.), epidote, magnetite, limonite, zoisite, 
and calcite. Dust deposited on the frozen surface of one of the 
lakes at Madison, Wis., by the dust storm of February, 1896, was 
examined by Prof. W. H. Hobbs and found to be composed of the 
ordinary minerals of granitic rocks. b Dust collected from the snow 
north of Kiel, Germany, contained quartz, feldspars, mica, horn- 
blende, and clayey substances. c Dust from the top of the tower of 
the cathedral at Nancy contained quartz, feldspars, micas, pyroxene, 
tourmaline, rutile, enstatite, peridot, zircon, corundum, hematite, 
calcite, and clay. d Similar dusts deposited by Australian* and 
Russian f dust storms, collected from snow at Madrid,* at the top 
of Ben Nevis, Scotland,* at Trondhjem, Norway/ in eastern Sweden,' 
etc., possess a like composition.* It is true that in cities, and especi- 
ally near manufacturing centers, much dust is discharged into the 
air by various industrial enterprises/ and the dust of cities is likely 
to contain a smaller percentage of soil material than dust collected 
in less crowded regions. Nevertheless, the dust of New York City 
was found to contain much quartz and numerous fragments of 
other minerals,* 1 and dust collected in Berlin was found to be 
largely mineral . n 

« Chapman and Grayson— Vict. nat. 20: 30 (1903). 

& Observation published only in the daily press. For the information given and 
for a sample of the dust I am indebted to Prof. J. A. Jeffery, now of the Michigan 
Agricultural College, who collected the dust. 

c von Lasaulx— Tschermak's min. Mitt. (n. b.) 3: 529 (1880). 

<* Thoulet— Compt. rend. 146: 1347 (1908), 150: 947-949 (1910). 

«L. Hart — Austr. photog. rev. 1897: 9; Chapman and Grayson — loc. cit.; Liver- 
Bidge— Jour. Proc. Roy. soc. N. S. Wales 36: 242 et seq. (1902). 

/ KlossovskH— Bull. Soc. beige, geol. 8, Proc. verb.: 239-240 (1895). 

Macpherson— Nature 29 : 224 (1884). Cf . also ibid., p. 174. 

A Murray and Renard— Nature 29: 590 (1884). 

* Reusch— Nature 27 : 496 (1883). 

I Hildebrandson, quoted by N. A. E. NordenskiSld — Geol. mag. (2) 3: 295 (1876). 
See also NordenskiSld— Geol. fflren. ferh. 14: 377 (1892), 15: 417-459 (1893). 

* For examination of various dusts and soots see Hartley and Ramage — Proc. Roy. 
roc. 68: 97-109 (1901). Cf. also Fl6gel— Zs. Met. 16: 324 (1881). 

J See Leymann — Die Verunreinigung der Luft durch gewerbliche Betriebe, Handb. 
der Hygiene, Suppl. bd. 3, pp. 27-126 (1903). 
wEgleston — Trans. Amer. soc. civ. eng. 15: 656 (1886). 
» Himmel und Erde 18 : 279-282 (1906). 



ACCUMULATIONS OF DUST. 105 

So largely is ordinary dust made up of soil material that its color 
and other properties are determined by the nature of the prevailing 
soil, or at least of that part of the soil which is fine enough to be moved 
by the wind. The "alkali" dust of the western United States is 
white, the dust of laterite regions is reddish, etc. 

The dust which accumulates where it can be recognized as wind- 
borne is usually removed, naturally or artificially, practically as fast 
as it gathers ; and accumulations on the soil itself can not be recognized 
as differing from local soil materials. Sometimes, however, eolian 
dusts can be identified, as, for instance, the fine white powder found 
by Gilbert 6 in cavities in the cindery lava of the Lake Bonneville 
district, or the black or reddish clayey dust found by Foureau in 
sheltered rock cavities in the northern Sahara. 6 The writer has found 
similar dust (or rather very fine sand) in cavities in the tufa of Rattle- 
snake Butte, near Fallon, Nev. The natives of central Australia find 
sand in birds' nests in trees high above the ground.* It is said that 
the bark of trees growing east of the Columbia River in southeast 
Washington is so full of blown sand as to dull saws used to cut them. 
Raulin,' in 1845, found on the tops of the high mountains of Crete 
pockets of soil which he believed to have been deposited by the wind. 
Similar occurrences have been observed on Mount Monadnock, in New 
Hampshire/ Reid ° cites several instances of wind-deposited material 
om chalk cliffs and sand hills in England. A. D. Hall* mentions the 
growth of soil on shingle recently won from the sea; and Kinahan * 
describes a similar deposit on a surface of bog-iron ore — wind action 
being responsible in both cases. There is always a possibility (though 
usually a slight one) that these deposits may have been derived from 
the decay of the rock (rain wash is excluded by the location), but this 
can not be the case with the pockets of soil frequently found on tops 
of buildings/ Dirt tends to collect in low spots on the roof, and 
especially to be washed into rain spouts, necessitating occasional 

cleaning. It can have gotten there only by wind-drift from the 

* 

* See Walther — Einleitung in der Geologic als historische Wissenschaft, p. 810 
(1894). 

b Lake Bonneville, U. S. geol. surv. Monogr. 1: 325 (1890). 

« Documents scientifiques mission saharienne, vol. 1, p. 234 (1904). For a similar 
observation in the Salton Basin, see Tol man— Jour. geol. 17: 156 (1909). 

d J. W. Gregory— Dead heart of Australia, p. 233 (1906). 

« Bull. Soc. geol. France (2) 15 : 139 (1857). Cf . the observations of Virlet d'Aoust 
and of Stur, cited on p. 140 below. 

/ Unpublished observation of Mr. W. O. Robinson, of this bureau. For further 
notice of this soil, see p. 162. 

9 Geol. mag. (3) 1 : 166, 168 (1884). 

* The soil, p. 10 (19C3). 
<Geol. Mag. 6: 267(1869). 

J Reid — GfloJ. mag. (3) 1: 167 (1884); Richthofen, in Neumayer— Anleit. wiss. 
Beob. auf Retsen, 2d ed., vol. 1, p, 254 (1888). 



106 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

ground below, and that it contains the soil minerals is shown by the 
not infrequent occurrence in it of growing plants, sprung from seeds 
likewise blown in by the wind or carried by birds. 

The deposition of blown soils on a large scale is discussed below 
under the head of eolian geologic formations. 

ADMIXTURE OF LOCAL MATERIAL IN DUST FALLS. 

Additional evidence of the constant presence of soil material in the 
atmosphere is found in the fact that nearly every fall of volcanic ash, 
sirocco dust, etc., which has been examined has been found to contain 
material of local origin. Only the dust collected on shipboard is free 
from contamination of this sort. 6 This constant local admixture has 
been observed in atmospheric dusts in general by von Lasaiilx* and 
Black; 4 * in sirocco dust by Cohn,« Max. Schuster/ von John,* 
Klein,* Becke,' Fruh,' Mill and Lempfert,* Krebs, 1 Prinz,* 1 Macagno 
and Tacchini," and others; in Australian blown dust by Steel; in 
Krakatoa ashes by Judd,? etc. The amount of local material is fre- 
quently great enough to change the properties of the fallen dust and 
prevent its accurate analysis.* It has been suggested by Klein r that 
the local mineral matter in air dusts may have an industrial origin, 
being derived from impurities in the coal burned in furnaces, but it 
seems more likely that much of it, at least, is derived from the soil 
itself. 

NATURAL BURIAL OF ARTICLES IN THE SOIL. 

It is well known that stones and similar articles left lying on the 
ground gradually disappear beneath the surface, and that the soil 

a Of course, when the fall is too heavy the presence of local material is obscured. 

b See Herrmann— Annalen Hydrog. 31: 478-479 (1903). 

c Tschermak's min. Mitt. (n. s.) 3: 530 (1880). 

d Quart, jour. Roy. meteor, soc. 29: 134 (1903). 

< Abh. Schles. Gee. vaterl. Kultur 1864 : 31-50. 

/Sitzungsb. Kaiserl. Akad. Wise. Vienna 93: 105-116 (1886). 

Verh. geol. Reichsanst. 1896: 259. 

* Sitzungsb. K. Preuss. Akad. Wise. Berlin 1901 : 612 et seq. 
i Anz. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Vienna 38: 107-109 (1901). 
iMet. Zs. 20: 175(1903). 

* Quart, jour. Roy. meteor, soc. 30: 76 et seq. (1904). 

* Globus 84 * 184(1903). 

« Ciel et terre 24 : 25, 75, 81 (1903). 

» Ann. meteor, ital. (2) 1 : 70 (1879). 

o Rept. Austr. assoc. adv. sci. 7 : 334-335 (1898). See also Liveraidge— Jour. Proc. 
Roy. soc. New South Wales 36: 258 et seq. (1902). 

V Roy. soc. Rept. on Krakatoa, p. 41 (1888). 

Cf. p. 94 above, and see also Mill and Lempfert— loc. cit., in note k above. 
Sirocco dust is sometimes greatly changed in color by local admixture. See Hellmann 
and Meinardus— Der grosse Staubfall, p. 90 (1901), and Ditte—Ciel et terre 25: 502 
(1904). 

r Sitzungsb. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1901 x 612 et seq. 



NATURAL BURIAL, OF ARTICLES IN THE SOIL. 107 

similarly tends to "creep up" about walls, fences, etc. Even more 
striking is the fact that a layer of ashes, lime, etc., if spread on a field 
will gradually sink as a layer y and may be found years later as a dis- 
tinct stratum a few inches below the surface. Many examples of 
these phenomena are cited by Darwin.* The relics of ancient 
civilizations, as, for instance, arrowheads in America, coins and 
medals in Europe, etc., are always found beneath the surface. It is 
extremely unlikely that all of these objects were originally buried by 
man, and it is therefore necessary to ascribe their present position to 
the action of some natural agency which causes the covering of objects 
left on the surface, 6 and which acts with considerable rapidity, only a 
few years being required for burial to be effected. The dfibris left on 
the battlefields of the civil war has already entirely disappeared, and 
that it has actually "sunk" and not been artificially removed is 
proven by the frequency with which swords, belt buckles, and other 
articles are unearthed by cultivators of fields which vere once the 
scene of battles. 

This process of natural burial was ascribed by Darwin e to the 
action of earthworms, and by Kinahan d to the accumulation of the 
products of vegetable decay. It is probably in part due to rain wash 
and in part to the deposit of blown dust/ and perhaps in part also to 
the mutual movements of the soil particles, as described on page 16.' 
This last factor can never be more than a minor one, but the deter- 
mination of the relative importance of the others is very difficult. 
There is no doubt that each is of predominant importance in certain 
cases, and that all are of some effect in all cases. As a generally pre- 
dominant factor, the accumulation of vegetable remains, as suggested 
by Kinahan, may be at once rejected, since the material which is 
found to cover the buried articles is largely mineral, being simply 
ordinary soil. The importance of rain wash can usually be deter- 
mined from the topography of the country, and there are many cases 

« Formation of vegetable mould, chap. 3 (1881). See also Kinahan — Geol. mag. 6 : 
109-115, 263-268, 34S-351 (1869); Key—Nature 17: 28 (1877); Dancer— Proc. Phil, 
roc. Manchester 16: 247 (1877); and Urquhart— Nature 27: 91 (1882). 

ft Of course there are places where the erosive agencies of wind and water are so 
active that bodies do not sink below the surface because the surface soil itself is too 
rapidly removed. On such areas stones do not tend to disappear, but to appear (from 
below), and of all crops that of the stones is the largest. The stony hillside fields of 
New England belong to this class. Similarly, in arid regions there is formed a ' ' desert 
pavement," as already described. 

eProc. Geol. soc. London 2: 574-676 (1838); Trans. Geol. soc. London (2) 5: 
605-509 (1840); Formation of vegetable mould, 1881. 

d Geol. mag. 6: 263-268, 348-351 (1869). 

« For suggestions to this effect, see Rafinesque — Amer. Jour. Sci. 1 : 397-400 (1819); 
Proctor— Pleasant ways in science, p. 379 (1878); Richthofen— Verh. geol. Reichsanst. 
1878: 296; and Hughes— Nature 30: 57 (1884). 

/ For instance, see Scott— Nature 78 : 376 (1908). 



108 MOVEMENT OP SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

where the situation of the field excludes this factor at once. Also 
rain wash would not in general produce deposits of uniform thickness, 
as seen in the burial of layers of foreign material, as described abov^_ 
or in the case noted by Kinahan," where the uprights of a long iron 
railing were buried to a uniform depth by the up-creep of soil. 

It is-more difficult to discriminate between the effects of earthworm. , 
action and of the deposition of blown dust. Each would probably, 
produce a deposit of reasonably uniform thickness and each deposit , 
would probably consist of particles of about the same size. A grain 
too large to be swallowed by the worm would also be too large to be 
moved by the wind, and where numerous larger grains are found in 
the surface deposit 6 their presence is probably to be ascribed to 
water action. It is possible that a careful mineralogical examination 
of the deposit might furnish criteria, at least in some cases. If it 
were found to be composed entirely of the material of the subsoil, it 
might reasonably be referred to worm action. If, on the other hand, 
much foreign material were found to be present, it would be reason- 
able proof of the activity of the wind. 

It seems at any rate not improbable that the share of the wind in the 
formation of "vegetable mould" is far greater than that assigned to it 
by Darwin. c Burial by earthworms is in great part a real sinking of the 
object due to removal of soil from beneath, and it is difficult to see 
how pavements or layers of foreign material could sink in this manner 
without more distortion of level than is observed,* and particularly 
difficult to imagine a stone wall thus sinking without losing its perpen- 
dicular position.' It would seem that in these cases either wind or 
rain has been the main agent. The same is true in general of the 
burial of ancient buildings in England and elsewhere/ Whether in 
general in the open fields more material is deposited by the winds or 
by the worms, it is impossible to say. Neither can be neglected as an 
active agent. 

THE IMPORTANCE OF SOIL DRIFT. 

It is apparent from the above that the quantities of soil drifted 
back and forth by the wind are considerable, though perhaps not 

a Geol. mag. 6: 266 (1869). 

b For aninstance, see Darwin — The formation of vegetable mould, N.Y., 1898, p. 225. 

c The formation of vegetable mould, N. Y., 1898, note on p. 237. 

& Various instances of the discovery of ancient floors, etc., the original level surface 
of which was still maintained, are cited by Darwin (The formation of vegetable mould, 
N. Y., 1898, chaps. 3 and 4). 

t An instance is given by Darwin — loc. cit., p. 227. 

/ See Darwin (loc. cit., chap. 4) for many instances. In most of these cases rain has 
no doubt been very active. J. E. Lee, however (in his trans, of Keller — Lake dwell- 
ings in Switzerland, footnote on p. 367 [1866]), cites a case where rain action was 
impossible and where nevertheless Roman remains were found in England 5 to 6 feet 
below the surface. A case of the burial of ruins by blown volcanic dust on top of Puy- 
de-D6me, France, is cited by Alluard— Compt. rend. 100: 1082 (1886). 



THE IMPOBTANCE OF SOIL DRIFT. 109 

susceptible to accurate measurement. In spite of the small amounts 
of soil which can actually be seen to blow about, it is not difficult, 
when the persistence of the action is considered, to believe that the 
aggregate amount is very great. One of Darwin's greatest contribu- 
tions to scientific thought was his insistancc — in connection with 
evolutionary doctrines, the study of coral Islands, and elsewhere — that 
effects of great magnitude may be produced as the cumulative result 
of very small but frequent secular changes. 

As already mentioned, no marked deposits are likely to bo pro- 
duced by .soil drift. It is true that certain areas, as indicated in the 
last section, are receiving deposits, but this material is derived from 
other areas where the protection furnished by vegetation or other 
means is less adequate to prevent attack. In fact, the protection is 
nowhere sufficient absolutely to prevent attack, and soil drift is always 
back and forth, with a tendency for the best protected areas to lose 
less than they gain. The sinking of objects into the soil does not 
always require the deposit of any great amount of foreign matter. 
If the surface soil is continually being shifted by the wind, bodies 
which are too heavy to be thus moved will sink through the rest, and 
stones, etc., may thus be lowered in absolute position as well as cov- 
ered by extraneous material.* This of course can not take place with 
the pavements, buildings, etc., mentioned above, and if these are 
covered by wind action it must be by virtue of actual deposit on top 
of them. The material so gained must naturally be made up by ma- 
terial lost from some other area. 

To the agriculturist the main importance of this back-and-forth 
drift lies in its efficacy in increasing and maintaining the heteroge- 
neity of the soil. The instances of its occurrence given above are 
merely those in which the action chances to be visible on account of 
some special and unusual condition, and there can be no doubt that 
most of the soil drift is not observed and not observable. The surface 
of every field probably receives material from every field in the neigh- 
borhood and from many at a distance, though how much material 
is thus received it is impossible to say. It is seldom sufficient to 
modify greatly the appearance and general properties of the soil. 
Sandy soils remain sandy and clayey ones clayey in spite of wind 
drift. It is worth noting, however, that unless either the soil or the 
added material were very exceptionally distinctive, 4 or 5 per cent 
of blown dust could be present without being detectable by any known 
methods of soil examination. The blowing in of distant material 
is at least a possible source of supply of minerals in which a particular 
soil is naturally deficient, and these minerals do not need to be present 
in any large amount to be ample for the needs of the soil. 6 

* For an example in the dunes of Sylt, Germany, see Meyn — Abh. geol. Sp.-Karte 
Preuss. 1 : 652, 666 (1876). 
b See Bull. 30, Bur. of Soils, U. S. Dept. Agr. (1906). 



110 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

TBT7B ATMOSPHBBJO DUST. 

The constant presence of fine dust in the atmosphere is evidenced 
by the floating motes which are seen in a beam of light through a dark 
room. The dust is of various materials — organic remains, smoke 
thrown off by fires and by various industrial operations; mineral 
matter from the soil, etc., together with small amounts of material of 
volcanic and cosmic origin. By far the larger part is transient and its 
discussion belongs to the last chapter, under the head of soil drift, 
though the transient part is, of course, not entirely made up of soil 
material. Much of the industrial and domestic debris remains in sus- 
pension only a short time and does not travel far from its place of 
origin. There is, however, in the air some dust which is deposited 
only with extreme slowness and which forms the more or less per- 
manent part of the atmospheric load. It must not be understood 
that particles of this material never settle out of the atmosphere; they 
do, and are constantly being replaced by new ones. The perma- 
nence of atmospheric dust is a permanence of dust content rather 
than of individual particles. Atmospheric dust can perhaps be 
roughly defined as the solid material which is normally present in the 
atmosphere in distinction to that which belongs to the ground surface 
and is only abnormally atmospheric. No sharp or rigid distinctions 
or definitions are possible or desirable. 

THE PHYSICS OF DUST SUSPENSION. 

It is not necessary to revert to hypotheses of mutual electrical 
repulsion ° or similar phenomena in order to explain the fact that 
dust particles (and also drops of water) remain suspended in the air 
for an indefinite period. The simple resistance of the air to the move- 
ment of such very minute bodies is amply sufficient to reduce their 
rate of fall to the requisite degree. Particles of volcanic ash, organic 
matter, etc., fall especially slowly because of their irregular shape, 
but even perfect spheres are easily supported if small enough. Fid- 
gel 6 has calculated that a sphere of iron 0.018 mm. in diameter would 
fall at a maximum rate of 1.69 meters per second. The metallic 
spheres actually found in atmospheric dust (see p. 120) are almost 
always smaller than this, 6 and would consequently sink with a 

a As advocated by Rowell (Rept. Brit. Assoc. 1840: 47; Nature 29: 251 [1884]), and 
by Preece (Nature 29: 180 [1883]). 

*>Zs. Met. 16:326 (1881). See also Plumandon-— Poussieres atmosphenques, 
p. 33 (1897). 

c Tissandier found them to vary from 0.01 to 0.001 mm. in diameter (Compt. rend. 
78: 823 [1874], 80: 59 [1875]). See also Tacchini— Mem. Soc. spettrosc. ital. 8 
Append.: 19-20 (1879); Ditte— Ciel et terre 25: 498 (1904). Tissandier's work on 
atmospheric dusts was published in the Compt. rend. 78: 821-824 (1874), 80: 58-61 
(1875), 81: 576-579 (1875), 83: 75-78, 1184-1186 (1876), and 86: 45<M53 (1878). 
A more general article was published in the Rev. sci. (2) 18: 814-820 (1880). His 
earlier observations were collected and amplified in a work entitled Les Poussieres de 
Pair, published in 1877. 



THE PHYSICS OF DUST SUSPENSION. Ill 

maximum velocity even lower than that assumed. The continual 
eddying of the air currents as described on page 34 is therefore 
well able to keep them in suspension. 

The vitreous and mineral fragments are even more easily sus- 
pended, and the organic particles more easily still. Air dusts some- 
times contain particles of soot, volcanic glass, etc., as large as 0.1 
mm. in their longest diameter. * The consequent movements of the 
air currents carry this dust far and wide and mix it so thoroughly 
that all local differences disappear; and the true atmospheric dust 
becomes practically the same the world over. 

Of the atmospheric dust which is carried to the ground a small 
part doubtless falls of itself during periods of calm/ and a large part 
is filtered out of the lower air by vegetation/* but by far the largest 
part is washed out by rain and snow. Not only is dust entangled by 
falling water drops and snow crystals, but the dust particles them- 
selves act as nuclei around which the rain drops condense.' 

It is possible that the dust itself, through the modifications which 
it brings about in the heat-absorbing power of the air of which it is 
a part, tends to set up currents which help keep it in suspension.' 
The dust particles doubtless absorb radiant heat more rapidly than 
does the surrounding air, and hence when dusty air is exposed to the 
sun's rays each dust mote will act as a miniature furnace. The 
aggregate result is that dusty air becomes more highly heated by the 

* On the flotation of volcanic dust, see Murray and Renard — Proc. Roy. soc. Edin- 
burgh 12: 486(1883-4). 

ftTissandier— Gompt. rend. 78: 823 (1874), 81 1 577(1875); Lea Pouflsieres de 1'air, 
pp. 9-10. See also Table III, p. 45, above. 

c For instance, the air of the desert is always clearer in the morning. See Hedin — 
Scientific Results, vol. 1, p. 212 (1904); and Huntington — Pulse of Asia, p. 185 
(1907). A similar greater clearness of the morning air in humid regions would be 
noticed were there so great a difference in the rapidity of air movement in the day- 
time and at night as there is in the desert. 

<f See Rolleston— Jour. Roy . geog. soc. 49 : 346-347 (1879) and authorities there cited . 

€ See Aitken's papers in the Trans, and Proc. Roy. soc. Edinburgh, 1880 to 1902 
(cited in the bibliography). His work is largely summarized in a paper before the 
International Meteorological Congress held at Chicago in 1893: Bull. 11, Weather 
Bureau, U. S. Dept. Agr., pp. 734-754. See also Coulier— Jour, pharm. chim. (4) 22 : 
165-173 (1875). Condensation can, however, take place on nuclei other than dust 
particles (ions, etc.), though not so readily. See Barus — Pub. Carnegie Institution of 
Washington, 40, 1906; 62, 1907; 96, 1908. Also several articles by him in Science, 
1904-1908, and a short article in Nature 69: 103 (1903). For a short general discus- 
sion of condensation nuclei, see C. T. R. Wilson— Nature 68 : 548-550 (1903). Melan- 
der has observed in the dust from Vesuvius certain particles which Beem more than 
normally efficient in condensing moisture on themselves (Ofvere. Finska vet. soc. fdrh. 
43: 148-160 [1901]). He believes these to be particles of more or less deliquescent 
Baits. 

/This was suggested for sirocco dust by Mill and Lempfert — Quart, jour. Roy. 
meteor, soc. 30: 71 (1904). On heat absorption, etc., by dust in air, see Sen-ell— 
Nature 30: 53-54 (1884). 



112 MOVEMENT OF BOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

sun than air carrying little or no suspended matter. Therefore if a 
dusty stratum lie below an empty one, the lower may become suffi- 
ciently heated to rise through the higher. It is quite possible that 
this action is important in thoroughly mixing suspended dust through 
the air. Aitken ° has made the interesting observation that dust 
motes are not affected by solar heat focused by a large lens, where 
larger objects would be burnt up at once. This is probably because 
the mote loses heat so rapidly to the surrounding air. 

THE SOURCES OF ATMOSPHERIC DUST. 

In the atmosphere generally most of the dust is probably organic, 
and consists of animal and vegetable fragments, living bacteria and 
spores, grains of pollen, fragments of diatoms, etc. The predominance 
of organic matter is due to the low specific gravity and irregular form 
of these fragments, which consequently possess a high surface-mass 
ratio and are easily suspended. Mineral grains are heavier and more 
nearly spherical, and therefore tend to settle out more rapidly. True 
soil material is, however, never entirely absent from atmospheric 
dust. 

In the air of cities' and other places where many fires are burning 
the air is much contaminated by soot and fine ash discharged by the 
chimneys. Much of this material is so fine that it falls very slowly 
and forms part of the permanently suspended dust of the atmos- 
phere. Great fires, especially forest and prairie fires, make a similar 
contribution. Much dust other than smoke can also be traced to 
human activity — as, for instance, organic fibers from the making and 
handling of textiles, dust originating from street traffic, etc. 6 

Another source of atmospheric dust is the spray blown inland from 
the seas, from which is derived the sodium chloride known to be 
present in some quantity in rain, c the amount decreasing with dis- 
tance from the seashore. Du Bois d gives yearly averages varying 
from 0.66 to 30 milligrams per liter of rain. He calculates the annual 
amount of sodium chloride deposited on the dunes of Holland to be 
at least 6,000,000 kilograms (13,227,720 pounds). The mean pro- 

a Trans. Roy. roc. Edinburgh 42: 489 (1902). 

ft An interesting illustration of the odd materials which can be found in atmospheric 
dust is furnished by Flogel's detection in dust from snow of ultramarine crystals, 
probably derived from blued clothes (Zs. Met. 16 1 368 [1881]). 

c See Schtibler — Grundeatze der Meteorologie, p. 140 (1831); Barral — Proc.-verb. 
Soc. Philom. 1852: 29-30; Compt. rend. 35: 427-431 (1852); Arago— Oeuvres com- 
pletes, vol. 12 : p. 391-407 (1859); Passerini— Boll. Soc. meteor, ital. (2) 13: 66 (1893); 
alsoCieletterrelO: 438(1890), 12: 94-96 (1891), and 15: 570(1895); and especially 
Du Bois— Ciel et terre 28: 233-245 (1907), Arch. Mus. Teyler (2) 10: 461-467 (1907). 
Cf. the observation of Curtis of salt incrustation on an instrument exposed to an ocean 
gale, but situated 1 mile inland (Quart, jour. Roy. meteor, soc. 30: 89 [1904]). 

* Ciel et terre, loc. cit. 



THE SOURCES OF ATMOSPHERIC DUST. 113 

portion of sodium chloride in rain in England is 2.2 milligrams per 
liter . a At Rothamsted it is 2.01 milligrams per liter, 6 at Nantes, 
France, it is 14 milligrams per liter, and at Troy, N. Y., 2.7 milli- 
grams per liter . d The amounts contained in rain during heavy on- 
coast storms are much greater. Lobry de Bruyn* observed 350-500 
milligrams per liter in Holland and the British Rivers Pollution Com- 
mitted found 218 milligrams per liter at Lands End, England. 
Clyde ' states that the rain on the shores of the Caspian is sometimes 
salt to the taste, which statement is discredited by Petzholdt,* but 
receives support from the observation of J. W. Gregory* that in 
central Australia the first drops of a rain storm are salty. The 
amounts of salt in rain in the interior of the continents are of course 
much less, but are still considerable at some distance from the coast' 
and even on high mountains.* It has been suggested that the con- 
tinental salt deposits have been formed from wind-borne oceanic 
salt,' and also that blown dust is the source of the chlorine in the 
cerargyite ores of arid regions.™ 

A rain of solid salt crystals, doubtless derived from the evapora- 
tion in the air of drops of spray, occurred at Mantua, Italy, July 25, 
1878, and has been reported by Agostini.* Sodium chloride has also 

° 6th Rept. Gt. Brit. Rivers Pollution Com., p. 425 (1874). See also the analyses by 
Robert Angus Smith on pp. 18-19 and 27-32 of the report cited, and on pp. 281-380 of 
his work "Air and Rain " (1872). 

& Warington— Jour. Chem. soc. London 51: 502(1887). The annual rainfall at 
' Rothamsted is 31.65 inches, so that the yearly deposit of sodium chloride is 24 pounds 
per acre. 

« Bobierre— Cdmpt. rend. 58: 755 (1864). 

d Mason— Water supply, p. 205 (1896). 

« Quoted by Du Bois—Ciel et terre 28: 233-245 (1907). 

/ Loc. cit., p. 29. 

9 School geography, p. 32 (1870). 

* Nature 29: 172(1883). 

* Dead heart of Australia, p. 137 (1906). Korty (Electricity 10 : 93 [1896]) describes 
a salt storm in eastern Utah so severe that the deposited salt interfered with the 
working of the telegraph. 

i See figures for RothamBted, England, and for Troy, N. Y., given above. 

* Mttntz— Compt. rend. 112: 447-450 (1891). 

I Posepny— Sitzungsb. KaiBerl. Akad. Wiss. Vienna 76: 17&-212 (1877), Verh. 
geol.Reichsanst.1877: 222-223; Walther— Wustenbildung,p.l45(1900); Ackroyd— 
Proc. Yorkshire geol. and polyt. soc. (n. s.) 14: 401^*21 (1901), Geol. mag. (4) 8: 
445-449 (1901), Quart, statement Palestine explor. fund 1904: 64-66; Pivovarov— 
P6dologie 1906: 67-S0. For the contrary opinion, see Tietze— Jahrb. geol. Reichs- 
anst. 27 : 341-374 (1877); Joly— Geol. mag. (4) 8 : 344-350 (1901). The >ery thorough 
and careful investigations of Holland and Christie (Rec. Geol. surv. India 38 : 154-186 
[1909]) on the salt deposits of Rajputana led to the conclusion that the salts of these 
deposits are in the main wind-borne from the marine salt-flats of the Rann of Cutch. 

w Beck— Lehre von den Erzlagerstatten, 3d ed., vol. 2, p. 324 (1909); Keye*— 
Econ. geol. 2: 778-780(1907), Trans. Amer. inst. mining engs. 39: 166-169 (1908). 

n Ann. meteor, ital. (2) 1 : 3-8 (1879). See also II. O. Dwight, London Times cor- 
respondence, Dec. 25, 1883, and the rain of salt crystals mentioned on p. 91 above. 
Another case, at Pocatello, Idaho, was reported in the daily press on June 21, 1894. 

53952°— Bull. 03—11 8 



114 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATEBIAL BY THE WIND. 

been detected in the air itself when no rain was falling. Determina- 
tions by Duphil gave, for seashore air, from 0.3 to 15 milligrams 
per cubic meter and for forest air from to 6 milligrams per cubic 
meter. In England, Smith b found an average of 0.40 milligrams 
per cubic meter, with extremes of 0.07 and 1.15. Sirocco dust col- 
lected on a ship off the African coast in February, 1898, contained 
over 25 per cent of sea salt. 6 

Some of the atmospheric dust is of volcanic origin, and it is prob- 
able that a small part is extraterrestrial. These materials will be 
discussed below. 

THE QUANTITY OF ATMOSPHERIC DUST. 

The collection and examination of atmospheric dust is a matter 
of peculiar difficulty If the air be passed through water/ as, for 
instance, in a gas-absorption bulb, the dust is completely collected 
but its properties are often changed by the contact with water, and 
it is difficult to remove the water without further modifying the 
nature of the dust. The method of collecting dust on plates smeared 
with vaseline or glycerine* is open to similar objections. Filters of 
cotton-wool stop most of the dust, but it can not afterwards be 
separated from the material of the filter. Gun-cotton may be used 
instead of ordinary cotton, and then dissolved in ether/ but this will 
mean the loss of the ether-soluble constituents of the dust itself. 
The very fine platinum screen of A. Schuster would either let some 
of the dust through or would clog so rapidly as to be useless. The 
method of Rubner* by comparing the discoloration of paper disks 
through which samples of air have been filtered gives good results 
for soot content but permits no examination of the amount or char- 
acter of the mineral dust which may be present. Boxes, through 
which dust-laden air is allowed to blow, or funnels built on the rain- 

* Soc. eci. et stat. zool. d'Arcachon, Trav. dee Lab. 5 : 58-59 (1900-1). 

• Air and Rain, pp. 427-429 (1872). 

« Dinklage— Annalen Hydrog. 26: 253-254 (1898). 

d Tissandier— Les poussieres de J 'air, p. ix, 2 (1877). 

« Airy— Natu*e 9x 439-440 (1874); Ranyard— Man. notes Roy. astron. soc. 89: 
165 (1879); Miquel— Ann. Obs. Montsouris 1879: 448-456; J. B. Cohen-nJour. Soc. 
chem. ind. 16: 411-412(1897); Duphil— Soc. scient. et stat. zool. d'Arcachon, Ttav. 
dee Lab. 5: 6? (190O-1); Glibertr-Zs. Gewerbehyg. 15: 257 (1908). 

/See Ditfer- Ciel et terre 25: 498 (1904). Winslow's method (Eng. newB 60: 
748 [1908 J), using a filter of granulated sugar afterward dissolved in water, is still less 
accurate. 

g Bept. Brit, ussoc. 1884: 38. 

*Hygien. Runds. 10: 257-263 (1900), Arch. Hygiene 57: 365(1906). See also 
Orsi— Ibid. 68: 1A-21 (1908); Liefmann— Deut. Vierteljahre. Offent. Gesundheito- 
pflege 40: 325-344 (1908); Friese— SitzungBb. Isis Dresden 1909: 8. 



THB QUANTITY OF ATMOSPHERIC DUST. 115 

gauge principle and arranged to face the wind, collect the dust in 
excellent condition, but do not collect it all. The finest materials 
are blown clear through and escape. In fact the material collected 
is more largely the transient air dust (drifting soil) than true atmos- 
pheric dust. There has not yet been devised an apparatus which 
will collect all the dust of the air, or even a representative sample of 
it, in a dry and unmodified condition. 

Tissandier measured the dust in Parisian air by collecting it in 
water and obtained values of from 6 to 23 milligrams per cubic 
meter. 6 There are two errors in this method, one due to the vola- 
tility in steam of certain organic constitutents of the air dust, and 
the other to the solubility in water of the material of the various 
containing vessels. The two errors being, however, in opposite direc- 
tions, tend to neutralize each other. 

The number of dust particles (with no regard to size or weight) in a 
given amount of air may be determined with fair accuracy by con- 
densing moisture on the particles and counting the water drops pro- 
duced. Aitken' s dust-counter is based on this principle. c Vdrner d 
claims that the dust in the air may be measured by allowing the 
particles to settle on a surface of black polished wood, where they will 
stick and may be counted. Relative measurements of the amount 
of dust in the air may also be made by observing its transparency.* 
The transparency, however, depends on the humidity as well as the 
dust content/ 

The amount of dust in the atmosphere is of course exceedingly 
variable from time to time and from place to place. Sometimes the 
air is so full of dust that dry fogs, "dark days, 11 etc., result, while at 
other times it is nearly dustless. The number of dust particles is 
highest in deserts and near thickly settled regions and when the wind 
blows therefrom. It is least in winds coming from large oceans or 
over unsettled regions (vegetation-covered, of course). There is less 
dust in the air over the Highlands of Scotland than in any other 

« Himxnel und Erde 18: 279 (1906). Gf. the observation of Curtis on dust col- 
lected on the sheet of a sunshine recorder (Symons'a meteor, mag. 88 : 210-211 [1903J)- 

ft Compt. rend. 78: 822 (1874), and Les Poussieres do i'air, p. 2 (1877). 

c See his papers cited in note «, p. Ill; also Barus— Bull. 12, Weather Bureau, IT. S. 
Dept. of Agr. (1895), and references there cited. The Aitken counter counts only 
the dry particles in the air. Those with moisture already condensed on them do not 
show (Melander— Sur la condensation de la vapeur d'eau dans Tatmuphere, p. 118, 
1897). On the use of the Aitken counter see also articles given in the bibliography 
under Barns, Conrad, Ficker and Defant, and Rankin. 

d Prometheus 16: 173 (1904). 

« See Aitken's papers; also Jahresb. Sonnblick-Vereines Vienna 10s 31-32 (1902) 
and references cited on pp. 117-119 below. 

/ Aitken— loc. citati. 



116 MOVEMENT OP SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

inhabited region so far examined. The dust content of the upper 
air is somewhat less than that of the lower. 6 

All the above concerns the dust actually suspended in the air. 
The quantity of true atmospheric dust which is deposited on the 
surface is even more difficult to measure, because of the impossibility 
of distinguishing between it and the transiently suspended drifting 
soil. The amount of the former which is spontaneously deposited 
on a free surface is probably very slight indeed, for, as before stated, 
nearly all such material which falls comes down with rain or snow. 
As an indication, however, of the amount of material of all kinds which 
is deposited from still air, it is interesting to note certain measure- 
ments by Tissandier of the quantity of dust collected on a flat surface 
exposed to the atmosphere. Near Paris he obtained in one night 
1.5 to 3.5 milligrams per square meter in spite of some loss in collect- 
ing. Later he obtained, this time in the country, 10 to $0 milligrams 
per square meter in 24 hours.* 1 With improved apparatus at the 
Observatory of Sainte-Marie-du-Mont, he obtained 2.1, 4.0, 8.1, 9.2, 
and 12.1 milligrams per square meter per twenty-four hours/ Much 
larger amounts would doubtless be deposited on a vegetation-covered 
surface, or where the wind movement (what little existed) was other- 
wise checked. Neither does this include the dust carried down by 
rain. 

Tissandier has made some determinations of the amount of solid 
matter in rain water, obtaining values of from 25 to 172 milligrams 
per liter/ Similar values for snow water are from 16 to 75 milligrams 
per liter.* A. Schuster* found over 100 milligrams of dust in 25 
cubic feet of snow from the Himalaya Mountains. As the amounts 
of rain and snow which fell in the various cases are not given, the 
figures are of little value. The first drops of a rain storm will of course 
contain the largest percentage of dust, and as the storm continues 
the air is gradually washed clean. 

THE OPTICAL EFFECTS OF DUST IN THE AIR. 

The fine particles of air dust, by selectively scattering the light 
they receive and thus diffusing the blue while allowing the rest of 
the spectrum to pass, are responsible for the blue color of the 

o Aitken— Trans. Roy. boc. Edinburgh 42: 486 (1902). 

6 Fridiapder— Quart, jour. Roy. meteor, soc. 22: 184-203 (189C). See also Lude- 
ling— Blast, aeron. Mitt. 7: 321-329 (1903). 
e Compt. rend. 78: 823 (1874). 
d Ibid. 81:576(1875). 
« Lee Poussieres de Pair, p. 8 (1877). 
/ Lee Poussieree de Pair, p. 16. 

9 Tissandier— Compt. rend. 80: 59 (1875), 81 : 576 (1875). 
* Rept. Brit. r.ssoc. 1883: 126. 



THE OPTICAL EFFECTS OF DUST IN THE AIB. 117 

sky a and the reel color of sunlight which has passed through more than 
the usual thickness of air, or through air containing an unusual quantity 
of dust. Thus the sun is always redder at sunset or sunrise, and the 
sky assumes by reflection various tints of red or orange. When the 
air is abnormally dusty, as in deserts or after volcanic eruptions, the 
sunsets are especially brilliant. 6 Indeed, it frequently happens that 
the air is dusty enough to cause the sun to appear red even during the 
middle of the day, and the green and blue colors occasionally observed* 
are probably also caused by dust, though in a manner not perfectly 
understood. Atmospheric dust is also the cause of the partial polar- 
ization of light from the sky, d and of the very rare dust halos or 
diffraction coronse about the sun and moon/ 

From a practical standpoint, however, the most important of 
the optical effects of dust in the air is the decrease of atmospheric 
transparency which it causes. An unusually large quantity of 
dust in the air will produce a dry fog or haze, and this will hap- 
pen whenever meteorological conditions are such as to cause the 
accumulation in the lower strata of the dust constantly supplied 
to the atmosphere, or whenever an extraordinarily large quantity 
of dust is rapidly supplied by fires, volcanic eruptions, etc. The 
autumn atmosphere in temperate regions is always more or less 
hazy, because conditions are then such that dust from the soil, 
plants, etc., tends to accumulate in the lower air/ In equatorial 
Africa the dust from the ground hangs in the air at certain seasons, 

o On the theory of selective scattering and its effects eeeTyndall — Phil. mag. (4) 37 : 
384-394(1869), 38: 156-158 (1869); Rayleigh— ibid. (4)41 : 107-120, 274-279, 447-454 
(1871), (5) 12: 81-101 (1881), 47: 375-384 (1899); E. L. Nichols— Phys. rev. 26: 
497-511(1908); Pernter— Meteorologische Optik, pp. 560-354 (1910). A bibliography 
and summary of the literature on the cause of the blue sky and on the polarization of 
daylight is given by N. E. Dorsey— Mon. weath. rev. 28 : 382-389 (1900). 

& Eiessling — Sitzungeb. Gee. ges. Naturw. Marburg 1904: 9-11. The appearances 
after the great eruption of Krakatoa in August, 1883, were very remarkable and long 
continued. They are fully described by F. A. R. Russell — Roy. soc. Rept. on 
Krakatoa, pp. 151-199 (1888). Similar phenomena were observed after the eruptions 
in the West Indies in 1902. See Nature 66: 79, 101-102, 199, 222-223, 294-296, 370, 
390 (1902); Gruner— Mitth. naturf. Ges. Bern 1903 s 1-5; and others. 

« For several instances of blue and green sun see Archibald — Roy. soc. Rept. on 
Krakatoa, pp. 199-217 (1888); and Russell— ibid., pp. 384-405. 

* See N. E. Dorsey— Mon. weath. rev. 28: 382-389 (1900), where the literature is 
cited and reviewed. 

« A dust corona was well developed after the Krakatoa eruption and was named 
Bishop's Ring after S. E. BiBhop, of Honolulu, who made the first detailed observations 
of it. See Archibald— Roy. soc. Rept. on Krakatoa, pp. 232-262 (1888). A similar 
ring was observed after the eruptions of 1902. See Forel — Compt. rend . 137 : 380-582 
(1903), 138:688-690(1904), 140:694-696(1905); H. H.Clayton— Science (n.s.) 17: 
150-152 (1903). For the theory see Pernter— Meteorologische Optik, Absch. Ill, pp. 
469-470 (1906). 

/ W. L. Moore— Mon. weath. rev. 29: 374 (1901). 



118 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BT THE WIND. 

producing a thick haze; the "callina" or hot- weather haze of Spain 
is due to similar causes; and dry fogs and hazy conditions are com- 
mon in all desert and steppe regions. 5 Those accompanying dust 
storms and dust falls have been mentioned already. The storms of 
the spring of 1893 in southeastern Russia gave rise to a fog which 
reached to Sweden and Denmark. 

Much haze and dry fog is also caused by smoke from large fires, 
such as burning forests or the prairie fires which were formerly 
common on the Great Plains. The burnings of the peat moors of 
East Friesland have produced similar phenomena in Germany. 11 
Smoke haze frequently travels great distances; thus in 1857 moor 
smoke was observed at Vienna and at Krakau, over 500 miles away.* 
In cities smoke from industrial and domestic fires plays a large part 
in decreasing the transparency of the air — so large that the smoke 
nuisance is a great and continually growing evil/ W. N. Shaw g 
estimates that the smoke refuse of London is over 300 tons per day. 

« Schmid— Lehrbuch der Meteorologie, pp. 793-794 (1860). 

ft Hornemann — Voyage dans l'Afrique Septentrionale, vol. 1, p. Ill (1803); Khany- 
kov — Soc: geog. Paris, Rec. voy. m6m. 7: 448-451 (1864); Henderson and Hut o — 
Lahore to Yarkand, pp. 65, 107, 133(1873); Stoliczka— Verh. geol. Reichsanst. 1874: 
120; Richthofen— China, vol. 1, p. 97 (1877); Tietze-Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 27: 
347-348 (1877); Durand— Compt. rend. Assoc, franc, a van. sci. 7: 474-477 (1878); 
Hellmann— Monatsb. E. preuss. Akad. Wise. Berlin 1878: 397; Nachtigal— Sahara 
und Sudan, vol. 2, p. 130 (1881); PrzhevalskH— Reisen in der Mongolie, p. 3(1881); 
Rohlfs— Kufra, p. 156 (1881); Hanusz— Bull. Soc. hong. geog. 15 1 419-434 
(1887); Brewer— Bull. Amer. geog. Soc. 21: 212 (1889); Walther— Einleitung in der 
Geologie als hutorische Wissenschaft, p. 595 (1894); Blake — Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 
58: 228 (1897); Hedin— Through Asia, vol. 1, pp.450, 516, 523,545, 597 (1899), Cen- 
tral Asia and Tibet, vol. 1, pp. 266-267, 272, 278, 287 (1903); Fischer— Peterm. Mitt. 
Ergfinzungsh. 188: 122 (1900), Ze. Ges. Erdk. Berlin 85: 411-412 (1900), Mitt, 
geog. Ges. Hamburg 18 f 154-156 (1902); Russell— U. S. Geol. surv. Bull. 199: 18 
(1902); Ann. Soc. meteor. Paris 58 : 25-26 (1905); Stein— Sand buried ruins of Khotan, 
pp. 237-238, 243, 244 (1903); J. W. Gregory— Dead Heart of Australia, pp. 65-67, 79 
(1906); Takagi— Kisho Sh. 25: 219-232 (1906); Huntington— Pulse of Asia, pp. 92, 
103, 134-135, 157 (1907); Hornaday— Oampfires on desert and lava, pp. 170-172 
(1908); Bowman— Bull. Amer. geog. soc. 41 : 150 (1909). The desert of Kirman in 
Persia is an exception to the general rule (Henderson and Hume, loc. cit.). 

c KlossovskH— Ciel et terre 15 : 562 (1895). On the common dust fog (" mgla ") in 
southern Russia, see the works given in the bibliography under AgrinskQ, Bondyrev, 
Braunov, Heintz, la. I., Ivanov, Morozov, N-v., Nikolaev, Polferov,S-n., Safonov, 
Sanin, and Schultz. 

d Fincke— Der Moorrauch in Westphalen, 1825; Arends— Abhandlungen von Rassen- 
brennen und den Moorbrennen, 1826; Veltmann— Arch. ges. Naturl. 10 : 266-272 
(1827); Woyna— Zs. Forstwiss. 85: 116-119 (1903). 

« Prestel— Peterm. Mitth. 4: 106-110 (1858). 

/ See the bibliography of Frazer— Trans. Amer. inst. min. eng. 88: 520-555 (1908); 
also TBchorn— Die Rauch-Plage, Handb. der Hygiene, Suppl.-Bd. 8: 127-200 
(1903); Rubner— Archiv. Hyg.59: 131-149 (1906); Cohen and Ruston— Nature 81: 
468-469 (1909). 

9 Jour. San. inst. 28: 318 (1902). 



THE OPTICAL EFFECTS OF DUST IN THE AIR. 119 

Dry fogs have frequently followed violent volcanic phenomena, and 
have been observed at great distances from the seat of disturbance. 
Thick dry fog was observed in Germany after the eruption of Kdt- 
lugia (Iceland) in 1721, ° and both in Germany and the rest of Europe 
after the eruption of 1755.* The great dry fog of 1783, which covered 
all Europe and persisted for months, causing all kinds of unusual 
meteorological phenomena, is believed to have been due to the dust 
ejected during the violent eruption of Skaptar Jokull, in Iceland, in 
May and June. c Hazy conditions, beautiful sunsets, etc., also fol- 
lowed the eruption of Tomboro in 1815 ; d of Vatna Jokull in 1875;* of 
Krakatoa in 1883 ;/ of Pel6e in 1902,* and of Vesuvius in 1906.* The 
Krakatoa haze was remarkable for the unusually great altitude at 
which it was observed. 

The thermal intensity of the sun's rays may be greatly diminished 
by passage through dusty air, even when no haze is visible, as was 
shown by the behavior after the eruptions of Pel6e and La Soufrifire 
of the electrical sunshine recorder at St. Kitts (West Indies), the mer- 
cury in which barely touched the contact wires even on the clearest 
days, although normally in that latitude it extends well into the 
upper bulb.' Hedin' has made analogous observations of the 
decrease of insolation and nocturnal radiation during dusty weather 
in the Takla-makan desert. 

Arctic travelers have described a haze due to floating ice-crystals 
and quite similar in appearance to the typical dust haze.* 

a Kaemtz — Meteorology, Walker's transl., p. 470 (1844). 

& Saccheti— Phil, trans. 49, I: 409-411 (1755); Whytt— Phil, trans. 49, II: 509- 
511 (1756). 

c Brugman — Verhandelingen over een zwavelagtigen Nevel, 1783; Bertholon — Lit. 
mag. and Brit. rev. 2: 97-103 (1789); Ann. chim. phys. (2) 13: 106 (1820); Martins— 
Proc. verb. Soc. philom. Paris 1851 : 5-11; Ditte— Ciel et terre 25: 533 (1904); and 
the literature cited by F. A. R. Russell — Roy. soc. Rept. on Krakatoa, pp. 388-392 
(1888). 

d Howard— The climate of London, vol. 2, pp. 267-281 (1833). 

e F. A. R. Russell— Roy. soc. Rept. on Krakatoa, p. 401 (1888). 

/ See references cited on p. 117. 

g See references cited on p. 117; also Gockel— Met. Zs. 20: 328 (1903); Liubo- 
slavskll— Meteor. Vfeat. 1903: 243-248; H. E. Hobbe et al.— Mon. weath. rev. 80 1 
487-488 (1902). 

» Meunier— Compt. rend. 142: 938 (1906). 

i H. E. Hobbs— Mon. weath. rev. 30: 488 (1902). See also Dufoui^-Met. Zs. 20: 
223 (1903); Gorczynski— Compt. rend. 138: 255-258 (1904); Abbe— Astron. Nachr. 
165: 285-288 (1904); Kimball— Proc. conv. U. S. Weather Bur. officers 8: 69-77. 
(1904), Mon. weath. rev. 33: 100-101 (1905). It has been suggested by P. and F. 
Sarasin that the glacial period was caused by decrease of insolation due to an abnormal 
amount of dust in the air (Verh. naturf. Ges. Basel 18: 603-618 [1902]). 

i Through Asia, vol. 1, p. 466 (1899). 

* Belcher— The Last of the Arctic Voyages, vol. 1, pp. 318, 358 (1855); 1. 1. Hayes— 
The open Polar sea, p. 194 (18C7); Payer— New lands within the Arctic Circle, vol. 
2, pp. 50, 61 (1876); De Long— The voyage of the JeannetU, vol. 1, pp. 147-148 
(1883); etc. 



120 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BT THE WIND. 

EXTRATERRESTRIAL DUST. 

Though most of the dust of the atmosphere is undoubtedly of 
terrestrial origin, there is evidence that some small quantity of cosmic 
material is present. The meteoric masses encountered by the earth 
probably aggregate not less than 100 tons per day,° and only a few 
of these reach the surface. The remainder are disintegrated in the 
atmosphere, and the product of their disintegration must be largely 
fine dust, of which that from stony meteorites would differ so slightly 
from ordinary terrestrial material as to be difficult if not impos- 
sible of identification. The material of metallic meteorites is more 
characteristic, and it is probable that from the disintegration of these 
bodies arises at least a part of the magnetic particles found in air 
dusts. 6 Especially is this origin probable for all or a part of the 
minute spheres of metallic iron which are often present. These 
were first found by Ehrenberg c in dust which fell on the ship Josiak 
Bates south of Java, January 24 to 25, 1859, and have been carefully 
studied by N. A. E. NordenskioH d in dusts collected from snow 
and ice in high latitudes and by Tissandier* in dusts from many 
different sources. They are not always perfect spheres, but often 
more or less irregular in shape, with rounded edges, and greatly 
resemble particles rubbed from the surface of metallic meteorites/ 
They usually contain nickel and cobalt as do meteoric irons in 
general. They have been found in dust directly collected from the 
air by Phipson,* Marte-Davy,' and Tissandier; * in dust from the 
top of a church tower by Thoulet; * in dust from snow by Yung, 1 
FlSgel, 1 " A. Schuster," and N. A. E. Nordenskiold;' in sirocco dust 

a Smyth— Nature 29: 150 (1883); Langley, New York Tribune, Jan. 2, 1884. 

ft For notices of several cases in which a fall of fine dust accompanied the fall of a 
meteor, see N. A. E. NordenBki5ld— Met. Zs. 11 : 212 (1894). 

cMonatsb. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1858: 1-41. See also Reichenbach — 
Ann. Phys. Chem. (Poggendorf) 106: 476-490 (1859). 

* Compt. rend. 77: 463-465 (1873), 78: 236-239 (1874). 

« Compt. rend. 80: 58-61 (1875), 81: 576-579 (1875), 83: 75-78 (1876). These 
observations are collected and supplemented in Lee Poussieres de l'air. See also 
Ditto— Ciel et Terre 25: 497-610, 525-534 (1904). 

/Tissandier— Compt. rend. 83: 76-78 (1876). 

f Tissandier— Compt. rend. 83: 75-76 (1876); and Les Poussieres de Pair, p. 49. 

A Meteors, aerolites and falling stars, pp. 229-230 (1867); Compt. rend. 83: 364-365 

(1876). 

'Bull. mens. Obs. Montsouris 5: 11 (1876). 
jLoei citati. 

* Compt. rend. 146: 1347(1908). 

J Bull. Soc. vaud. sci. nat. 14: 493-506 (1877); and Compt. rend. 83: 242-243 
(1876). 
»Ze. Met. 16: 321-330 (1881). 

* Kept. Brit, assoc. 1883: 126. 



EXTRATERRESTRIAL DUST. 121 

by Macagno and Tacchini, Palmeri, 6 Silvestri, 6 and Roster.* Fer- 
ruginous nuclei in hail have been observed by Eversman,' von 
Baumhauer/ and others. These spherules can be detected in most 
atmospheric dusts, but are comparatively few in number, and occa- 
sionally altogether absent. Camerlander' found none in the dusts 
examined by him, and von Lasaulx* found none in cryokonite. 
Palmeri ' found magnetic iron oxide, but no spherules, in several 
samples of sirocco dust from Naples. Liversidge' found no 
spherules in the air-borne dust of New South Wales, but did find 
that it contained traces of cobalt, nickel, and metallic iron. Spher- 
ules could not be found in the sirocco dust which fell in Europe, 
April 21, 1880,* or. that which fell October 14, 1885.* They have 
been found in Sahara sand by Tacchini w and by A. Schuster ; n in 
various rocks by Andrews, Hoffmann,? and Meunier and Tissandier;* 
and are nearly always present in deep-sea deposits/ Similar iron 
spherules, but containing no nickel, have been found by Tissandier * 
in the mud of the Seine. 

It is not improbable that some of the supposedly cosmic spherules 
may be derived from iron furnaces, fires, etc. Spherules quite simi- 
lar to the atmospheric ones, but somewhat larger, have been obtained 
by Rose* (working with Ehrenberg) by burning iron in oxygen, 
and by Tissandier" by burning iron wire in air; and bodies of the 
same general nature have been found by Meunier and Tissandier 9 

a Ann. meteor, ital. (2) 1: 69 (1879); see also Tacchini— Mem. Soc. spettrosc. ital. 
8 Append . : 19-20 (1879) . 

* Rend. R. Accad. Sci. fis. Naples 18: 112-113 (1879). 
c Trans. R. Accad. Lincei (3) 4: 163-166 (1880). 
drOrosi8: 75(1885). 

« Ann. Physik 76: 340 (1824). 

/Compt. rend. 74: 679(1872). 

fJahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 38: 281-310 (1888). 

ATschermak's min. Mitt. (n. s.) 3: 524(1880). 

<Rend. R. Accad. Sci. fis. Naples (3) 7: 156-157, 163, 172 (1901). 

i Jour. Proc. Roy. soc. N. S. Wales 36: 243-244, 254-255 (1902). 

* Daubree— Compt. rend. 90: 1098-1101 (1880). 

/Max. Schuster— Sitzungsb. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Vienna 93: 85 (1886). 

m Trans. R. Accad. Lincei (3) 7: 135 (1883). 

»Rept. Brit, assoc. 1882: 91. 

oRept. Brit, assoc. 1852, II: 34-35. 

V Trans. Roy. soc. Canada 8, III: 39-42 (1890). 

9 Compt. rend. 86: 452-453 (1878). 

t Murray— Proc. Roy. soc. Edinburgh 9: 247-262 (1876); Meunier and Tissandier— 
Compt. rend. 86: 451 (1878); Murray and Renard — Proc. Roy. soc. Edinburgh 12 1 
490-494 (1883-84). 

« Compt. rend. 83: 78 (1876). 

* Reichenbach— Ann. Phys. Chem. (Poggendorf) (4) 16: 479 (1859). 

«Corapt. rend. 81: 578 (1875). 

•Compt. rend. 86: 451 (1878). 



122 MOVEMENT OP SOU, MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

at the bottom of a well in which dynamite had been exploded in an 
iron casing. Ditte's" argument that a cosmic origin in all cases is 
proven by the content of nickel and cobalt is unsound in the light 
of the discovery by Hartley and Ramage b of these elements in ordi- 
nary coal smoke. On the other hand, the occurrence of spherules 
in ancient rocks laid down long before the advent of man, or at least 
of man's industrial operations,' speaks strongly for a cosmic origin. 
Taken together the evidence seems to favor the conclusion of an 
origin in some cases cosmic and in some terrestrial. A partial ter- 
restrial origin seems especially probable in the light of the observa- 
tion of Yung* that more iron is found in the atmosphere at lower 
than at higher altitudes. 

GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS OF EOLIAN ORIGIN. 

In deserts eolian sands and dusts form a large part of the recent 
deposits, but in ordinary climates the wind-borne detritus is usually 
so incorporated with material from other sources that it can not be 
distinguished therefrom. While it is probable that some eolian mate- 
rial is present in nearly all surface deposits the world over, formations 
which are predominantly and characteristically eolian are much less 
numerous and extensive than are those which are characteristically 
aqueous. The loess, however (as will be later discussed), is of quite 
wide distribution and has probably been formed, at least in part, by 
the wind. There are other less extensive formations which are even 
more exclusively eolian; as, for instance, the drifting sands already 
discussed at length, the volcanic ash deposits which will be discussed 
later, and especially the eolian soils. 

EOLIAN SOILS. 

In a few places, mainly in or near areas of more or less complete 
aridity, the soil has been identified as largely of direct eolian origin. 
Thus on the Snake River Plains in Idaho the lava is thinly covered 
with a very fine yellowish sand, which is evidently wind deposited 
and which has probably been brought by the wind from a distance, 
though it may have originated in some part by disintegration of the 
lava. e Similarly the only soil on the lava plains of the Alamogordo 

a Ciel et terre 25s 525-527 (1904). 

&Proc. Roy. eoc. 68: 97-109 (1901); Hartley— Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. (n. a.) 9: 
547-555 (1901). The latter article discusses the industrial origin of atmospheric dusts 
in general. 

«See page 121; also Tissandier— Rev. sci. (2) 18: 817 (1880). 

d Tissandier— Poussieres de l'air, p. 37 (1877). 

« Russell— U. S. Geol. surv. Bull. 199: 21, 25, 68, 73, 101, 107, and especially 13&- 
139 (1902). From a personal examination of these soils the present writer has come 
to entire concurrence in RunseU's conclusions. The conditions in the valleys just to 
the west of the Snake River Plains are quite similar. See Russell — U. S. Geol. surv. 
Bull. 217 : 19 (1903). 



EOLIAN SOILS. 128 

Desert in New Mexico has been brought there by the wind. Areas 
of soil formed or modified by wind action have been found in many of 
the areas surveyed by this bureau, 6 and the present writer has exam- 
ined other areas in Maryland, Idaho, Oregon, Nevada, and California. 
Stevenson, Schaub, and Snyder* believe that the "Missouri loess" 
of southwestern Iowa is wind formed, and Cross d advances a similar 
hypothesis in explanation of the origin of the red soil which tops the 
gravels of southwestern Colorado. In the latter case the material is 
supposed to have been brought by the wind from the deserts to the 
west. Fischer « believes that the "tirs" or black earth of Morocco 
is eolian. The eolian soils of the Mexican Plateau are noted by R. T. 

« Macbride— Science (n. s.) 21 : 93 (1905). 

& Following are the areas, with references to the Reports of the Field Operations of 
the Bureau of Soils: Merrimack County, N. H. (1906: 60-61); Rhode Island (1904: 
63); Long Island, N. Y. (1903: 116); Niagara County, N. Y. (1906: 106, 107, 109); 
Salem, N.J. (1901: 136); Dover, Del. (1908: 150); Worcester, Md. (1903: 174); 
Easton, Md. (1907: 139); Norfolk, Va. (1903: 237); Parkersburg, W, Va. (1908, 
Advance sheets, Parkersburg Area, p. 32); Craven, N. C. (1908 : 257); New Hanover, 
N.C. (1906: 257-268); Chowan County, N. C. (1906: 230); Robeson County, N. C. 
(1908, Advance sheets, Robeson Area, pp. 25-26); Charleston, S. C. (1904: 213); 
Meigs County, Ohio (1906: 725); Posey County, Ind. (1902: 451); Marshall 
County, Ind. (1904: 699); Tippecanoe County, Ind. (1904 : 797); Newton County, 
Ind. (1905: 761,767,768,769); Green County, Ind. (1906: 765); Saginaw, Mich. 
(1904: 612); Cass County, Mich. (1906: 748); Tazewell County, 111. (1902: 470, 
471,473); Sangamon County, 111. (1903: 715); Winnebago County, 111. (1903: 768, 
769); OTallon, Missouri-Illinois (1904: 837); Dubuque, Iowa (1902 : 588); Storey 
County, Iowa (1903: 841); Tama County, Iowa (1904: 782-783); Henry County, 
Ala. (1908, Advance Bheets, Henry County Area, p. 24); Biloxi, Miss. (1904: 363); 
Jasper County, Miss. (1907: 544); Superior, Wisconsin-Minnesota (1904: 760); 
Blue Earth County, Minn. (1906: 843,844); Crookston, Minn. (1906: 884); Ran- 
som County, N. Dak. (1906: 979); Carrington, N. Dak. (1905: 935, 936); Grand 
Island, Nebr. (1903: 939); Stanton, Nebr. (1903: 954); Sarpy County, Nebr. 
(1905: 901); North Platte, Nebr. (1907: 823-824, 830); Riley County, Kans. 
(1906: 938); Wichita, Kans. (1902: 635, 636); Garden City, Kans. (1904: 904); 
Lower Arkansas Valley, Colo. (1902 : 740, 741, 753) ; Oklahoma County, Okla. (1906 : 
571,572,579); Conway County, Ark. (1907 : 770); Vernon, Tex. (1902: 372); San 
Antonio, Tex. (1904 : 456); Houston County, Tex. (1905 : 543); Waco, Tex. (1905 : 
679); Henderson, Tex. (1906: 469); Wilson County, Tex. (1907 : 652); Blackfoot, 
Idaho (1908: 1035); Minidoka, Idaho (1907: 91&-916, 917, 918, 919, 921); Salt 
Lake Valley, Utah (1899 : 101); Provo, Utah (1903: 1127,1128-1129); Pecos Val- 
ley, N. Mex. (1899: 62-63); Solomonsville, Ariz. (1908: 1054, 1059); Salt River 
Valley, Ariz. (1900: 204,299-302); Yuma, Ariz. (1902: 781-782; 1904: 1029); 
San Luis Valley, Cal. (1903: 1104); Ventura County, Cal. (1901: 528); San Ber- 
nardino Valley, Cal. (1904: 1140-1141); Los Angeles, Cal. (1903: 1270-1271, 
1272); Santa Ana, Cal. (1900: 390); Porto Rico (1902: 805). 

clowa Agr. expt. stat. Bull. 95: 14 (1908). 

'Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 19: 53-62 (1908). 

ePeterm. Mitt. Erganzungsh. 188: 117-124 (1900), Ze. Ges. Erdk. Berlin 85: 412 
(1900), Mitt. geog. Ges. Hamburg 18: 149-159 (1902). For a contrary opinion see 
Gentil— Compt. rend. 146: 243-246 (1908). 



124 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Hill, and those of the steppes of southeastern Russia have been 
described by Pallas, 6 BlSletskIK, c and Sibirzev. d The last author* 
notes similar occurrences in Central Africa. Of course, eolian loess 
is simply -an eolian soil deposited in past ages, and those areas where 
loess is now being deposited by the wind are naturally areas of eolian >h 
soil. Some such are described on pages 139-140 below. "*~ 

The eolian soils are in general distinguished by no special character- 
istic except unusual uniformity in the size of particle. Owing to the 
nature of air transportation (as already discussed) the particles of 
any one deposit are likely to be nearly of the same size, though differ- 
ent deposits may of course differ greatly from each other in this 
respect. For all other characters, including indeed the actual size of 
particle which prevails, an eolian soil is dependent upon the special 
conditions which accompanied its formation. Its mineral composi- 
tion is likely, however, to be more than usually diverse because of the 
great extension of its agent of formation. The identification of a 
wind-formed soil depends both upon its general geologic and geo- 
graphic situation and upon its internal characteristics, but much 
more upon the former than the latter. The problem differs in no 
way from that of the identification of soil origins in general. 

Besides the areas of exclusively (or predominantly) eolian soil as 
just mentioned, there are many cases where the addition of some 
quantity of wind-blown material to a soil of other origin noticeably 
modifies the nature of the latter, beneficially or the reverse. Thus 
the writer has observed a case (at Guadaloupe, Cal.) where the addi- 
tion of sand blown out of a coastal dune complex has materially 
improved the physical texture of the water-laid soils farther inland. 
Similar cases have been noted by Hughes f and Beadnell * in Egypt, 
and by Juritz * in South Africa. Haworth ' notes the reverse con- 
dition where the addition of blown clay decreases the permeability of 
the soil. 

THE LOESS. 

The loess was first described in the vallev of the Rhine, but has 
since been found to be very extensively developed in China, in North 
America, and in southeastern Europe. It consists of a yellow, or 

«Eng. min. jour. 83: 663 (1907). Cf. also the articles of Virlet d'Aoust and 
Meunier, cited on p. 140 below. 

& Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen russischen Reiche, vol. 1, p. 365 (1771). 

c Mater, izuch. russk. pochv 9: 1-40 (1895). 

<*Compt. rend. Cong. geol. intern. 7: 90-92 (1897). See also Nehring— Tundren 
und Steppen, pp. 126-128 (1890), and the discussion of recent loess on p. 140 below. 

e Loc. cit. See also Walther — Einleitung in der Geologie als historische Wissen- 
schaft, p. 811 (1894). 

/Yearb. Khediv. agr. soc. 1906: 133-134. 

9 An Egyptian oasis, pp. 78-79, 81 (1909). 

*Rept. South African assoc. adv. sci. 1908: 87-104. 

<U. S. Geol. surv. Water supp. pap. 6: 13 (1897). 



THE LOESS. 



125 



yellowish-brown, calcareous silt-loam, remarkably uniform in me- 
chanical composition and usually without stratification. Its com- 
ponent grains are angular and loosely arranged, giving it a high 
porosity and great absorptive power. It tends to split in vertical 
planes, producing perpendicular cliffs or bluffs along water courses 
and in other places where it is subject to erosion. Throughout many 
deposits of loess are fantastically formed concretions of calcium car- 
bonate; the Loess- Mdnnchen of the Germans." In China, *nd to a 
less extent in other localities, these concretions are likely to occur in 
horizontal planes, thus simulating strata and, in connection with the 
vertical cleavage, causing the loess to erode in a series of terraces, 
the tops of which are formed (and protected) by a layer of concre- 
tions. The concretions are believed to be of secondary origin and 
their occurrence in horizontal planes is probably due to the perco- 
lation of water along these planes. 6 The fossils of the loess are 
everywhere almost entirely terrestrial in character. 6 Fresh-water 

o Jentzsch— Zs. ges. Naturw. 40 : 82-89 (1872) ; Richthofen— China, vol. 1, pp. 58-59 
(1877); Frantzen— Jahrb. preuss.geol. Landesanst. 1885: 257-266; Pofcta— SitzungBb. 
K. bdhm. Ges. Wise. 1887: 598-601; Jenny— Mitt, naturf. Gee. Bern 1889: 126- 
127; Steinmann— Mitt. bad. geol. Landesanst. 2: 130-133 (1893); Zahalka— Verh. 
geol. Reichsanst. 1896: 285-286; FrOh— VierteljahiBch. naturf. Ges. Zurich 44: 167 
(1899). An analysis of concretions from the German loess gave: 



8IO» 31824 

£8} 4aM 

CaO 203 

CaCOi 55.294 

MgO 178 



MgCd 1.890 

KjO 1.048 

NajO 1.202 

P«0» 157 

Sd 090 

H*0 377 



Blanck— Landw. Vers. Stat. 65: 471-476 (1907). The concretions of the American 
loess have been described by Call — Amer. nat. 16: 373 (1882). On the similar con- 
cretions of the loess-like deposits of the South American pampas see Ameghino — La 
Formaci6n Pampeana, pp. 179-200 (1881). 

& Richthofen— China, vol. 1, pp. 61-62 (1877). 

cOn the fossils of the European loess see Braun — Ber. Yersamml. deut. Naturf. 20: 
142-152 (1842), NeuesJahrb. Min. 1847: 49-53; Stizenberger— Ubersicht Versteiner- 
ungen Grossherzogthums Baden, pp. 30-31, 107-110 (1851); Mousson — Vierteljs. 
naturf. Ges. Zurich 1: 250-259 (1856); Petera— Verh. geol. Reichsanst. 1863: 
118-120; Sandberger — Land- und Susswasserconchylien der Vorwelt, pp. 866-906 
(1870-75); Jentzsch— Si tzungsb. Isis Dresden 1871: 148-150, Zs. ges. Naturw. 40: 
96-98 (1872); Braun — ibid., p. 45; Richthofen — loc. cit.; Sandberger — Verh. med.- 
phys. Ges. Wurzburg 14: 125-140 (1880); Nehring— Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 32: 468r-509 
(1880); Hilber— Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 32: 316 (1882); Tietze— ibid., pp. 112-114; 
Nehring— Geol. mag. (2) 10: 51-58 (1883); Schumacher— Erl. geol. Karte Strass- 
burg, pp. 37-38, 41 (1883); Sandberger— NeuesJahrb. Min. 1883: 182-183; Chelius— 
Notizbl. Ver. Erdk. Darmstadt 1884: 18-19; Wahnschaffe— Jahrb. K. preuss.geol. 
Landesanst. 1886: 253-258; Rzehak— Verh. naturf. Ver. Brunn 26, Abh.: 74-78 
(1887); Makowsky— ibid., pp. 205-243 (1887); Wollemann— Verh. naturh. Ver. preuss. 
Rheinl. Westf. 44: 260-268 (1887), 45: 237-291 (1888); Kafka— Sitzungsb. fc. 
bdhm. Ges. Wiss. 1889: 195-207; Jenny— Mitt, naturf. Ges. Bern 1889: 120-153; 
Sauer— NeuesJahrb. Min. 1890, II: 93-94; Sandberger— Verh. naturf. Ges. Basel 8: 
796-801 (1890); Chelius— Notizbl. Ver. Erdk. Darmstadt 1892: 21-23; Koch— 
Jahresb. Ver. Naturw. Braunschweig 1893-5: 35-37; Nehring— ibid, pp. 45-47; 



126 MOVEMENT OF BOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

forms are rare and marine forms entirely absent. The shells of 
land snails and similar mollusks are especially abundant. Through- 
out many loessial deposits are numerous minute tubes running more 
or less vertically and usually lined with calcium carbonate. These 
tubes have been supposed to have much to do with the tendency to 
split in vertical planes, and have been regarded by the advocates of 
the theory of eolian origin as casts of the roots of plants which grew 
on the loess as it was being deposited. It has, however, been recently 
suggested by Willis ° that the vertical cleavage is due to the peculiar 
physical structure developed by the settling and consolidation of the 
originally loose material. The horizontal interspaces between parti- 
cles tend to close, whereas the vertical spaces remain of their original 
size, and cementing waters then tend to fill up first the smaller hori- 
zontal spaces. The resulting structure would naturally possess a 
roughly vertical cleavage. It is possible that the tubules may have 
been produced, as a phase of the same process, by the union of super- 
posed vertical interspaces into more or less vertical tubes, which 
would act as passages for lime-bearing waters, become lined with 
calcium carbonate and take on an approximately cylindrical form. 

The loess is most extensive in China, where it covers about 300,000 
square miles. It has been studied and described in that country 

Gutzwiller— Der Lees, pp. 14-21 (1894), Verh. naturf. Gee. Basel 10: 634-669, 679- 
682 (1895) ; MakowBky— Compt. rend. Cong. geol. intern. 7 : 183-186 (1897) ; Piperoff— 
Beitr. geol. Karte Schweiz n. s. 37, VII: 56 (1897); Viglinoand Capeder — Boll. Soc. 
geol. ital. 17: 84 (1898); Fruh— Vierteljs. naturf. Gee. Zurich 44: 170-171 (1899); 
WOflt— Zb. Naturw. 71: 442-446 (1899); Handmann— Verh. geol. ReichBanst. 1903: 
343-344. 

On the fossils of the American loess see Binney — Proc. Boston soc. nat. hist. 2t 
126-130 (1848); Swallow— Kept. Missouri Geol. surv. 1-2: 74, 115 (1855); Todd— 
Proc. Amer. assoc. adv. sci. 27: 235-236 (1878); Call— Amer. nat. 15: 58&-586, 
782-784 (1881), 16: 380-381 (1882); McGee and Call— Amer. jour. sci. (3) 24=: 202- 
223 (1882); Chamberlin and Salisbury— Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 6, I: 285-286 
(1885); Webster— Amer. nat. 22: 419 (1888); Keyes— Bull. Essex inst. 20: 61-83 
(1888); McGee— Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 11, I: 435-171 (1891); Todd— Rept. 
Missouri Geol. surv. 10: 129-130 (1896); Bain— Iowa Geol. surv. 7: 344 (1896); 
Beyer— ibid., 7: 237 (1896), 9: 202 (1898); Leverett— U. S. Geol. surv. Monogr. 38: 
165-176 (1899); Udden— Iowa Geol. surv. 11: 111-113, 260-265 (1900); Winchell— 
Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 14: 145-146 (1903); M. L. Fuller and Clapp— ibid, pp. 161- 
163 (1903); I. A. Williams— Iowa Geol. surv. 15: 327 (1904); Owen— Amer. geol. 
85: 291-500 (1905); and especially Shimek— Amer. geol. 1: 14&-152 (1888); Bull. 
Lab. nat. hist. Univ. Iowa 1: 200-214 (1890), 2: 89-98 (1890), 5: 195-212 (1901); 
Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 3: 82-S9 (1895), 4: 68-72 (1897), 5: 32-45 (1896), 6: 98-113 
(1898), 7: 47-59 (1899), 10: 41-48 (1902), 14: 237-256 (1907), 15: 117-135(1908); 
Jour. geol. 7: 122-140 (1899); Amer. geol. 30: 279-299 (1902); Iowa Geol. surv. 
<13: 170-175 (1903). The papers of the last author form the most important and 
comprehensive American contribution to the subject. His conclusion is that the 
loessial fauna was almost exclusively terrestrial. 

» Pub. Carnegie Institution of Washington 54:, vol. 1, pt. I, pp. 252-253 (1907). 



THE LOESS. 127 

by Pftre David, Pumpelly, 6 Kingsmill,' Richthofen,* Obruchev,« 
Viglino/ Leprince-Ringuet,* Wright,* and Willis.* Similar deposits 
exist over much of Germany and Austria-Hungary, especially in the 
river valleys,' on the steppes of southern Russia and Turkestan/ 

and in the Mississippi basin in North America, 2 fringing and occa- 

«~ — — ^ — — — — —  iii »  — — ^»» 

"Bull. Nouv.arch.Mus.hist.nat.8: 18-96(1867), 4: 3-82(1868), 5: 3-13(1869), 
7: 75-100 (1871), 8: 3-128 (1872), 9: 13-48 (1873), and 10: 3-82 (1874); Bull. Soc. 
geog. Paris (6) 9: 5-45, 131-176 (1875), 11: 24-52, 156-183, 278-303 (1876). See 
also his Journal de mon troisieme voyage dans l'empire chinois, 1875. 

6 Smithsonian contrib. 15, IV, 1866; Amer. jour. sci. (3) 17: 133-144 (1879). 

cGeol. mag. 3: 369-370 (1866); Jour. N. China branch Roy. Asiat. soc. (n. s.) 11 : 
11-16 (1877); Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 25: 119-138 (1869), 27: 376-384 (1871); Nature 
47: 30 (1892); Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 51: 238-254 (1895); also his Hydraulics of 
great rivers flowing through alluvial plains, 1906. 

4 Letter on the Province of Hunan, pp. 9-10 (1870); Peterm. Mitth. 17: 428 (1871); 
Letter on the Provinces of Chili, Shansi, Shense, etc., pp. 13-18 (1872); Verh. geol. 
Reichsanst. 1872 : 153-160; Zs. deut. geol. Gee. 25 : 760-763 (1873); Rept. Brit. Assoc. 
1878, II: 86-87; China, vol. 1, pp. 56-189, vol. 2, pp. 349-351, 422-427, 530-533, 
550-551, and 741-766 (1877); Geol. mag, (2) 9: 293-305 (1882). See also Schultz— 
Himmel und Erde 8 : 379-384, 418-428 (1896). 

«Geog. Zs. 1: 263-265, 282-285 (1895). 

/Boll. Soc. geol. ital. 20: 311-338 (1901). 

9 Ann. mines (9) 19: 412-429 (1901). 

A Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 18: 127-138 (1902). 

< Carnegie Inst, of Washington Pub. 54, vol. 1, part 1, pp. 183-196, 242-256 (1907). 

iLyell— Edinb. New phil. jour. 17: 110-112 (1834), Antiquity of Man, chap. 16 
(1863); Jentzsch— Zs. ges. Naturw. 40: 1-99 (1872); Richthofen— China, vol. 1. 
chap. 5 (1877); Schumacher— Mitt. geol. Landesanst. Elsass-Lothr. 2 : 246-366(1888); 
Wahnschaife— Ursachen dee Oberflachengestaltung, pp. 191-196 (1901); and further 
literature cited in the bibliography under L. Agassiz, Andreae and Osann, d'Archiac, 
Baltzer, Belt, Bennigsen-Fdrder, Bdmer, Braun, Chelius and Vogel, Courty and 
Hamelin, Dammer, von Dechen, D ticker, Du Pasquier, Engelhard t, Fallou, Fellen- 
berg, Florschutz, Fdrster, Foetterle, Frtth, Grund, Guembel, Gutzwiller, Hibbert, 
Horusitsky, Inkey, Jenny, Jentzsch, Keilhack, Klockmann, Kloos, Koken, 
Leppla, Makowsky, Mousson, Nehring, Nikitin, Penck, von Petrino, Ruhl, Sacco, 
Sachsse and Becker, Sandberger, Sauer, Schre'ter, Schumacher, Steinmann, Stur, 
Sturtz, Suess, Teech, Tietze, TutkovskH, Van Baren, Viglino and Capeder, Wahn- 
schaffe, van Werveke, Wood, Wust, and Zeuschner. 

*Murchison — Geology of Russia, vol. 1, pp. 561-562 (1845); Belt— Quart, jour. 
Geol. soc. 33: 843-862 (1877); Armaahevskil— Geological sketch of the Chernigov 
Govt. (Russian), pp. 212-223 (1884), General geological map of Russia, sheet 46, pp. 
255-316 (1903); Hume— Geol. mag. (3) 9 : 549-561 (1892), (4) 1 : 303-307 (1894); Dokout- 
chaieff— Bull. soc. beige geol. 6, Proc. verb.: 97-101 (1892); Capus— Compt. rend. 
114: 958-960 (1892); TutkovskH— Zemlevfedlenle 1899: 213-311; Scott, geog. 
mag. 16: 171-174 (1900); Pavlov— Bull. Soc. Imp. nat. Moscow (n. s.) 17: 23-30 
(1903); Davis— Carnegie inst. of Washington Pub. 26: 58-63 (1905). 

i The northern loess along the border of the ice sheet is described by Chamberlin 
and Salisbury— Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 6, II: 278-307 (1885); McGee— ibid., 11, 
I: 291-303 (1891); and Leverett— U. S. Geol. surv. Monogr. 38: 153-184 (1899); etc.. 
The loess along the lower Mississippi is described by McGee— Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. 
surv. 12, I: 392-394 (1891); and Mabry— Jour. geol. 6: 273-302 (1898); etc. The 



128 MOVEMENT OF SOIL. MATERIAL. BY THE WIND. 

sionally overlapping the border of the ice sheet and extending south- 
ward along the present river valley. The adobe of the southwestern 
part of the United States shows many similarities to loess, and the 
pampas of South America, though as yet not fully investigated, are 
probably in part of similar material. 6 In areas where it is well 
developed the loess shows no dependence upon the underlying topog- 
raphy, but covers hill and valley alike in a blanketlike layer, which, 
it is true, varies in thickness, but according to vagaries of its own or 
because of secondary denudation and not in relation to the basal 
relief. 

Soils derived from loessial deposits are everywhere among the most 
fertile in the world. The productiveness of European loess regions 
has often been noted, and von Hauer<* states that in Austria excep- 
tional fertility is a sure indication that the soil is loessial. The 
American loess is not less fertile/ and in China the loessial soils have 
been cropped for 4,000 years without requiring the use of mineral 

many other papers on the American loess are too numerous for review. Those known 
to the writer (many of which are cited in the following pages) are given in the bib- 
liography under Aughey, Bain, Beyer, Broadhead, Call, Calvin, Calvin and Bain, 
Campbell, Chamberlin, Chamber lin and Salisbury, Fowke, Fuller and Clapp, C. H. 
Gordon, C. W. Hall and F. W. Sardeson, Hershey, Hilgard, Keyes, Keyes and Call, 
Knight, Leonard, Leverett, Lonsdale, Macbride, McGee, Newberry, Norton, Owen, 
W. H. Pratt, Pumpelly, Savage, Shimek, Todd, Udden (Johan A., and Jon A.), 
Upham, Webster, C. A. White, Wilder, Villcox, I. A. Williams, Winchell, Witter, 
and Wright. 

« I. C. Russell-Oeol. mag. (3) 6: 289-295, 342-350 (1889). Cf. Matthew's ideas 
with regard to the present formation of "prairie loess' 1 by wind (Amer. nat. 33: 
406-407 [1899]), and Haworth's suggestion regarding the assistance of the wind in 
the formation of the "plains marl" (U. S. Geol. Surv. Water Sup. pap. 6: 34 [1897]). 

6 On the Pampas Formation see Bravard — Geologfa de las Pampas, 1857; Bur- 
meister — Ann. Museo Pub. Buenos Aires 1: 100-114 (1864-69); Ameghino — La for- 
macidn pampeana, 1881; Stelzner — Beitrage Geologie Argentinischen Republik, vol. 
2, p. 152 (1885); S. Roth— Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 40: 375-464 (1888); Brackebusch— 
Peterm. Mitt. 39: 157, 162(1893); Bodenbender-— ibid., pp. 231-237, 259-264; Stein- 
mann— Mitt. bad. geol. Landesanst. 2: 121-123 (1893); N. O. G. Nordenskjdld— 
Geol. foren. f6rh. 22: 191-206 (1900); Burkhardt^-Revista Mus. del Plata 14: 146- 
171 (1907); Doering— ibid., pp. 172-190 (1907). Bravard believed it to be entirely 
of eolian origin. Burmeister, Ameghino, Roth, Bodenbender, and Steinmann favor 
an origin partially eolian and partially aqueous. 

c Foetterle — Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 5:884 (1854); Guembel — Geognostische 
Beschreibung des bayeriechen Alpengebirges und seines Vorlandes, p. 797 (1861); 
Suess— Schrift. Ver. Verb, naturw. Kennt. 6: 347-348 (1865-66); Stur— Jahrb. geol. 
Reichsanst. 19: 468, 482 (1869); Wahnschaffe— Abh. geol. Sp.-Karte Preussen 7: 
79-81 (1885); Puchner— Vierteljahrech. bayr. Landw.-Rath Munich 8: 300-308(1903); 
Halenke, Klingand Engels— ibid. 10: 448 (1905). 

* Die Geologie der dsterreichisch-ungarische Monarchie, p. 639 (1875). 

« Pumpelly— Amer. jour. sci. (3) 17: 135 (1879); Todd— Proc. Iowa hort. soc. 17: 
263-270 (1882); Keyes— Amer. jour. sci. (4) 6: 302 (1898); Norton— Iowa Geol. surv. 
16 : 393-394 (1905); Calvin— ibid. 17 : 5 (1906). 



THE ORIGIN OF THE LOESS. 129 

fertilizers.* The apparently extraordinary maintenance of full 
fertility in the last case is, however, partially explained by the prevar 
lent use of night soil, and even more largely by the habit of spreading 
each year on fields located on the steps of the loess terraces fresh 
material dug from the perpendicular face of the next higher terrace. 6 
A certain amount of new soil material is thus regularly supplied. The 
material supplied by the frequent dust storms is no doubt also a 
factor in the maintenance of fertility; in fact, the beneficial action of 
these storms is well known to the inhabitants both in China itself and 
in Central Asia." The exceptional fertility of loessial soils in general 
is, however, unquestioned and is doubtless to be ascribed in part to the 
unusual degree of heterogeneity* entailed by their (partial) eolian 
origin, but even more largely to the peculiarly good physical texture 
which they always possess and which allows the free movement and 
absorption of water, aids the maintenance of good tilth, and encour- 
ages a proper sanitary condition in the soil. 

THE ORIGIN OF THE LOESS. 

The origin of the loess has long been, and to a certain extent still is, 
a vexed question amongst geologists. The early theories (elaborated 
with regard to the European loess) ascribed it to the action of great 
floods following a sudden change of drainage or of sea level. The 
loess, however, shows no traces of the rapidly moving streams which 
must have accompanied such a cataclysm, and if aqueous in origin, 
must have been laid down in still or nearly still waters. Bennigsen- 
Forder' and Fallou* advocated a marine origin for the European 

o Richthofen— Verh. geol. Reichsanst. 1872 : 157, China, vol. 1, p. 70 (1877). See 
also Obruchev— Geog. Zs. 1 : 284 (1895). 

Mam indebted to Dr. Bailey Willie for calling my attention to this custom of the 
Chinese agriculturists. 

c See Johnson— Jour. Roy. geog. soc. 37: 5-6 (1867); Durand — Compt. rend. Assoc, 
franc, avan. sci. 7: 476 (1878); Guppy— Nature 24: 126 (1881); Walther— Einleitung 
in der Geologie als historische Wissenschaft, p. 575 (1894); Plumandon — Poussieres 
atmoepheriques, p. 29 (1897); Chem. trade jour. 43: 398 (1908). 

<Z Obruchev— -Geog. Zs. 1 : 284 (1895). Viglino found 54 mineral species in the loess 
of Shansi (Boll. Soc. geol. ital. 20: 321 [1901]). See also the less complete mineralog- 
ical analyses of the Strassburg loess by Schumacher (Erl. geol. Karte Strassburg, pp. 
27-34 [1883]), of the Heidelberg loess by Andreae and Osann (Mitt. bad. geol. Landes- 
anst. 2: 735-742 [1893]), and of the Piedmont loess by Viglino (Boll. Soc. geol. ital. 
17: 83-84 [1898]). 

e Hibbert — History of the extinct volcanos of the basin of Neuwied, pp. 183-204 
(1832); Guembel — Geognostische Beschreibung des bayerischen Alpengebirges, pp. 
798, 805, 852, 872 (1861); Suess— Schrift. Ver. Verb, naturw. Kennt. 6: 333-348 
(1865-66). See also Howorth— Geol. mag. (2) 9: 9-18, 6&-80, 343-356 (1882), 10 1 
206-215,381-384(1883). 

/ Zs. deut. geol. Gee. 9: 457-463 (1857), 10: 215-221 (1858); Das nordeurop&ische 
und besonders das vaterl&ndische Schwemmland, 1863. 

g Neues. Jahrb. Min. 1867: 143-158. See also Prestwich— Phil. tens. A, 184: 
919-025 (1894), Geol. mag. (4) 1 : 237-238 (1894). 

63952°— Bull. 68—11- 



130 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL, BY THE WIND. 

deposit, and Kingsmill a has adopted this theory for the Chinese loess. 
It is difficult, however, to explain by this means the fact that over 
many areas, especially in North America and in China, an apparently 
continuous and uniform sheet of loess is found at altitudes varying 
amongst themselves by several (or in China, many) hundreds of feek 
Nor are there any signs of ancient shore lines or beaches or of marine 
fossils. These and other less weighty considerations have led to the 
entire abandonment of the marine hypothesis, at least in application 
to all loessial deposits of wide extent. There are, however, many 
localities in which the minor features of the loess speak for some 
manner of aqueous deposition, and the various forms of the lacustrine 
and fluvial theories have continued to be held untir the present day.* 
The controversies have been waged between, on the one hand, the ad- 
herents of these theories, and on the other the followers of Richthofen" 
. « . 

o Quart, jour. Geol. boc. 27: 376-384 (1871). See also references cited on p. 127, 
note c. 

b Authors favoring the aqueous deposition of loess, probably in lakes or flooded 
rivers, are: Lycll— Edinb. New phil. jour. 17: 110-122 (1834), Antiquity of Man, 
chap. 6 (1863); Charpentier — Essai sur les glaciers et sur le terrain erratique du Bassin 
du Rh6ne, 1841; Collomb— Bull. soc. geol. France (2) 6: 492-499 (1849); Heer— Urwelt 
der Schweiz, p. 521 (1865); Belt— Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 20: 463-465 (1864), 30: 490- 
498 (1874), 33: 843-862 (1877), Jour. sci. 7: 67-90 (1877); Louis Agassiz— Neues 
Jahrb. Min. 1867: 676-680; Sandberger— Jour. Laudw. 17: 213-223 (1869), Verh. 
med.-phyB. Ges. Wurzburg 14 : 125-140 O880); C. A. White— Report on the geological 
survey of Iowa, vol. 1, pp. 103-117 (1870 x Engelhardt— Sitzungsb. Isis Dresden 1870: 
136-141; Jentzsch— Zs. ges. Naturw. 40: 73-75 (1872), Schr. phys.-okon. Ges. K6nigs- 
berg 18: 161-168 (1877), Verh. geol Reichsanst. 1877: 251-258; David— Journal de 
mon troisieme voyage, vol. 1, p. 94 (1S75); C. H. II.— Ausland 51: 99-100 (1878); 
Hilgard— Amer. jour. sci. (3) 18: 100-112(1879); Broadhead— ibid. 427-428 (1879); 
Benecke and Cohen — Geogn. Beschrcibung Umgcbung Heidelberg, pp. 548-573 (1881); 
Jas. Geikie— Prehistoric Europe, pp. 143-168 (1SS1); Call— Amer. nat. 16: 369-381, 
542-5-19 (18*2); Wahnschaffe— Abh. geol Sp -K. Prcu.-. 7: 65 (18S5), Zr. dent. geol. 
Ges. 38: 353-369 (1886), Jahrb. preuKs. Landesanst. 1889: 328-346; Jenny— Mitt, 
naturf. Ges. Bern 1880: 115-154; Mills— Amer. geol. 3: 345-361 (1889); Leppla— 
Bayer, geognost. Jahreeh. 1889: 176-187, Neues. Jahrb. Min. 1890, II: 194-198; 
Upham— Amer. jour. sci. (3) 41: 33-52 (1891); Erens— Bull. Soc. beige geol. 5t 
38-40 (1891); Dokoutchaieff— ibid. 6, Proc. verb.: 97-101 (1892); Hume-<jeol. mag. 
(o) 9: 549-561 (1892); Todd— Rept. Missouri Geol. surv. 10: 111-217 (1896) and cor- 
respondence with Herahey relating thereto in Science (n. s.) 5: 587-588, 695-696, 
768-770, 993-994 (1897); Calvin— Iowa Geol. surv. 7: 89-90 (1896); Todd— Proc. 
Iowa acad. sci. 5: 46-51 (1897); Hershey— Amer. geol. 25: 369-374 (1900); Upham— 
ibid. 31 : 25-34 (1903) ; Winchell— Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 14 : 133-152 (1903); Pavlov- 
Bull. Soc. Imp. nat. Moscow (n. s.) 17: 23-30 (1903); Norton— Iowa Geol. surv. 16: 
3S2-386 (1905); Owen— Amer. geol. 35: 291-300 (1905); Todd— Proc. Iowa acad. 
sci. 13: 187-194 (1906); and the monographs of Chamberlin and Salisbury, McGee, 
and Leverett cited on p. 127, noted. 

c Loci citati on p. 127, note d, especially Geol. mag. (2) 9: 293-305 (1882), Verh. 
geol. Reichsanst. 1878: 289-296, and Fiihrer fur Forechungsreisende, pp. 477-481 
(1SS6). The eolian theory has been accepted by Tietze — Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 27 : 
347-350 (1877), Verh. geol. Reichsanst. 1878: 113-119, 1881: 37^0, Jahrb. geol. 
Reichsanst. 32: 118-132 (1882); Inkey— FOldtani Kdzlony 8: 15-26 (1878); Pum- 



THE ORIGIN 07 THB LOESS. 181 

in his brilliant hypothesis, elaborated with regard to the Chinese loess, 
which considered it of eolian origin and composed of material carried 
by the prevailing winds from the dry steppe and desert regions to the 
west and deposited in its present position both because of loss of 
wind velocity, due to meteorological determinants, and because of 
entanglement in the vegetation with which the growing surface is 
supposed to have been covered. Both the aqueous and eolian 
theories have some facts in their favor and some in opposition; each 
has been, and is, held by eminent authorities, and each will require 
somewhat full consideration. 

As a preliminary to such consideration, it may be well to point out 
that there are really two problems of the loess — a problem of origin 
of material and a problem of deposition. The loess is composed of 
very finely comminuted and very uniform material. This must have 
been the product of some extensive and remarkably efficient disin- 
tegrating process, which may conceivably have been aqueous, sub- 
aerial, or glacial. Whatever may have been the ultimate source of 
this material it was probably not produced at the place where it is 
now found, and search must therefore be made for the agent or agents 
by which it was transported. These again may have been fluvial, 
eolian, or glacial. With the source and means of supply fully deter- 

pelly— Nation 26: 231-232, 243-244 (1878), Amer. jour. sci. (3) 17: 133-144 (1879); 
Nehring— Globus 37: 10-11 (1880); Dttcker— Verh. naturh. Ver. preuas. Rheinl. 
Westf. 39: 234-235 (1882), 40: .310-311, 423-425 (1883); Hilber— Jahrb. geol. 
Reichsanst, 32: 193-330 (1882); Nehring— Geol. mag. (2) 10: 51-S8 (1883); Mtthl- 
berg— Progr. Aargau. Kantonschule (1885); Jentzsch — Jahrb. preues. geol. Landes- 
anst. 1884: 522-524; Makowsky— Verh. naturf. Ver. Brunn 26, Abh.: 213-215 
(1887); Mushketov— Fizkheskaft geol., vol. 2, pp. 103-108 (1888); Adolf Saner— Zs 
Naturwiss. 62: 320-351 (1889), Neues Jahrb. Min. 1890, II : 92-97, Jahresh. Ver 
vaterl. Naturk. 57: cvi-cx (1901); Alfred Sauer— Globus 59: 24-29 (1891); Shimek— 
loci citati in bibliography; Klemm— Notizbl. Ver. Erdk. Darmstadt 1892 : 33-33 
Steinmann — Mitt. bad. geol. Landesanst. 2: 120-125 (1893); Andreae and Osann — 
ibid., pp. 735-742(1893); Florechutz— Jahrb. naesau. Ver. Naturk. 47: 123-133 (1894) 
Gutzwiller— Verh. naturf. Ges. Basel 10: 678-679 (1895), 13: 271-286 (1901); Obru 
chev— Geog. Zs. 1: 282-285 (1895); Krishtafovich— Post-tertiary deposits of Nova 
Alexandria (Russian), pp. 40-44 (1896)'; Udden— Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 9: 6-9 (1898) 
Iowa Geol. surv. 11: 265-266 (1900); Viglino— Boll. Soc. geol. ital. 17: 81-84 (1898) 
20: 311-338 (1901); Keyes— Amer. jour. sci. (4) 6: 299-304 (1898); Horusitzky— 
Fdldtani K6zl6ny 28: 109-113 (1898); Sachsse and Becker— Land w. Vere.-Stat. 38: 
433 (1898); Sardeson— Amer. jour. sci. (4) 7: 58-60 (1899); C. W. Hall and Sardeson— 
Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 10: 349-360 (1899); Wilder— Iowa Geol. surv. 10: 120-122, 
145-147 (1899); Frllh— Eel. geol. helv. 6: 53-59 (1899), Vierteljs. naturf. Ges. Zurich 
44: 157-191 (1899), 48: 430-439 (1904); Keilhack— Prometheus 10: 241-246, 263- 
267, 275-279 (1899); Leprince-Ringuet— Ann. Mines (9) 19: 368-382, 42P-429 (1901); 
Savage— Iowa Geol. surv. 12: 294 (1901), 13: 242-243 (1902), 15: 529-531 (1904), 
16: 637-639 (1905); Calvin— ibid. 13: 70 (1902), 16: 130 (1905); Beyer and Wil- 
liams— ibid. 14: 51(1903); Leonard— ibid. 16: 287(1905); Penck— Naturw. Wochens. 
20: 593-597 (1905); Grand— SitzungBb. Eaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Vienna 115, I: 550-551 
(1906); Lozinslri— Jahrb. geol. ReichsanBt. 57: 375-383 (1907); and others. 



182 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BT THE WIND. 

mined, there remains the problem of deposition, perhaps still more 
difficult of solution. What were the conditions which enabled the 
laying down of the supplied silt in a deposit so characteristic and so 
widespread as the loess ? 

It is, of course, obvious that the agents of supply and of deposition 
need not have been the same. The debris of secular rock decay may 
have been sorted and carried by the wind and the finer silt dropped 
into lakes where the deposit was being formed. Or the silt may 
have been carried by flooded rivers, deposited on their flood-plains, 
dried, and blown away to the areas of accumulation. Or, even more 
complexly, rock flour produced by glacial grinding may have been 
spread out on the marginal plains or left behind by the retreating ice 
and redistributed and deposited by either wind or water or both. 
Any particular deposit of loess, instead of being the product of the 
action of water, wind, or ice, may conceivably have been formed by 
any pair of them or by all three acting either simultaneously or in 
succession. 

It is also well to note that whatever may be the uncertainties as 
to the agent or agents of loess production, the chronology of the forma- 
tion is fairly well fixed. Innumerable indications connect it with the 
glacial period and probably with the stages of retreat or decay of the 
ice sheet. These indications are clearer and more certain in North 
America than elsewhere, but are also unmistakable in Europe and 
probably not less apparent in China, though in the latter country the 
detailed investigation of Pleistocene geology is still in its infancy. 
The evidence includes not only the position of the loess in the strati- 
graphic series, but the parallelism (in North America) of the belt in 
which it is developed with the margin of the ice sheet and the not 
infrequent interstratification of loess with marginal drift and till of 
undoubted glacial origin. It seems very probable that there were 
several subperiods of loess formation all lying within the glacial epoch 
and each related to one of the successive periods of retreat of the ice 
sheet. That the American loess was deposited at the time of glacial 
retreat is believed by the authors of the three most thorough and 

aWinchell — Ann. Rept. Geol. nat. hist. surv. Minn. 6: 105 (1878), Amer. geol. 
31: 279-282 (1903), Bull. Geol. boc. Amer. 14: 141-142(1903); McGee— Proc. Amer. 
assoc. adv. sci. 27: 198-202 (1878), Bull. Phil. boc. Wash. 6: 93-97 (1883), Ann. 
rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 11, 1:435-471 (1891); Chamberlin and Salisbury — Ann. rept. 
U. S. Geol. surv. 6, I: 287 (1885); Todd and Bain— Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 2: 20-23 
(1894); Bain—Iowa Geol. surv. 5: 283-284 (1895), 7: 342-343 (1896), 9: 89-91 
(1898); Hershey— Amer. geol. 17: 294-298 (1896); Leonard— Iowa Geol. surv. 8: 
87 (1897) ; Beyer— Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 6: 117-121 (1898); Shimek— Bull. Geol. soc. 
Amer. 16: 589 (1906); and other references given by M. L. Fuller and Clapp — Bull. 
Geol. soc. Amer. 14: 174-176 (1903). 



THE ORIGIN OF THE LOESS. 133 

comprehensive works dealing with the region in question, and this 
opinion has been generally accepted by geologists. Its validity, how- 
ever, is as a general principle only, for there are undoubtedly occa- 
sional deposits of loess of secondary, and perhaps of primary, origin 
which are much later in date. 

Turning now to a consideration of the evidence behind the eolian 
and the aqueous hypotheses, respectively, it will be advisable to dis- 
cuss first the manner of deposition, as it is this which is largely respon- 
sible for the peculiarities of the deposit and because it is over this 
problem rather than over the problem of source that the controversies 
have been waged. Postponing until later the mention of those 
instances in which loessial material is now accumulating by whatever 
agency, it is found that the most important single item of evidence in 
favor of the eolian hypothesis is the terrestrial character of the 
loessial fauna. The occurrences of other than land fossils are sporadic 
and perhaps adventitious, and there can be no question that the vast 
majority of the organic remains of the loess are those of animals which 
lived altogether on land. The mere presence of land-shells in fluvial, 
lacustrine, or marine deposits is of course nothing extraordinary, but 
the absence of aqueous forms from fossiliferous strata of such origin 
would be very remarkable indeed. It is not the occurrence of ter- 
restrial forms but the nonoccurrence of any others that seems to 
favor so strongly the deposition of the loess over a dry land surface. 
Some advocates of the aqueous hypothesis have endeavored to 
explain the character of the loessial fossils by assuming that they are 
not contemporaneous with the loess, but have reached their position 
therein by secondary movements of the material; by falling into 
cracks or animal burrows from the present surface, etc. 6 Such phe- 
nomena can hardly be of very general occurrence, and in any event 
they could explain only the presence of terrestrial forms and not the 
absence of the aqueous (unless the original deposit be assumed totally 
nonf ossiferous). More plausible is the suggestion that the aqueous 

o Namely: Chamberlin and Salisbury — The driftless area of the Upper Mississippi, 
Ann.rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 6, I, especially pp. 305-306 (1885); McGee— The Pleisto- 
cene history of Northeastern Iowa, Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. 11, I, especially p. 
462 (1891); Leverett— The Illinois Glacial lobe, U. S. Geol. Surv. Monogr. 38, espe- 
cially pp. 176-177 (1899). See also Todd— Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 1876-80: 19; Cal- 
vin—Iowa Geol. surv. 7: 88-90 (1896), Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 10: 118-120 (1899); 
Bain— Iowa Geol. surv. 7: 342-343, 463-466 (1896), 9: 91-92 (1898); Savage— ibid. 
13: 242 (1902), 16: 637 (1905); Leverett— Amer. geol. 33: 56-57 (1904); I. A. Wil- 
liams—Iowa Geol. surv. 15: 326-327 (1904); Leonard— ibid. 16: 287 (1905); Norton— 
ibid. 16: 386 (1905). 

* Kingsmill— Quart, jour. Geol. eoc. 27: 379-380 (1871); Cheliue— Notizbl. Ver. 
Erdk. Darmstadt 1892: 21-23; Todd— Proc. Iowa acad. eci. 13: 192 (1906). For 
opposing opinion see Shimek— ibid. 14: 237-256 (1907). 



134 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL, BT THE WIND. 

deposition may have been intermittent — as on the flood-plains of 
rivers — and that in the intervals of no deposition and of exposure to 
the air the fauna driven out (or perhaps up the stalks of plants) by 
the inundation had time to return and repopulate the area, providing 
potential fossils for the next period of deposition. It is probable 
that this explanation is valid in certain cases, but it is hard to see how 
intermittent deposition of this character could take place without 
leaving distinct traces of stratification or lamination, and such traces 
are by no means general in the American loess and are very rare in 
that of China. 

This absence of stratification, the great uniformity of the deposit, 
and in general the lack of the traces of water action so characteristic 
of ordinary sedimentary deposits is in itself another strong argument 
for the eolian hypothesis. It is possible that material deposited in 
permanent and nearly currentless lakes or in very sluggish rivers 
might show no traces of water action, but such material, if fossil- 
iferous at all, should show a fresh water fauna with only occasional 
terrestrial examples. Continuous aqueous deposition can not explain 
the terrestrial fauna, and intermittent flood-plain deposition is prob- 
ably inconsistent with the absence of stratification and other traces 
of water action. 

On the other hand, the aqueous hypothesis is favored by the 
unmistakable relation of much loess, especially in North America, to 
the stream valleys. 6 This is true not alone in horizontal but also in 
vertical projection. The belt of loess is not only more or less parallel 
to the stream, but is often thicker near its banks, forming a natural 
levee and indicating deposition from flood waters flowing outward 
from the channel and rapidly losing their load because of loss of 
velocity and by entanglement in vegetation. This process has been 
observed along the course of all overloaded rivers through their flood 
plains and has usually, and probably rightly, been assumed character- 
istic of such conditions. Shimek c has urged, however, that even 
eolian loess would be thicker along stream courses because there the 
vegetation would be more extensive, more vigorous, and more per- 
manent, and consequently more dust would be entangled and 
retained.* 

ojentzsch— Zs. ges. Naturw. 40: 1-99, especially 73-75 (1872); Sandberger — Verh. 
med.-phys. Ges. Wurzburgl4: 125-140 (1880); Winchell— Bull. Geol. eoc. Amer. 14: 
145-146 (1903). 

& ChamberliD— Jour. geol. 5 : 795-802 (1897). 

cBull. Lab. nat. hist. Univ. Iowa 5: 319 (1904). 

d An actual occurrence of this sort is described from Central Asia by Przhevalskfl 
(Kulja to Lob Nor, p. 57 [1879]). Cf. also the suggestion of Savage (Iowa Geol. surv. 
15 : 531 [1904]) that the thicker deposits along riven may be due to the blowing of 
dust from dried river ban and flats. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE LOESS. 135 

A more certain indication of aqueous deposition is the undoubted 
presence in some occurrences of loess of well-developed strata, and 
intergradations of finer and coarser material, which appearances can 
be ascribed to nothing else than deposition from water. These strata 
can by no stretch of the imagination be considered similar to the 
false bedding of eolian sands, and the evidence is perfectly conclusive 
for those deposits from which it has been obtained. 

These apparently contradictory conclusions can be reconciled only 
by the obvious deduction that the manner of deposition of the loess 
was not everywhere the same. There is both eolian loess and aqueous 
loess, and it is quite conceivable that there is loess which is both 
aqueous and eolian. Loess is no more a specific thing than is sand- 
stone, or shale, or conglomerate; and as there are sandstones which 
have been formed from dunes, or by rivers, or in the sea, so there are 
1 'loesses" which are eolian, or fluvial, or (perhaps) marine. "The 
time for generalization as to origin of the loess as a whole from obser- 
vations in a single region appears to have passed, and the origin in 
each locality is best decided for itself by its own internal or physio- 
graphic evidence." 6 

* Hilgard — Report on the Geology and Agriculture of Mississippi, pp. 194-197 (I860), 
Amer. jour. sci. (3) 18: 106-112 (1879); Hayden— Rept. Geol. eurv. Terr. 1: 10, 12, 
18, 19 (1867); Safford— Geology of Tennessee, pp. 114, 433-134 (1869); Jentzsch— 
Schr. phys.-ftkon. Gee. K6nigsberg 18: 163-164 (1877); Todd— Proc. Amer. assoc. 
adv. sci. 26: 287-291 (1877), 27: 231-239 (1878), Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 5: 46-61 
(1897), U. S. Geol. eurv. Bull. 158: 65-68 (1899); Broadhead— Amer. jour. sci. (3) 
18: 427-428 (1879); Schumacher— Erl. geol. Karte Umgeb. Strasbourg, pp. 13-19 
(1883); Chamberlin and Salisbury— Rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 6, I: 281, 283-284, 
287 (1886); Uhlig— Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 34: 212 (1884); Witter— Proc. Iowa acad. 
eci. 1: 45 (1890); McGee— Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 11, I: 445-446, 469-470, 
et al. (1891); Kloos— Zs. deut. geol. Gee. 44: 327-328 (1892); Leverett— Amer. geol. 
10: 18-24 (1892), Rept. 111. Board World's Fair Com., pp. 82-83 (1895), U. S. Geol. 
eurv. Monogr. 38: 156-184 (1899); Whitney— Rept. 111. Board World's Fair Comm., 
p. 101 (1895); Shimek— Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 3: 82-89 (1895); Norton— Iowa Geol. 
Burv.4: 173(1894),9: 485(1898), 16: 377(1905); Beyer— ibid. 7: 235(1896); Bain— 
ibid. 7: 341 (1896); Calvin— ibid. 8: 174(1897); Chamberlin—Jour. geol. 5: 795-802 
(1897); Frtih— Vierteljahrech. naturf. Ges. Zurich 44: 172(1899); Hershey— Amer. 
geol. 25: 369-374(1900); M.L. Fuller and Clapp— Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 14: 153-176 
(1903); Winchell— ibid. 14: 143-145 (1903); Beyer and Young— Iowa Geol. surv. 
13: 380 (1902); Darton— U. S. Geol. surv. Prof. pap. 17: 15-16 (1903); Wright— 
Amer. geol. 33: 205-222 (1904), 35: 236-240(1905); Owen— ibid . 33 : 223-228(1904). 
On stratified loess in China see: Wright— Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 13: 132 (1902); and 
in Turkestan see Capus— Compt. rend. 114: 959 (1892). 

bM. L. Fuller and Clapp— Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 14: 174 (1903). The action of 
both wind and water in loess formation has been recognized by Richthofen himself 
(Rept. Brit. Assoc. 1873, II: 86-87, Verh. geol. Reichsanst. 1878: 289-296); by 
Chamberlin and Salisbury, McGee, and Leverett in the monographs cited on p. 133, 
note a; and by Jentzsch — Schr. phys.-dkon. Ges. Konigsberg 18: 167 (1877), Verh. 
geol. Reichsanst. 1877: 258; Tietze— ibid., p. 264; Nehring— ibid. 1878: 261-272, 
Tundren und Steppen, pp. 217-221 (1890); Call— Amer. nat. 16: 369-381, 542- 



186 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

All this concerns mainly the agent or agents by which the loessial 
material was deposited. A word now as to the source of the material 
itself. It would seem that only in two ways could such a large 
amount of finely comminuted debris have been produced — either by 
long-continued secular decay of the rock with accompanying removal 
of the d6bris, or by the grinding of moving ice. In either case the 
material has undoubtedly undergone a remarkably efficient sorting 
process either by wind or water or by both. With regard to the 
American deposits the weight of evidence and opinion seems to favor 
the conclusion that the loessial material is probably rock flour from 
under the ice sheet. The physical properties of the loessial grains 
are quite consistent with such an origin, and it is known that much 
material was prepared and supplied in this way. It is by no means 
necessary, however, to assume that glacial debris is the exclusive 
material of the formation. Insolation and rock decay are now 
very active in the drier region west and southwest of the loess- 
covered areas, and were probably not less so in the past. It is pos- 
sible that much dust thus formed has been removed by the wind 
from these regions and carried into the regions of loessial deposition. 
Thus with regard to source of materials, as with regard to manner of 
deposition, not all loessial deposits are the same, and perhaps not all 
the materials of any one deposit are the same. There is no known 
criterion which will enable the distinguishing of glacial silt from silt 
formed by rock decay (especially insolational decay) ; nor is the com- 
pleteness of the sorting any indication of the nature of the elutriating 
agent, for water and wind, though different in action, are equally 

649 (1882); von Lasaulx— Encyc. Naturw., Abt. II, Is 78 (1882); Penck— Arch. 
Anthropol. 15: 222-225 (1884); Fellenberg— Mitth. naturf. Gee. Bern 1885: 34-43; 
Rzehak— Sitzungsb. naturf. Ver. Brunn 26: 34 (1887); Schumacher— Mitth. geol. 
Landesanst. Elsass-Loth. 2: 314-366 (1888-90); Nikitin— Bull. Com. geol. St. Peters- 
burg 5: 133-185 (1886); Du Paaquier— Beitr. geol. Karte Schweiz 31: 57 (1891); 
Chelius and Vogel— Neues Jahrb. Min. 1891, 1: 104-107; Hume— Geol. mag. (3) 9: 
557-561 (1892), (4) 1: 303-307 (1894); Capus— Compt. rend. 114: 958-960 (1892); 
Steinmann — Mitt. bad. geol. Landesanst. 2: 745-791 (1893), Verh. deut. geol. Gee. 
50: 88-98 (1899); Tutkovskfl— Ann. geol. min. Russie 2, I: 60-63 (1896), 3, 1: 117 
(1898), 4, I: 108-109 (1899); Chamberlin-Jour. geol. 5: 795-802 (1897); Keilhack— 
PrometheuB 10: 278 (1899); Sauer— Jahresh. Ver. vaterl. Naturk. 57: cvi-cx (1901); 
Gutzwiller— Verh. naturf. Ges. Basel 13: 271-286(1901); Wrights-Quart, jour. Geol. 
soc. 57: 245 (1901), Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 13: 127-138 (1902); Krishtafovich— 
Verh. Imp. min. Ges. St. Petersburg (2) 40 Protokol: 98-100 (1903); Todd— Proc. 
Iowa acad. sci. 13: 187-194 (1906); Willis— Carnegie Inst. Washington Pub. 54, 
vol. 1, part 1: 245-249 (1907); Stttrtz— Verh. naturh. Ver. preuss. Rheinl. Westf. 64: 
84-85 (1907); and others. M. L. Fuller and Clapp (Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 14: 153- 
176 [1903]) have worked out in a most interesting way the conditions in the Wabash 
Valley and shown that in this locality there are two general types of the loessial for- 
mation, one of which is mainly eolian, the other mainly aqueous. 

©See, for example, Chamberlin and Salisbury— Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 6, 
I: 287, 304-305 (1885). 



THE ORIGIN OF THE LOESS, 187 

efficacious in this regard and give equally perfect results. The grains 
of loeife are usually angular, but this condition is a property of insola- 
tional and glacial silts alike, and is consistent with either aqueous or 
eolian transport, for by either agent material so fine as the loess is 
carried in a nearly permanent suspension and undergoes but little 
abrasion. 

The decision as to source must therefore rest upon external and 
not internal evidence, upon the general geologic indications as to 
probable areas, and agents of supply. It is for this reason that the 
hypothesis of predominantly glacial origin is preferred in the case of 
the North American loessial materials. The existence and operation 
of the glacial grinding mill is a known fact, while it is difficult to 
locate on the North American continent any areas of deflational 
removal sufficiently extensive and subject to sufficiently rapid degra- 
dation to provide the enormous mass of material which exists. In 
China the conditions are reversed, and there it is the glaciers which 
are apparently lacking, 6 while a very extensive area of eolian removal 
is still to be seen in the dry region in and contiguous to the Desert of 
Gobi. It is therefore probable that Pumpelly c is correct in his con- 
clusion that the materials of the Chinese loess are mostly the aerially 
transported d6bris of central Asian rock decay and only in very small 
proportion the silt of glaciers. The European loess, like the American, 
is probably largely glacial, though it would be unwarrantable to alto- 
gether exclude silts of other origin. 

In a very general way, then, the primary American deposits of 
loess may be considered as made up mostly of glacial silt, but partly 
of wind-borne rock d6bris from the arid regions to the west, these 
two materials, separate or mixed, having been collected or deposited 
either by eolian action, or on the flood-plains of great but sluggish 

a Climatic conditions were probably quite different during Glacial time, and it is 
possible that arid areas of deflational removal were then more numerous or more 
extensive than to-day. It has, in fact, been suggested on meteorologic grounds that 
the presence of the ice sheet would in itself cause the prevalence of aridity over cer- 
tain contiguous or neighboring areas and that these areas might have been the places of 
origin of the loessial material. On these matters, see Nehring — Sitzungsb. Ges. 
Naturfr. 1889: 189-196, and flber Tundren und Steppen (1890), Globus 65: 365-370 
(1894); Jamieson— Geol. mag. (3) "7: 70-73 (1890); Reid— Bull. Soc. beige geol. 
7,Proc.verb.: 193-198(1893); Krause— Globus 65 : 1-6(1894); Geikie— Scott, geog. 
mag. 14: 281-294, 346-357 (1898); TutkovBkfl— ibid. 16: 171-174 (1900); Sauer— 
Jahresh. Ver. vaterl. Naturk. 57: cvi-cx (1901); Vahl— Geog. tids. 16: 173-183 
(1902); Penck— Res. scient. Cong, intern, bot. 1905: 12-24, Geog. jour. 27: 182- 
187 (1906); Grand— Sitzungsb. Kaiser 1. Akad. Wise. Vienna 115: 551 (1906); 
Romer— Verh . geol . Reichsanst . 1907 : 48-55 ; Lozinski— Jahrb . geol . Reichsanst . 57 : 
375-383 (1907); Jentzsch— Monatsb. deut. geol. Ges. 1908: 120-123; and the further 
literature cited by these authorities. 

b Wright— Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 13: 127-138 (1902). 

•Amer. jour. sci. (3) 17: 133-144 (1879). 



138 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

rivers, or perhaps in more or less permanent shallow lakes. It is 
possible that in certain isolated localities deposits of loessial character 
may owe their existence to rain wash,* to the sea, or to other complex 
and unusual factors, b but such cases are uncommon, and even lacus- 
trine deposition was probably quite rare, being apparently excluded 
(as already described) by the character of the fossil fauna. Most 
American loess is probably either wind-deposited or laid down by 
the intermittent floods of muddy rivers. 

The determination of the exact origin of any particular deposit of 
loess must await the careful survey of its physical, geographical, and 
geological characteristics, and in the lack of such detailed and accu- 
rate surveys of the loessial areas it is manifestly impossible to say 
how much of the work of loess formation in general was done by 
water and how much by wind. Estimates based on the meager data 
at present available could have no worth whatever. It is probable, 
however, that the loess over many areas is predominantly or exclu- 
sively eolian,* and the loessial materials are so readily susceptible to 
wind action that even in other areas it seems not improbable that 
loess with which the eolian agencies have had nothing at all to do is a rare 
exception. Some loess is altogether wind-formed and all loess is 
probably somewhat wind-formed. 

As a possible suggestion toward an explanation of the mechanism 
by which glacial silt may have been distributed and deposited by the 
wind, mention should be made of the fact noted by many writers, 
and with especial clearness by Tutkovskfl* that the retreating ice 
sheet would be bordered by a vegetationless and exposed area cov- 
ered with disintegrated material and probably subject to the maxi- 
mal tzer—Mitth. naturw. Ges. Bern 1885, III: 124-127; Sacco— Bull. Soc. geol. 
Prance (3) 16: 229-243 (1887); Koken— Neues Jahrb. Min. 1900, II: 167-169; de Lap- 
parent— Bull, aoc. geol. France (3) 13: 45G-161 (1885), Traits de geol., 4th ed., pp. 
1610-1611 (1900). Jenney (School of Mines quart. 10: 316-318 [1889]) has observed a 
loesslike deposit formed by the rain wash of mountain silt into the dry lake basins of 
the arid west. On deposits of loess formed by rain wash in southern Russia and 
Turkestan, see Armashevskil— Mem. Soc. nat. Kiev 7: 212-223 (1884), ibid. 15 Proc.- 
verb. : lv, lxxviii (1896); and Capus— Compt. rend. 114 : 958-960 (1892). The adobe, 
as already mentioned, is quite similar to loess and has probably been formed by 
the joint action of rain wash and wind. See Russell — Geol. mag. (3) 6: 289-295, 
342-350(1889). 

b As, for instance, the flow of saturated soil, especially after thawing, as advocated 
by Wood— Geol. mag. (2) 9: 339-343, 411-416 (1882), 10: 389-397 (1883). On 
secondary slipping of loess, see also Todd — Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 18: 192 (1906), 
Geol. Atlas U. S., folio 156: 3 (1908). 

c The occurrence in the loess of sand-polished bowlders as observed by Wilder (Iowa 
Geol. surv. 10: 120-122 [1899]), or of sand-masses showing eolian cross-bedding as 
observed by Calvin (ibid. 11 : 444-446 [1900]), furnishes a nearly perfect proof that 
the wind had much to do with the genesis of those particular deposits, at least. 

<*See the exposition of his views in the Scott, geog. mag. 16: 171-174 (1900). See 
also Lozinski— Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 57 : 375-380 (1907). 



THE ORIGIN OP THE LOESS. 139 

mum of eolian action. From this "zone of deflation" dust would be 
carried outward into what Tutkovskil calls the "zone of inflation/' 
or of accumulation lying farther away from the glacial border. 
Udden's a suggestion of the possibility of loess accumulation in the 
great snow field or neve which probably fringed the ice sheet may 
also have its place in a complete theory of the loess, though Davi- 
son's b idea that all loess was deposited in snow drifts is certainly 
extreme and untenable. 

The features of the formation in Europe are probably not essen- 
tially different from those in North America, e but' in China it seems 
that the share of the wind in loess formation has probably been much 
greater, especially (as already indicated) in the transportation of the 
material from the region of production in central Asia to the locali- 
ties where it is now found. The geographical positions of the areas 
of loess accumulation may have been in part determined by the 
vegetation there growing which entangled and retained the dust, but 
are more likely to have been fixed by meteorological factors con- 
trolling the path and strength of the dust-bearing winds and espe- 
cially the areas over which they habitually decreased in velocity and 
began to deposit their load. 

Neither the action of the wind nor that of water on the loessial 
material has stopped with the primary deposition. Being in most 
localities a surface deposit, the formation has been much moved and 
removed, and sorted and resorted by winds and rains and streams. 
Thus there have been produced many secondary deposits of loess, 
some of them clearly wind-formed, some just as clearly the product 
of stream action, and some in which the agent or agents of rearrange- 
ment are recognizable only with difficulty if at all. These secondary 
rearrangements have not stopped with the beginning of the present 
era but are still continuing, and there are indeed deposits apparently 
of primary character which are still increasing under the action of 
wind or water, or both. Thus rivers like the Nile, the Mississippi, 
the Ganges, the Po, the rivers of eastern China, and others which 
periodical^ pour muddy floods over their alluvial plains are in this 
way depositing flood-plain loess/* while the present-day activity of 
the eolian agencies is instanced by the observations of Shaler* on 
the blown loessial deposits along the streams in the arid portions 

o Jour. geol. 10: 250-251 (1902). 

* Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 50: 472-487 (1894). 

cThe European conditions are summarized by Richthofen — China, vol. 1, pp. 153- 
173 [1877]. For occurrences of undoubted eolian loess in Germany, see Sauer and 
Siegert— Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 40: 580 (1888); Sauer— Zs. NaturwisB. 62: 326-351 
(1889); and the authors cited on p. 130, note c. 

& On the present-day deposition of loess by small streams see Todd — Proc. Iowa 
acad. sci. 14: 257-266 (1907). 

'Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 10: 245-252 (1899). 



140 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BT THE WIND. 

of Montana; of Beyer a on the continual accumulation of dust on 
top of the stream-valley bluffs of Iowa; of Keyes 6 and of Shimek c 
on the recent loess formed of dust blown from the flats of the Mis- 
souri River; and of Matthew d and of Reagan c on the present forma- 
tion of eolian loess on the Great Plains and in New Mexico, respec- 
tively. 

In China and Central Asia the accumulation of eolian loess at 
the present time and within the historic past has been observed by 
Richthofen/ L6czy,* Obruchev,* Hedin,* Ivchenko,' Huntington,* 
R. W. Pumpelly, 1 ' and Stein. w Recent eolian deposits of loesslike 
material have been described by Stur n from the high Alps, by 
Virlet d'Aoust from the Mexican highlands, by Thoroddsen* from 
Iceland, by Tietze from Persia,* by Lyons' and Grund * from cer> 
tain parts of the Sahara, by Philippi' from South Africa, and by 
Hundhausen* from New Zealand. Van den Broeck ascribes an 
eolian origin to the loesslike loam ("limon hesbayen 11 ) of Belgium. 
The dust storms of 1887-1888 in Saxony produced deposits of loess- 
like material in some places as much as 3 or 4 centimeters thick.* 
The resorting of old loess by the wind is also very common in 
loess regions and has been observed in China by Wright x and by 

oProc. Iowa acad. sci. 6: 117-121 (1899). 
& Amer. jour. sci. (4) 6: 299-304 (1898). 

clowa Geol. but v. 13: 174-175 (1902). Of. Amer. geol. 3: 397-399 (1889); and 
G. G. Hopkins and Petti t— 111. agr. expt. stat. Bull. 123: 238 (1908). 

* Amer. Nat. 33: 406-407 (1899). 
« Science (n. s.) 28: 653 (1908). 
/China, vol. 1, p. 150-151 (1877). 

ffReise dea Grafen Szechenyi, vol. 1, p. 421 (1893). 

* Verh. Imp. min. Ges. St. Petersburg (2) 33: 263-269 (1895). 
i Scientific results, vol. 1, pp. 291-293 (1904). 

i Ann. geol. min. Russ. 7, 1: 221-222 (1904). 

* Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 18 : 359-360 (1907), Pulse of Asia, pp. 91, 103, 134-135, 
156-157 (1907). 

1 Carnegie Inst, of Washington Pub. 73, vol.- 2 : 271 et al. (1908). 

» Geog. jour. 34: 13, 14 (1909). 

"Verh. geol. Reichsanst. 1872: 185. 

'Bull. Soc. geol. France (2) 15: 129-139 (1857); Compt. rend. Soc. geog. Paris 
1885: 464-466. See also Meunier— La Nature 2, II: 26-27 (1874). 

PPeterm. Mitt. 31: 338 (1885). 

fJahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 27: 348 (1877), 31: 80-85 (1881). 

' Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 50: 537 (1894). 

'Sitzungsb. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Vienna 115: 545, 549, 551 (1906). 

'Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 56, Monatsb. 66: (1904). 

« Globus 90: 47(1906). 

'Bull. Soc. beige geol. 1, Proc.-verb.: 151-159 (1887), 2, Proc.-verb.: 188-192 
(1888). 

« Sauer and Siegert— Ze. deut. geol. Ges. 40: 575-582 (1888). See p. 102 above. 

'Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 13: 127-138 (1902). 



EOLIAN ACTION DURING PRE-PLEISTOCENB TIME. 141 

Skertchly and Kingsmill, in southeastern Russia by Hume, 6 and in 
the Mississippi Valley by Todd, c Williams,* and Savage.* 

EOLIAN ACTION DURING PBE-FLEISTOOENE TIME. 

Though there is no reason to believe that the wind has been gener- 
ally less active in the past than it is to-day, very few formations 
possessing unmistakable indications of eolian origin are known in the 
stratigraphic series. This rarity is probably in some measure appar- 
ent and due to specific search not having been made for signs of 
wind action, but it is no doubt largely real and indicative of an actual 
lack of wind-formed strata. Some such lack is to be expected. The 
sea is par excellence the place for strata building and the majority 
of preserved deposits are naturally marine. As already explained, 
eolian action does not in general lead to the formation of character- 
istic and recognizable accumulations, and in the comparatively rare 
cases in which such are produced they are subject to rapid subaerial 
denudation, and have a far less than normal expectancy of being 
preserved as a part of the geologic column. Further, the recognition 
of eolian origin is so largely dependent upon external and evanescent 
criteria to which the internal characteristics of the strata offer so 
little assistance, that the indications of wind action must have been 
very clear and striking, to have survived the various metamorphic 
changes which accompany consolidation and lithification. 

Such loessial deposits as may have been formed in periods previous 
to the last ice invasion have probably been either entirely removed 
by the denuding agencies or else so completely altered by processes 
of induration and metamorphism as to render impossible any recog- 
nition of the manner of origin. It is apparent from the previous 
pages that even in the deposits of this character belonging to the 
present era the criteria of eolian or of aqueous origin, particularly 
such of these criteria as depend upon internal evidence alone, are 
by no means unmistakable. 

Dune sands have, however, certain characteristics, such as great 
purity and uniformity, perfect rounding of the grains, irregular false 
bedding/ eolian ripple marks, etc., which are likely to persist through 

« Quart, jour. Geol. boc. 51; 238-254 (1895). 

&Geol. mag. (3) 9: 549-561 (1892). 

«Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 1875-80: 21. 

<«Iowa Geol. surv. 16: 497 (1905). 

«Ibid. 16: 638-639 (1905). Cf. the eolian resorting of river-deposited silt in 
Khotan (Stein — Ancient Khotan, pp. 124-125, 198, and Appendix G [by L6ozy], 
1907). 

/See: Tietze — Verh. geol. Reichsanst. 1877: 265; Briart — Bull. Soc. geol. France 
(3) 8: 586-591 (1880); Reade— Geol. Mag. (2) 8: 197-198 (1881); Tenison- 
Woods— Jour. Proc. Roy. soc. N. S.Wales 16: 53-88 (1882); Grabau— Science (n.s.) 
25 x 296 (1907). The characters and occurrences of the various kinds of stratification 
which are possible in eolian deposits have been well discussed by Ivchenko — Ann. 
geol. min. Ruaeie 10, I: 18-27 (1908). 



142 MOVEMENT OF SOIL, MATEBIAL BY THE WIND. 

ordinary metamorphic changes; and it has therefore happened that, 
partly on such internal evidence and partly on general geologic data, 
certain formations have been more or less perfectly identified as 
formed by the consolidation of masses of drifting sand. Among the 
best examples of such fossilized dune complexes are the Saint Peter 
and the Sylvania sandstones of the northern Mississippi Valley, the 
former of which is believed by Berkey a to be the result of the joint 
action of wind and wave along the sandy coast of a slowly retreating 
arm of the sea; while the latter, according to Grabau and Sherzer,* 
represents sands weathered from previous sandstone rocks (possibly 
the Saint Peter itself) and much drifted and arranged by the wind. 
On account of its history of long attrition and assorting, partly by 
water but especially by wind, the Sylvania possesses to a remarkably 
high degree the characteristics of purity, rounded grains, etc., which 
mark an eolian rock. A similar origin from an area of coastal sands 
is ascribed by A. W. G. Wilson ° to the band of gray sandstone 
stretching across Ontario from Niagara Falls to Collingwood, and by 
Huntington and Goldthwait d to the Kanab and Colob formations 
(probably Permian) of southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona. 
From its analogies with certain recent eolian limestones of India, 
Evans* suggests that the Great Oolite series of England may bo 
eolian. The Triassic reptiliferous sandstone of Elgin, Scotland/ and 
the Triassic strata of England in general,* the Hawkcsbury sand- 
stone of Australia,* the sandstones of Rambouillet (France),' and 
the Nubian sandstone (Cretaceous) of Egypt/ all show indications 
of eolian action, but in no case is the evidence perfectly conclusive. 
Old dune areas underlying the loess along the border of the Iowan 
drift have been found bv Shimek,* and Parran l has described from 

^— .— -, — -——   — i -  ^^—  — —  ■—     - ^— ^ 

Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 17: 229-250 (1906). Cf. Grabau— Jour. geol. 17: 249-250 
(1909). Calvin dissents, ibid., p. 250. 

6 In a paper as yet unpublished. I am indebted to Professor Sherzcr for the oppor- 
tunity of examining the preliminary draft. An abstract (by Grabau) is published 
in Science (n. s.) 26: 832 (1907). See also Grabau — loc. cit. supra. 

c Canad. rec. sci. 9 2 120-122 (1903). 

dBull. Mus. comp. zool. 42: 214-216 (1904). See also Huntington— Bull. Geol. 
soc. Amer. 18: 384-388 (1907). 

« Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 56: 578-580 (1900). 

/ Mackie— Trans. Edinb. geol. soc. 7: 166 (1897). 

a See p. 145 below. 

*Tenison-Woods-nJour. Proc. Roy. hoc. N. S. Wales 16: 53-116 (1882). 

* Meunier— Compt. rend. 85 1 1240-1242 (1877). 

iWalther— Vorh. GeB. Erdk. Berlin 15: 253 (1888); Blanckenhorn— Geologie 
Agyptens, p. 27 et seq. (1901); Fourtau— Compt. rend. 185: 803-804 (1902). A 
marine origin is favored by Hume — Topography of Southeastern Sinai, p. 153 (1906). 

*Bull. Lab. nat. hist. Univ. Iowa 5: 357 (1904). 

1 Bull. Soc. geol. France (3) 18: 245-251 (1890). 



EOLIAN ACTION DUBING PEE-PLEISTOCENE TIME. 143 

the northern coast of Africa some dunes which he believes to be of 
Pliocene age. 

Other examples of ancient, though perhaps not pre-Pleistocene 
dunes have been described from many parts of the world, and the 
layers of soil often found covering dune sands and interstratified 
with them * indicate a previous and interrupted activity of the agents 
of dune production. In fact it is probable, as Braine c believes to 
be the case in South Africa, that sand movement and dune produc- 
tion is likely to be intermittent, periods of rest and of soil forma- 
tion alternating with periods of active sand-drift. d Resting sand 
dunes which are calcareous or contain any calcareous material are 
soon consolidated by the action of percolating waters,* and important 
deposits of eolian rock (so far as known of comparatively recent age) 
have been produced in this way.' Such rocks formed from coral 

<* Good examples are the observations of Kennard and Warren in Cornwall (Geol. 
Mag. (4) 10: 19-25 [1903]), or of Solger in northern Germany (Verh. deut. Geog.- 
Tagsl5: 159-172 [1905], Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 57, Monatsb.: 179-190 [1905], Monatob! 
deut. geol. Ges. 1908: 54-59). In connection with these last observations see also 
Romer — Verh. geol. Reichsanst. 1907: 48-55, and literature there cited. Durcgne 
has discovered that there are two Buperposed dune systems in Gascony, one ancient 
and one recent (Compt. rend. Ill: 1006-1008 [1890], Actes Soc. linn. Bordeaux 
57: 1-10 [1902], and other articles cited in the bibliography). See also Fabre — 
Compt. rend. 135: 1134-1135 (1902). Klemm has made an analogous discovery of 
three periods of sand drift on the plains of the Main near Darmstadt (Notizbl. Ver. 
Erdk. Darmstadt 1892: 36-37). 

b For examples see Boase — Trans. Roy. Geol. soc. Cornwall 2 : 142 (1822); Knowlcs — 
Jour. Anthrop. inst. 7: 202 (1878), 9: 320 (1879); C. W. Ilall and Sardeson— Bull. 
Geol. soc. Amer. 10: 352-359 (1899); WahnschafTe— Ursachen der Oberflachengestal- 
tung, p. 248 (1901); Shimek— Bull. Lab. nat. hiBt. Univ. Iowa 5: 359 (1904); Coffey 
and Praeger— Proc. Roy. Irish acad. 25: 193-196 (1904); etc. 

c Proc. Inst. civ. eng. 150 : 380-381 (1902). Cf . the observations of Tenison-Woods 
on the South Australian coast — Jour. Proc. Roy. boc. N. S. Wales 16: 60 (1882). 

<* If this fact is general it may have its application in the hypothesis of alternating 
changes of climate recently proposed by Iluntington (The Pulse of Asia [1907]). 

«Sce H. von Meyer— Neues Jahrb. Min. 1848: 465-473; and Rice— Bull. U. 8. 
Nat. mus. 25:15(1884). 

/For examples see Gregory— Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 17: 480 (1861); Topley — Pop. 
sci. rev. 14: 136 (1875); Reade— Geol. mag. (2) 8: 197-198 (1881); Tenison- 
Woods— Jour. Proc. Roy. soc. N. S. Wales 16: 61-62 (1882); Marsh- The earth as 
modified by human action, ed. of 1885, pp. 542, 551 ; Walther — Denudation inderWQste, 
pp. 527-529 (1891); Does— Korrespbl. Naturforscherver. Riga 39: 32 (1896); Corstor- 
phine — Ann. rept. Geol. comm. Cape Good Hope 2 : 25-28 (1897); Blake — Quart, jour. 
Geol. soc. 53: 227-230 (1897); Rogers and Schwarz— Trans. South African phil. soc. 
10: 427-436 (1898); Evans— Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 56: 559-581 (1900); Chapman— 
ibid. 56: 584-589 (1900); Bishop— Amer. geol. 27: 1-5 (1901); Bertololy— Krausel- 
ungsmarken und Dttnen, pp. 7-8 (1900); Philippi— Deut. Sud-polar Exped. 1: 29 
(1902); Dorsey et al— Field Operations Bur. of Soils 1902: 803; Braine— loc. cit.; 
and Branner— Amer. jour. sci. (4) 16: 307 (1S03). On the analogous phenomena of 
the consolidation of beach sands sec the thorough discussion of Branner, in re the 
stone reefs of Brazil— Bull. Mus. comp. zool. 44: 171-196 (1904). 



144 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

sand are well developed in the Bahamas and Bermudas, 6 on the 
coast of Florida/ 6n the Island of Fernando de Noronha, d etc. 

These consolidated sands, whether the remains of coastal dunes 
or of those of the desert, are the only known strata which can be 
identified as eolian entirely from examination of their internal 
characteristics. However, with the advance of geologic science it 
has become increasingly possible to reconstruct from various lines 
of evidence the climatic conditions which prevailed in past geologic 
times and under which various strata were laid down. Geologists 
have thus been able in certain cases to reach the tentative conclusion 
that the strata concerned were terrestrially deposited and under 
conditions of more or less complete aridity,* which conditions must 
have been markedly favorable to eolian action, though direct trace 
of such action may not be preserved. Thus Goodchild^ believes 
that the Old Red, or Devonian sandstone of England, was formed 
under desert or semidesert conditions; Passarge? thinks that the 
Mesozoic climate of all southern Africa was a dry one; Suess* advo- 
cates the hypothesis of terrestrial and arid origin for the Permian 
beds of the basin of Rossitz, Hungary; Matthew* and Loomis' 
believe that certain Tertiary beds of Nebraska represent an old 
deposit of desert loess; and Barrell* has ascribed a semiarid (though 
not desert) origin to the Mauch Chunk and similar formations in 
eastern Pennsylvania, which conclusion has been confirmed by 

« Nelson — Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 9: 200-215 (1853); A. Agassis — Bull. Mus. comp. 
zool. 26: 19, 46-47, 170 (1894); Shattuck— The Bahama Islands, pp.12, 14-15 (1905). 

b Nelson— Trans. Geol. soc. London (2) 5: 103-123 (1840); Rein— Ber. senckenb. 
naturf. Ges. 1869-70: 140, 1872-73, 131; C. W. Thompson— The Atlantic, pp. 
287-293(1878); Rice— Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 25: 9-15 (1884); A. Agassiz— Bull. 
Mus. comp.zool. 26: 221-228 (1895); Verrill— Amer. jour. sci. (4) 9: 313-340 (1900). 
The last article contains a bibliography. 

cL. Agassiz— Bull. Mus. comp. zool. 1: 373-375 (1869); Dall and Harris— U. S. 
Geol. surv. Bull. 84: 101 (1892); A. Agassiz— Bull. Mus. comp. zool. 28: 45 (1896). 

d Branner— Amer. jour. sci. (3) 37: 145-161 (1889), 39: 247-257 (1890). Ridley, 
however, dissents from Brenner's opinion as to the eolian origin of these rocks (ibid. 
(3)41: 40G-409 [1891]). 

«On the possibility of fossil deserts, see Walther — Rept. Brit. Assoc. 1896: 795. 

/Trans. Edinb. geol. soc. 7: 203-222 (1897), Trans. Geol. soc. Glasgow 11: 79 
(1898), Proc. Geol. assoc. (2) 18: 119 (1903). Good child's illustrative examples are 
criticised by Barron— Topography Sinai, Western Portion, p. 215 (1907). 

?Zs. Ges. Erdk. Berlin 1904: 176-193. 

AJahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 57: 793-834, especially pp. 795-798 (1907). He also 
refers to several possibly similar localities elsewhere. 

i Amer. Nat. 33: 403-408 (1899). 

I Amer. Jour. Sci. (4) 28: 17 (1909). 

*Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 18: 449-476 (1907). See also Grabau— Jour. geol. 17 1 
209-250 (1909). 



EOLIAN ACTION DURING PBE-PLEISTOCENB TIME. 145 

ierry* on the ground of the occurrence therein of a mineral 

.rnotite) known to be formed under conditions of inadequate rain- 

. J~ 1. Probably the best known and best established instances of 

ch strata are those formed in the desert which seems to have 

"" isted over northern Europe in Triassic time. 6 In England espe- 

ally dune sand has been found in the deposits, 6 wind corraded and 

)lished surfaces* and surfaces showing insolations! flaking have 

aen discovered under certain of the strata, faceted pebbles have 

~ een collected from them/ and other evidences of desert origin and 

~ Dlian action brought to light.* The Keuper marls seem to repre- 

- ant the eolian loess deposited in the bordering areas.* 

- An important (though not the only) item in the evidence advanced 

- n favor of the hypothesis of desert origin for certain of these strata 
s their red color, and it has been frequently urged that all red beds 

—ire desert, or at least subaerial, formations, it being claimed that the 
requisite oxidation of the iron could not otherwise be attained.* 
The incorrectness of this conclusion has been pointed out by Barrell.' 

- Subaerial deposits are perhaps usually red, but this color is by no 
-" means an invariable indication of such a history. Even if the possi- 

a In a paper before Section E, Amer. assoc. adv. sci., Baltimore, Md., Dec. 28, 
1008. I am indebted to Dr. Wherry for a more extended summary of his views than 
was given at the meeting. 

6 Fraas— Jahresh. Ver. vaterl. Naturk. 55: 42-68 (1899); Walther— Centbl. Min. 

- 1904 : 5-12, Geschichte der Erde und dee Lebens, pp. 366-384 (1908). 
c Phillips— Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 37: 13 (1881); Mackie— Trans. Edinburgh geol. 

soc. 7:166(1897), Kept. Brit. Assoc. 1901:650; Lomas— ibid. 1903: 655, Proc. 
Liverpool geol. soc. 10: 194-196 (1905-6). 

* Watts— Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1899: 747, Geog. Jour. 21: 632 (1903), Brit. asBoc. 
Geol. photos. (3) No. 3755, desc. p. 26; Mackie— Kept. Brit, assoc. 1901 : 650-651; 
Boeworth — Kept. Brit. Assoc. 1907 : 505-506, Trans. Leicester lit. phil. soc. 12 f 
28-34 (1908). 

« Lomas — loc. cit. p. 186. 

/Beaaley— Proc. Liverpool geol. soc. 10: 87 (1905-6); Lomas— ibid. p. 196; W. D. 
Brown — ibid. pp. 128-131; Zimmermann — Monateb. deut. geol. Ges. 1907: 229-230. 

The evidence is summarized by Lomas — loc. cit. pp. 172-197; and Proc. York- 
shire geol. soc., n. s. 16 : 15-20 (1906) . Bonney opposes the hypothesis of mainly desert 
origin (Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 56: 288 [1900], 58: 201 [1902], Proc. Yorkshire geol. 
soc., n. s. 16 : 1-14 [1906], Geol. mag. (5) 5 : 336-341 [1908]). See also Koken— Jahresh. 
Ver. vaterl. Naturk. 61 : lxxvi-lxxvii (1905); and Blanckenhorn — Monateb. deut. geol. 
Ges. 1907 : 297-315. 

*See Lomas — loc. cit.; Beasley — loc. cit. pp. 79-97; Bosworth — loc. cit. 

i On the origin and meaning of red color in rocks and soils, see Crosby — Proc. Boston 
boc. nat. hist. 23: 219-222 (1888), Amer. geol. 8: 72-82 (1891); Russell— U. S. Geol. 
surv. Bull. 52, 1889; Hudleston— Proc. Geol. assoc. (2) 11: 104-144(1889); Spring— 
Neues Jahrb.Min. 1899, 1: 47-62; Katzer— ibid. II: 177-181; Huntington— Bull. Geol. 
boc. Amer. 18: 379-382 (1907); and especially the brief but excellent discussion by 
&** * Barrell-^Four. geol. 16 : 285-293 (1908). 

i Loc. cit. See also D. White— Jour. geol. 17 : 339-340 (1909). 

53W52°— Bull. 6&- 11 10 






+ . 






146 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

bility of secondary (metamorphic) reddening" be rejected, it is still 
possible to imagine the red beds composed of material washed from 
an old and well weathered land surface and deposited in the sur- 
rounding seas. b 

The problems of paleogeography are just beginning to be investi- 
gated. In recent years Bonney c has examined and discussed the 
evidences of past physiographic conditions which are furnished by 
certain breccias; Grabau* has pointed out the importance to the 
stratigrapher of a thorough study of the past history of strata in 
general; and Barrell,' in a most valuable paper, has analyzed the 
phenomena of erosion, deposition and stream transport and shown in 
what manner they are severally affected by variations in climatic 
conditions. The possibility of strata building under other than 
subaqueous conditions is a comparatively new concept. When it, 
and the various criteria by which previous climatic conditions may 
be traced (as outlined by Barrell), shall have become better known 
to, and understood by, field geologists, much progress may be ex- 
pected in the identification of strata in the formation of which sub- 
aerial agencies in general, and the wind in particular, have been 
much more active than is now suspected. 

VOLCANIC DUST AS SOIL MATERIAL. 
FRAGMENTARY MATERIAL THROWN OUT BY VOLCANOES. 

Besides gaseous matters and liquid lava, most erupting volcanoes 
eject much material in the solid form, consisting of fragments of rock, 
volcanic bombs, lapilli, and volcanic dust or "ash." / The amount 
of the fragment al material thus ejected by the more explosive erup- 
tions is enormous. Junghuhn? estimated that 381 cubic kilometers (92 
cubic miles) were ejected in the great eruption of Tomboro in Sum- 
bawa in 1815, and even if we follow Verbeek* in reducing this amount 
to 150 cubic kilometers (36 cubic miles) it still remains stupendous. 
It is estimated that the material thrown out by the explosion of 

« As suggested by Barrell — loc. cit. 

b See Grabau's suggestions in re the red formations of New York (Science (n. b.) 22: 
528-535 [1905], Jour. geol. 17: 245 [1909]). 

c Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 58: 185-206 (1902). 

d Science (n. s.) 22 : 528-535 (1905). See alBo his article in Jour. geol. 17 : 209-250 
(1909). 

e Jour. geol. 16: 159-190, 255-295, 363-384 (1908). 

/ For a discussion of all these classes of material see Johnston-Lavis — Proc. Geol. 
aflsoc. (2)9: 421-132(1886). 

pjava, vol. 2, p. 819-828 (1854). On this eruption see also Landgrebe — Natur- 
geschichte der Vulcane, vol. 1, pp. 262, 263 (1855). 

h Krakatau, p. 141 (1885). This is the report to the Dutch Government on the erup- 
tion of Krakatoa and its accompanying phenomena. 



CHARACTER AND PRODUCTION OF YOLCANIO DUST. 147 

Bandaisan in Japan in 1888 was about 2,000,000,000 tons. Ver- 
beek's 6 careful calculations of the material thrown out by the erup- 
tion of Krakatoa in the Straits of Sunda in 1883 lead to a value of 18 
cubic kilometers (4.3 cubic miles), one-third of which fell at a distance 
of more than 15 kilometers (9.4 miles) from the seat of disturbance. 
The great eruptions of Papanday ang c in Java in 1772, of Asama* 
in Japan in 1783, and of Skaptar Jdkull ' in Iceland in the same year 
doubtless produced even greater quantities of fragmental material 
than this. The eruption of Krakatoa was remarkable not for any 
great quantity of material discharged, but for the extreme violence 
of the explosions by which the discharge was effected. The quantity 
of material ejected by the recent (1902) eruptions of La Soufridre and 
Pel£e in the West Indies was not insignificant/ 

The above estimates are based on the thickness and area of deposits 
made near thfe volcanoes and hence include only the fragments of 
appreciable size and that part of the fine dust which was entangled 
by these large particles or carried down by local rains. A large part 
of the ejected material is fine enough to be carried long distances by 
the winds, and enough such volcanic dust has been, and is being, 
distributed by the atmosphere to render it worthy of attention as a 
constituent of the soil. It is estimated by Shaler ? that not less than 
300 cubic miles of fine dust has been discharged by the Javanese and 
Malayan volcanoes since 1770, and probably a more than equal 
quantity has been discharged by volcanoes in other parts of the earth 
during the same period. 

CHARACTER AND PRODUCTION OF VOLCANIC DUST. 

Volcanic dust has everywhere much the same appearance. Under 
tlv microscope it is seen to be made up of thin, irregular shaped 
fragments of vitreous material often so curved as to indicate that 

« Sekiya and Kikuchi — Jour. Coll. sci. Imp. Univ. Japan 3: 91-172 (1889). 

& Krakatau — p. 140. On this eruption see aleo the report of the Royal Society of 
Jjondon cited in note &, p. 117. Both of these reports give full references to the lit- 
erature. Many details of the eruption are also given in Proc. Roy. geog. soc, n. s. 
6:142-152(1884). 

c Junghuhn— Java, vol . 2, pp. 95-106 (1854). The discharged material is estimated 
at 29,343,000,000 cubic feet; Schneider^Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 35: 1-26 (1885); 
Volz-^Neues Jahrb. Min. Beilagebd. 20: 123-132 (1905). 

d Marshall— Trans. Asiatic Soc. Japan 6: 328 (1878); Milne— Rept. Brit. Assoc. 
1887: 212-226. 

<Thoroddsen — Ann, rept. Smithsonian Inst. 1885: 495-541. 

/Anderson and Flett— Proc. Roy. soc. 70: 423-445 (1902); Hovey— Bull. Amer. 
mus. nat. hist. 16 : 333-372 (1902), Amer. jour. sci. (4) 14 : 319-358 (1902), Nat. geog. 
mag. 13: 444-459 (1902), papers by Hill, Russell, Diller, Hillebrand, and Page in the 
last-named journal, 13: 223-301, 415-436 (1902); Heilprin— Eruption of Pelee, 1908. 

g Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. 12, I: 240-241 (1891). 



148 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

they once formed parts of the walls of bubbles of glass. The frag- 
ments themselves frequently contain small cavities, evidently 
bubbles which remained unbroken. Complete hollow spheres of 
glassy material have also been found. 6 Ordinary porous pumice 
when pulverized gives a dust of this sort, and it is probable that 
some volcanic dust originates by the mutual attrition of fragments 
of pumice rising and falling above the crater. e It seems, however, 
to be more largely formed by the blowing apart of the lava itself by 
steam (or water) occluded in its mass and suddenly released from 
pressure when the eruption takes place. d 

The crystals of various minerals which are found mixed with the 
glassy material of volcanic dust are probably in part microlites 
which had crystallized out of the still fluid magma before the ex- 
plosion and in part fragments detached by attrition from pieces of 
previously solidified rock hurled into the air. It is possible, as sug- 
gested by Abbe* that some of the finest dust of volcanic origin may 
be derived from the evaporation in the air of droplets of water highly 
charged with soluble substances. 

The quantity of dust produced by any particular eruption depends 
in the main on the violence of the explosion; that is, the amount of 
confined steam and the suddenness with which it is released. If the 
volcanic magma has sufficiently free access to the air the pressure 
will be relieved gradually and lava will flow out slowly with little or 
no explosive activity and the production of practically no dust. 
Nearly all eruptions are, however, partly explosive in character, and 
hence lead to the production of more or less dust. 

THE AIR-TRANSPORT OF VOLCANIC DUST. 

On account of the irregular form and common vesicular structure 
of its component fragments, volcanic dust is very easily lifted and 

<* On the characteristics of volcanic dust see Zirkel — Neuee Jahrb. Min. 1872: 24; 
Murray and Renard— Proc. Roy. soc. Edinburgh 12: 477-488(1883-84). Also the 
various references to occurrences cf volcanic dust cited on pp. 149-151 below. Bar- 
bour's paper cited on p. 151 contains a number of figures showing the microscopic 
appearance of various volcanic dusts. Figures are also given by Beijerinck — Nature 
29: 308-309 (1884); Diller— ibid. 30: 91-93 (1884), Science 3: 651-654 (1884); and 
Judd — Roy. soc. Rept. on Krakatoa, plates 3 and 4 (1888). 

6 Humboldt— Kosmos, vol. 4, p. 255 (1858). 

cjudd — Roy. soc. Rept. on Krakatoa, p. 39 (1888). 

d Penck— Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 30: 97-129 (1878), especially pp. 127-128; Hixon— 
Min. and sci. press 95 : 809 (1907). Murray and Renard (Proc. Roy. soc. Edinburgh 
12: 480 [1883-84],) suggest that the dust may be formed by the explosion of droplets 
under tension caused by cooling — analogous to the phenomena of " Prince Rupert's 
drops.' ' See also Forel— Bull. Soc. vaud. sci. nat. (4) 39: xxxiv-xxxv (1903). It 
seems doubtful if such a cause is competent to account for the enormous quantities of 
dust produced. 

«Mon. weath. rev. 34: 164 (1906). 



THE AIR-TBANSPOBT OP VOLCANIC DUST. 149 

sustained by the wind, and it is also raised to great heights by the 
volcanic explosions themselves, by ascending currents of steam and 
heated air, and by the whirlwinds often formed over the crater. 6 
Therefore, although it of course falls in greater quantity near the 
point of origin, it is by no means confined to that locality, but may 
be, and is, carried to great distances by the wind. Volcanic dust 
from Iceland has several times fallen in Scandinavia/ in northern 
Great Britain, d and in Holland/ Dust from Tomboro fell on Sumatra 
a thousand miles away/ Krakatoa ashes fell inches deep at distances 
of nearly 1,000 miles from the volcano,* and small quantities fell 
even in Holland.* Dust from Colima in Mexico fell in February 
and March, 1903, at points over 200 miles north and east of the 
volcano,* and the ash from Santa Maria in Guatemala in October, 
1902, covered all the northern part of that country and most of the 
states of Tabasco, Veracruz, and Oaxaca in southern Mexico/ At 
Tapachula, 40 miles away, the ashes were 19.5 centimeters thick.* 
Ash from Coseguina in Nicaragua in 1835 covered an area of 
1,500,000 square miles 1 and even reached Jamaica, more than 750 
miles away. TO The dust from the eruption of Cotopaxi in Equador 
in 1877 fell at Guayaquil, 150 miles away, to .the amount of 315 
kilograms on every square kilometer during the first thirty hours 
of the fall. Once 209 kilograms fell in twelve hours. n The dust 

a Murray and Renard— Proc. Roy. soc. Edinburgh 12: 486 (1883-4.) 

& See p. 87. 

c Zirkel— Neues Jahrb. Min. 1875: 399; Daubree— Compt. rend. 80: 994, 1059 
(1875); N. A. E. Nordenskiold— Geol. mag. (2) 3: 292-297 (1876), Met. Zs. 11: 
201-206 (1894). On May 3, 1892, the dust amounted to between 1 and 2 grams per 
square meter. 

& Daubree— loc. cit.; Geikie — Textbook of geology, 4th ed., vol. 1, p. 295 (1903). 

t Vom Rath— Monateb. K. Preuss. Akad. Wise. Berlin 1875: 282-286. 

/ iSlie de Beaumont — Lecons de geologie pratique, vol. 1, p. 188 (1847). 

9 See the Royal society report already cited (on p. 117) and Verbeek's work also 
cited (on p. 146). Also Judd— Nature 29: 152, 595 (1883-1884), and the sym- 
posium-ibid., pp. 174-175 (1883). 

ABeijerinck and van Dam— Nature 29: 175 (1883). 

< Ord6fiez— Rev. Soc. cient. Antonio Alzate 20: 99-104 (1903). On this vol- 
cano and its eruptions see also Kerber — Verh. Ges. Erdk. Berlin 9: 237-246 (1882); 
Sperry— Amer. jour. sci. (4) 15: 487-488 (1903); H. Kahler— Prometheus 17: 
214-219 (1906). 

I On this eruption see Sapper— Centbl. Min. 1903: 33-44, 65-72; Schmidt— ibid., 
p. 131; Brauns— ibid., p. 132, 290; Eisen— Bull. Amer. geog. soc. 35: 325-352 (1903); 
and Ord6flez— Par. Inst. geol. Mex. 1: 229-234 (1904). Eisen's figure for the dust- 
covered areas is too large (B6se — Par. Inst. geol. M6x. 1: 51-54 [1904]). 

* Brauns — loci citati. 

I TisBandier— Rev. sci. (2) 18: 815 (1880). 

•» filie de Beaumont — Leconsde geologie pratique, vol. 1, p. 188 (1847); Schiefer — 
Wetter 20: 258(1903). 

n Wolf— Neues Jahrb. Min. 1878 : 141. The eruption is described by Whymper— 
Travels amongst the Great Andes, 1892. 



150 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

ejected by this same volcano in 1888 amounted to more than 2,000,000 
tons. a On this occasion the dust cloud traveled 85 miles in six hours. * 
At the eruption of Tarawera in New Zealand in 1886, 1,960,000,000 
cubic yards of dust was discharged in five or six hours and covered 
a land area of over 6,000 square miles. Much more dust fell into 
the sea. Dust from the eruptions of La Soufriire and Pel6e in 1902 
fell plentifully all over the West Indies and especially at Barbados, 4 
130 miles from Pel6e and 225 from La Soufridre. Dust from the 
eruption of Pel6e in 1812 is said to have reached the Azores. € Dust 
from Vesuvius has been observed in Greece/ in France,' and in 
Austria.* 

All these observations refer to falls of dust in such quantity that 
it could be collected or easily observed. From the optical effects of 
such material in the atmosphere it is known that small amounts of 
volcanic dust are transported to very much greater distances.' At 
the time of the Krakatoa eruption dust was distributed over nearly 
the whole earth. 

From the ease of transfer of volcanic dust and the large number 
of volcanoes discharging it,' it follows that the soil in all parts of the 
earth is likely to receive at least some slight accretion from this 
source. The accretion is of course largest in countries of many 
volcanoes, such as Japan, Java, and Central America, and in the 
neighborhood of isolated active volcanoes like Vesuvius and Etna. 
In these localities volcanic dust is always an important, and often the 
most important, constituent of the soil materials. Even, however, 
in countries far from active volcanoes the share of volcanic dust in 

a Whymper — loc. cit. p. 328. 

ft Whymper— Nature 29: 199 (1883). 

c Cadell— Trans. Edinb. geol. boc. 7: 183-200 (1896). 

* 2,200,000 tone fell on Barbados on May 7-8 (Hapke— Abh. naturw. Ver. Bremen 
17: 545 [1903]). See also Dillerand Steiger— Science (n. e.) 15: 947-950 (1902); 
Morris— Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 58: lxxxiv (1902); Porter— Nature 66: 131 (1902); 
Bonney— Nature 67: 584 (1903); Hapke— Himmel und Erde 15: 89-92 (1902); 
Barenborg and Gottsche — Annalen Hydrog. 31: 270-271 (1903); and the references 
cited on p. 147. For a notice of fall of Pelee dust at San Juan, Porto Rico, 400 miles 
away, see Thompson — Mon. weath. rev. 30: 488 (1902). Dust from these eruptions 
fell on ships as much as 600 miles away (Page— Nat. geog. mag. 13: 299-301 [1902]). 

« Porter— Nature 66: 132 (1902). 

/ £lie de Beaumont — Leoons de geologic pratique, vol. 1, p. 188 (1847). 

Meunier— Compt. rend. 142: 938 (1906); van den Broeck— Ciel et terre 27: 
330-334 (1906). 

h Ohnesorge— Verh. geol. Reichsanst. 1906: 296-297; Veenema— Wetter 23: 
116-117 (1906); and notices by von Nettovich, Mazelle, and Jane&fc— Met. Zs. 23: 
223-225 (1906). 

<See Archenhold— Weltall 2:225-227 (1902); Stentzel— Wetter 21:121-125 
(1904). 

i Probably about 300 or 400 (A. Geikie— Textbook of geology, 4th ed., p. 346 [1903]). 
Milne thinks that the volcanoes active in the past 4,000 years would number several 
thousand (Earthquakes and other earth movements, p. 227 [1886]). 



VOLCANIC TUFFS, 151 

soil formation is not always negligible. The ubiquity of volcanic 
dust is shown by its constant presence in deep-sea deposits. 6 

VOLCANIC TUFFS. 

But the volcanic material of importance to the soil is not alone 
that furnished by contemporaneous eruptions. There exist in prac- 
tically all parts of the earth beds of volcanic ash or "tuff" derived 
from the volcanoes of previous geologic time. e Some of these tuffs 
are as fresh and unconsolidated as if they had been deposited yester- 
day. Many show traces of deposition by water and probably consist 
of material which fell into lakes and rivers. Others were evidently 
deposited by the wind alone. Deposits of tuff are common over most 
of the United States west of the Mississippi and north of (but includ- 
ing) Colorado and Utah, and exist in a few other of the Western States. d 
Similar deposits occur in Alaska/ 

« Cf. A. Geikie— Textbook of geology, 4th ed. y p. 295 (1903). 

* Murray— Proc. Roy. soc. Edinburgh 9: 247-262 (1876); Murray and Renard— 
Nature 29: 588 (1884); Walther— Einleitung in der Geologie als historische Wis- 
senschaft, p. 955 (1894); Shaler— Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 7: 49(M92 (1896). 

c On tuffs in general see Reyer— Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 31: 57-66 (1881); 
Penck— Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 31: 504-577 (1879); A. Geikie— Textbook of geology, 
4th ed. f pp. 172-175 (1903), and references cited by these authors. 

d On the unconsolidated tuffs or beds of volcanic ash in the western United States 
see the following authors: Dutton— High plateaus of Utah, pp. 71-74, 192 (1880); 
Aughey — Sketches of the physical geography and geology of Nebraska, pp. 238-241 
(1880); Garman — Boston Transcript, Nov. 10, 1882 (also notice of this same occur- 
rence in Wadsworth — Mem. Mus. comp. zool. 11: 17 [1884], and Science 6: 63 
[1885]); Merrill— Science 5: 335 (1885) (more fully in Proc. U. S. Nat. mus. 8: 
99-100 [1886]). See also Merrill— Rocks, rock-weathering and soils, p. 337 (1906); 
Russell— U. S. Geol. surv.Monogr. 11: 146-149 (1886); Peale— Science 8: 163-165 
(1886), U. S. Geol. surv. Geol. folio 24, 1896; Todd— Science 7: 373 (1886); Hicks— 
Amer. geol. 1: 277-280 (1888), 2: 64, (1888); Turner— Bull. Phil. soc. Wash, lit 
389 (1891); Dumble— Trans. Tex. acad. sci. 1: 33-34 (1892); Udden— Amer. geol. 
11: 268-271 (1893), Pop. sci. mon. 54: 222-229 (1898); Barbour— Proc. Nebraska 
acad. sci. 1894-95 : 12-17; Turner— Science (n. s.) 1 : 453-455 (1895); Montgomery— 
ibid., pp. 656-^57; Dumble— ibid. 5t 657-658; Cross— U. S. Geol. surv. Monogr. 27: 
311-315 (1896); Salisbury— Science (n. s.) 4: 816-817 (1896); Cragin— Colo. Coll. 
studies 6: 53-54 (1896); Winchell and Grant— Amer. geol. 18: 211-213 (1896); 
Todd— Science (n. s.) 5: 62 (1897); Barbour— Mineral ind. 1897: 22-25; Haworth— 
Univ. Geol. surv. Kansas 2: 256-257 (1897), U. S. Geol. surv. Water sup. pap. 6: 33 
(1897); Darton— Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 19, IV.: 760-761 (1899); Berkey— 
Amer. geol. 21: 146-147 (1898); Russell— U. S. Geol. surv. Water sup. pap. 53: 
32-34 (1901), ibid., Bull. 199: 50, 73(1902), Bull. 217: 61 (1903); Spurr— ibid., 
Bull. 208: 65 (1903); Rowe— Univ. Montana Bull. 17, 1903; Woolsey— U. S. Geol. 
surv. Bull. 285: 476-479 (1906); W. T. Lee— ibid. 352: 84 (1908). Samples are 
described by Diller— U. S. Geol. surv. Bull. 150: 212-214, 245-248 (1898); and by 
Iddings — ibid., pp. 146-148. For references to American occurrences of altered and 
consolidated tuffs see p. 152 below. 

e Schwatka — Along Alaska's great river, p. 196 (1885); Dawson — Ann. rept. Geol. 
and nat. hist. surv. Canada 3, I: 43B-46B (1887-8); Russell— Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 
1: 145 (1890); Hayes— Nat. geog. mag. 4: 146 (1892); Spurr— Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. 
surv. 18, HI: 223 (1898); Brooks— Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 21, II: 365-366 
(1900). 



152 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Deposits of volcanic ash which have been more or less altered and 
indurated are also common in many parts of the world. In North 
America they have been found in Maine, Massachusetts, 6 Con- 
necticut, and other New England States; in Michigan/ Montana/ 
Colorado/ Wyoming,* and California ;* in Canada/ in the West 
Indian Islands/ and in the neighborhood of the Mexican volcanoes. 
It is probable that deposits as yet undescribed occur in many other 
localities. 

THE COMPOSITION OF VOLGANIO DUSTS. 

The composition of volcanic dusts depends of course upon that of 
the lavas from which they are derived. The glassy material — always 
by far the larger part * — is simply undifferentiated lava, acid or 
basic, as the case may be. An analysis of the glassy part of the dust 
from the Krakatoa eruption is given as No. 9 in Table IX, page 155. 
The rrfinerals found in determinable size are mainly plagioclase feld- 
spars, rhombic and monoclinic pyroxenes (augite and hypersthene) 
and magnetite. 1 Hornblende and olivine are less frequent but not 

H. E. Gregory— U. S. Geol. surv. Bull. 165: 119-131 (1900). 

* £. Hitchcock— Geology of Massachusetts, p. 648 (1841); Diller— Proc. Boston 
soc. nat. hist. 20: 355-368 (1881). 

« E. Hitchcock— Amer. jour. sci. (2) 4: 199-207 (1847); Emerson— Bull. Geol. soc. 
Amer. 8: 59-86(1897). 
d G. H. Williams— U. S. Geol. surv. Bull. 62: 151-154, 15&-159, 175-177 (1890). 
t Merrill— Amer. jour. sci. (3) 32: 199-204 (1886). 
/ Cross— Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 16, II: 50-53, 60-63 (1895). 
9 Sinclair— Bull. Amer. mus. nat. hist. 22: 273-280 (1906), 26 • 25-27 (1909). 

* Turner— Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 17, 1: 627 (1896); Diller— U. S. Geol. surv. 
Bull. 150 : 211-213 (1898). 

< In the Sudbury region: Barlow— Can. Geol. surv. Summ. rept. 1902: 256-257. 
In the Lake of the Woods region: Lawson — Geol. and nat. hist. surv. Canada Ann. 
rept. (n. s.) 1, Rept. CC: 51 (1886). In British Columbia: Ferrier— Canada Geol. 
surv. (n. s.) 7, Rept. B, App. 1: 355-356, 358-369, 364-368 (1896). 

J Spencer— Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 58: 345, 347, 349, 351-353 (1902). On the 
recent tuffs of St. Vincent see Howe — Amer. jour. sci. (4) 16: 317-322 (1903). 

* The Krakatoa dust was about 91 per cent glass, 6 per cent feldspar, 1.3 per cent 
hyperpthene, 0.6 per cent augite, and 1 per cent magnetite (Verbeek — Krakatau, p. 
312 [1886]). 

1 For mineralogical examinations of volcanic dusts see the following papers: 

On dust from Vesuvius, February 9, 1850: Ehrenberg — Ber. K. preuss. Akad. 
Wise Uerlin 1850: 78-79. From the same volcano, April 27-28, 1872: Fruh— Met. 
Zs. 20: 175(1903). 

On the dust of the Swedish fall of May 3, 1892: Ussing — Vidensk. medd. Naturh. 
forcn. Copenhagen 44: 131-138 (1892); NordenBkidld— Met. Zs. 11: 205-206 (1894). 

On the dust from Krakatoa: Verbeek — Krakatau, pp. 221-302 (1885); Murray and 
Renard— Proc. Roy. soc. Edinburgh 12: 479-488 (1883-84); Renard— Bull. Acad, 
roy. Belg. (3) 6: 495-506 (1883); Daubree— Compt. rend. 97: 1104 (1883); Joly— 
Sci. proc. Roy. Dublin soc. (n. s.) 4: 291-299 (1884). 

On dust from La Soufriere and Pel£e in 1902: Anderson and Flett — Proc. Roy. soc. 
70: 430 (1902); Flett^-Quart. jour. Geol. soc. 58: 368 (1902); Bonney— ibid. Proc.: 



THE COMPOSITION OF VOLCANIC DUSTS. 153 

uncommon. Micas have been found in Vesuvius dust," in the Swedish 
dust of May, 1892/ in that of Pel6e e and of Santa Maria, d and pos- 
sibly in that from Krakatoa. * The materials from Vesuvius ' and 
from Pel6e c also contain leucite. Pyrite has been found in Kraka- 
toa dust* and in dust which fell at Dominica, West Indies, on Janu- 
ary 4, 1880.* This latter dust also contained galena, which, as per- 
haps also the pyrite, may have been secondary, and formed by 
reactions occurring after the eruption. Zircons were found in the 
Swedish dust, 6 in that from Santa Maria/ and probably in that from 
Pel6e.* -Apatite was present in the dust from Krakatoa,* Pel6e,' 
and Santa Maria. 1 In all examinations of volcanic dust it is of course 
necessary to guard against the very possible admixture of local soil 
material transiently suspended in the atmosphere. The beds of 
prehistoric volcanic ash have of course practically the same mineralog- 
ical composition as their modern analogues.™ 

lxxxvi (1902); Klein— Sitzungsb. K. preuss. Akad. Wise. Berlin 1902: 993-994; 
Porter— Nature 66: 131-132 (1902); Falconer— ibid . p. 132; Gentil— Bull. Soc. geol. 
France (4) 2: 320-321(1902); Levy— Compt. rend. 134: 1123-1124(1902); Diller and 
Steiger— Science (n. b.) 15: 947 (1902); Diller— Nat. geog. mag. 13: 289-294 (1902); 
Lacroix— Compt. rend. 134: 1327-1329 (1902); Albuquerque and Smith— West 
Indian bull. 4: 97-100 (1903); Barenborg and Gotteche— Annalen Hydrog. 31: 271 
(1903); Hapke— Abh. naturw. Ver. Bremen 17: 545 (1903). 

On dust from Santa Maria, Guatemala, in 1901: Ord6fiez — Rev. Soc. cient. An- 
tonio AJzate 18: 34-35 (1902), Par. Inst. geol. Mexico 1: 231 (1904); Bergcat— 
Centbl. Min. 1903: 112-117; Schmidt— ibid., p. 131; Brauns— ibid., pp. 132-134; 
Schottler — ibid., pp. 288-289. For a qualitative chemical analysis see: Villa-sefior — 
Boll. Sec. Fomento Mexico (2) 2, 7, II: 279-280 (1902). 

On dust from Colima, Mexico, in 1903: Ord6fiez — Mem. Rev. Soc. cient. Antonio 
Alzate Rev. 20: 103 (1903). 

On several samples from Cotopaxi: Bonney — Proc. Roy. soc. 37: 122-125 (1884). 
Bee also Nature 16: 335 (1877). 

o Ehrenberg— Ber. K. preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1850: 79. 

6 Nordenskiold— Met. Zs. 11: 205-206 (1894). 

e Hapke— Abh. naturw. Ver. Bremen 17: 545 (1903). 

* Schmidt— Centbl. Min. 1903: 131; Brauns— ibid., pp. 132-134; Schottler— ibid., 
pp. 288-289. 

e Murray and Renard— Nature 29: 587 (1884). 
/Fruh— Met. Zs. 20: 175 (1903). 

Murray and Renard— Nature 29: 587 (1884); Daubree— Compt. rend. 97: 1104 
(1883); Verbeek— Krakatau, pp. 293-295 (1885). 
A Daubree— Compt. rend. 90: 624-626 (1880). 

i Brauns— Centbl. Min. 1903: 132-134; Schottler— ibid., pp. 288-289. 
i Flett— Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 58: 368 (1902). 

* Murray and Renard— Nature, 29: 587(1884); Verbeek— Krakatau, p. 292(1885). 
*Ord6fiez — Mem. Rev. Soc. cient. Antonio Alzate Rev. 18: 34 (1902), Par. Inst. 

geol. Mex. 1: 231 (1904); Brauns— Centbl. Min. 1903: 132-134; Schottler— ibid., 
pp. 288-289. 

m Mineralogical examinations of samples from Montana are given by Clarke and 
Hillebrand— U. S. Geol. eurv. Bull. 148: 197 (1897); and by Iddings— ibid., Bull. 
150: 147(1898). 



154 MOVEMENT OP SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIOT>. 

The chemical compositions of various volcanic dusts and tuffs are 
given in Tables IX, X, and XI, the analyses being numbered continu- 
ously throughout the three tables. Analyses 1 and 2 were made by 
Duf r6noy ° of dusts from the two Central American volcanoes named. 
Nos. 3, 4, and 5 are of dusts discharged by the eruption of Krakatoa, 
No. 3 being of dust which fell in the immediate vicinity of the vol- 
cano, No. 4 6 of that which fell at Buitenzorg, 100 miles away, and 
No. 5 C of that which fell on board the steamer Barbarossa, in lati- 
tude 10° 41' south and longitude 93° 15' east of Greenwich, about 
900 miles ENE. of Krakatoa. No. 6 d is a dust which fell on the 
deck of a ship in the harbor of St. Pierre, Martinique, during the 
eruption of Mount Pel6e in 1902, and No. 7 e is of dust which fell at 
Barbados during the eruptions of La Soufri&re in the same year. 
No. 8 1 is of volcanic sand from the recent (though not historic) 
eruption at the Cinder Cone in the Lassen Peak district, California. 
No. 9 9 is of the glassy part of the Krakatoa dust which fell at Buiten- 
zorg, the complete analysis of which is given as No. 4. 

All the analyses in Table X are of the loose volcanic ash deposits 
of the western States, described on page 151. The references to 
authorities are given in the notes to the table. Table XI contains 
a few analyses of tuffs which have undergone metamorphism and 
been consolidated into more or less compact rock. In Nos. 20, 21, 22, 
and 24 the process has been silicification. In No. 23 the cement is 
evidently calcareous.* 

All the analyses (except No. 23, which contains CaCO, as just 
noted) are expressed in percentages of the ignited weight. This 

a Ann. mines (3) 12: 355-372 (1837), Compt. rend. 6t 177 (1838). 

b Analysis by Winkler, quoted by Verbeek— Krakatau, p. 305 (1886). 

cOebbeke— Neues Jahrb. Min. 1884: II, 32-33 (cited by Verbeek— Krakatau, p. 
323 [1886]). For other analyses of Krakatoa dust (which agree fairly well with those 
quoted) see Judd — Roy. soc. Rept. on Krakatoa, p. 40 (1888); Verbeek — Krakatau, 
pp. 305-314 (1886); Sauer— Sitzungsb. naturf. Ges. Leipzig 10: 87 (1883); Murray 
and Renard— Proc. Roy. soc. Edinburgh 12: 484 (1883-84); van der Bur#— Rec. 
trav. chim. Pays Bas 2: 298-303 (1883). For criticisms of the two last analyses see 
Verbeek — Krakatau, pp. 317 and 319, respectively. 

d Chem. news 85 : 282 (1902). For other analyses of Pelee dust see Lacroix (analy- 
ses by Pisani)— Compt. rend. 134: 1329 (1902); Carmody— Trinidad Mirror, May 22, 
1902; Wiechmann— Science (n. s.) 15: 910-911 (1902); Steiger— ibid., p. 948; Hovey 
(analysis by Ilillebrand) — Amer. jour. sci. (4) 14: 327 (1902); Diller— Nat.geol.mag. 
13: 291 (1902); Griffiths— Chem. news 88: 231 (1903); Schmelck— Chemztg. 27i 
34 (1903). The dust from the eruption of 1851 as analyzed by Pisani (Lacroix, loc. 
cit.) is not essentially different from that of 1902. 

« Analysis by Pollard, quoted by Flett— Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 58: 369 (1902), 
and Teall — Nature 66: 130 (1902). Another analysis by Hillebrand is quoted by 
Rowe— Univ. of Montana Bull. 17: 10 (1903). See also Diller-— Nat. geol. mag. 13: 
291 (1902). A dust from the eruption of the Grand Soufriere at Dominica in 1880 has 
been analyzed by Daubree — Compt. rend. 90: 625 (1880). 

/ Hillebrand, quoted by Diller— U. S. Geol. surv. Bull. 79 : 29 (1891). Also given 
in Bull. 148: 198(1897). 

Verbeek — Krakatau, p. 311. 

*This sample contained 13.81 per cent of carbon dioxide. 



THE COMPOSITION OF VOLOAJSTIC DUSTS. 



155 



makes all comparable and the errors introduced are small since mate- 
rial of this sort loses on ignition practically nothing but its hygroscopic 
water. Some of the analyses have been recalculated to bring them 
to this basis. 

Table IX. — Chemical analyses of volcanic dusts. 





Volcano. 




Cosi- 
guina, 
Nica- 
ragua. 


La8ou- 

frtere, 

Guade- 

loupe. 


Krakatoa. 


Pelfe: 
Dust 
fallen at 
Barba- 
dos. 


LaSou- 
friere: 
Dust 

fallen at 
Barba- 
dos. 


Voteantc 

sand from 
Lassen 
Peak, 
Cali- 
fornia. 


Glassy 
part of 
Kraka- 
toa dust: 
Bulten- 
torg. 


Constitu- 
ents. 


Dust 
fallen at 
Kraka- 
toa. 


Dust 
fallen at 
Buiten- 

sorg. 


Dust 
fallen on 

ship 

900 miles 

away. 




1 


2 


8 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


BIOi 

Al,Oi 

FetOt 


61.45 
19.63 


59.10 

22.54 

2.58 


61.36 
17.77 
4.39 
1.71 
3.45 
2.32 
2.51 
4.98 


66.26 
16.31 
3.38 
1.36 
3.61 
1.06 
2.23 
4.45 


69.52 
15.37 
0.29 
3.74 
2.77 
0.83 
3.48 
4.35 


53.40 

21.00 

9.50 


63.02 
18.85 
3.29 
4.60 
9.62 
5.21 
0.60 
3.24 


56.01 
17.40 
1.50 
6.21 
a 06 
7.31 
1.35 
3.33 


68.12 
15.81 

} 5.01 

2.78 
1.18 
1.06 
6.09 


FeO 


2.30 
3.10 
0.61 
2L77 
a 87 


CaO 

MgO 

KtO 

NatO 
PfO». 


5.10 
1.42 
4.38 
2.27 


9.70 
2.00 
0.85 
2.33 
0.25 





















Nora.— For references to the authorities for the above analyses see p. 154. 

Table X. — Chemical analyses of unconsolidated volcanic tuffs. 



Constitu- 
ents. 


Harlan 

County, 

Nebr. 


Fort 
Ellis, 
Mont. 


Boce- 
man, 
Mont. 


Little 

Sage 

Croek, 

Mont. 


Gallatin 
Valley, 
Mont. 


Ravalli 

County, 

Mont. 


Marsh 

Creek 

Valley, 

Idaho. 


Cotton- 
wood 
Canyon, 
Idaho. 


Trackee 

River, 

Nev. 


Owens 

Lake, 

Cal. 




10.« 


11.6 


12. c 


13.d 


14. « 


15./ 


16.9 


17.* 


18.< 


19 J 


BIOi 

AlgOg 

Fe«0, 

FeO 


72.05 
} 18.40 


69.24 
24.62 


75.83 
16.20 


71.05 
19.76 


74.65 
/ 13.79 
\ 1.24 
1.27 
1.21 
1.24 
6.07 
1.34 


69.95 
} 21.80 


74.55 
17.66 


71.50 

/ 14.89 

\ 1.21 

1.28 

2.21 

.49 

2. (ft 

5.28 

.10 


74.00 
} 16.61 


57.65 

/ 11.04 

\ 3.54 

.69 


CaO 


.90 

.25 

6.92 

1.68 


2.08 

1.51 

1.40 

.91 


1.27 

.36 

3.17 

2.96 


2.80 

.78 

4.27 

2.26 


.40 
4.26 
4.68 


1.75 

Trace. 

4.33 

1.69 


.89 

.43 

3.50 

5.14 


9.45 


MgO 

KiO 


2.29 
3.08 


NaiO 

p,o* 


3.19 
.28 























o Merrill— Rocks, rock-weathering, and soils, 2d ed., p. 338 (190f>). An analysis of tuff from Bazile Croek, 
Nebraska, Is given by Clarke— U. 8. Geol. surv. Bull. 42: 142 (1887). An analysis by Nicholson of an 
average sample of Nebraska tuff is given by Barbour— Proc. Nebraska acad. sci. 1891-95: 13. 

ft Clarke— U. S. Geol. surv. Bull. 48: 141 (1887). Also in Bull. 148: 141 (1897). 

e Clarke— U. S. Geol. surv. Bull. 42: 141 (1887). Also in Bull. 148: 141 (1897). The analysis of a second 
sample from the same locality is also given, as well as that of a sample from Devil's Pathway, Montana, 
and one from Dry Creek Valley, Montana. 

d Loci cltati in last note; also Merrill— Rocks, rock-weathering, and soils, 2d ed., p. 133 (1906). 

eStokes— U. S. Geol. surv. Bull. 148: 141 (1897). 

/ Rowe — Univ. of Montana Bull. 17: 9 (1903). An analysis of a second sample from the same locality 
Is also given. 

v Loci cltati in notes c and d. 

* Hillebrand— U. S. Geol. surv. Water supp. pap. 58: 34 (1901). 

'Chatard— U. 8. Geol. surv. Bull. 9: 14 (1884). Also given by Russell— XT. 8. Geol. surv. Monogr. 11: 
147 (1886). 

> Chatard— U. 8. Geol. surv. Bull. 148: 229 (1897). An analysis of a sample from near Red din p. Cal., Is 
also given. Analyses by Stelger of two samples from the Downieville area, California, are given in the 
Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 17 » I: 627 (1895-96). An acid digestion analysis by Colby of a sample from 
PlacervlUe, Cal., is given by Loughridge— Cal. agr. expt. stat. Rent. 1898 1901, II: 173. An analysis by 
Stokes of an impure tuff, partly of organic origin, from Douglas County. Oreg., is given by Clarke— U. 8. 
Geol. surv. Bull. 168: 223 (1900). Eight analyses of recent tuffs from the ITawaiian Islands are reported 
by Maxwell— Lavas and soils of the Hawaiian Islands, Spec. Bull. A, Hawaiian sugar planters' expt. 
stat.. p. 21 (1898). Analyses of four samples from the Philippine Islands are reported by Cox— Philip. 
Jour. sci. 8s 404 (1908). 



156 



MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 



Table XI. — Chemical analyses of metamorphosed tuffs. 



SlOt... 
AltO,.. 
FeiOs.. 
FeO... 
CaO... 
MrO... 
KiO... 
NatO.. 
PiO»... 



Oldberg, 
Odenwald, 
Germany. 



».• 



83.80 

0.65 

.43 

.58 

.54 

Trace. 

4.74 

.50 



Chemnitz, 
Germany. 



21> 



} 



77.52 
14.18 

3.23 



4.4A 
1.00 



St David's, 
Wales. 



22.0 



{ 



82.18 

11.51 

.20 

1.44 

.53 

.07 

3.04 

.73 



Castle 
HUl,Me. 



23.« 



83.40 

12.20 

2.52 

7.05 

17.77 

5.65 

.70 

2.40 

.40 



Mar- 

quette. 

Mich. 



24.0 



76.78 

13.54 

.46 

.70 

.32 

1.15 

3.74 

.57 

Trace. 



«E. Cohen— Die sur Dyas geh&rlgpn Gestelne des sfldlichen Odenwaldes, p. 57 (1871). 

• Eras— Neues Jahrb. Hln. 1864: 673-686. An analysis of similar material from the same locality Is 

gren by Knop In the same Jahrbuch, 1869 : 575. Both are quoted by O. H. Williams— U. S. Geol. suit. 
all. 6S : 153. An analysis of a similar tuff from Triberg in the Black Forest is given by O. H. Williams— 
Neocs Jahrb. Mln. Beilagebd. 9t 630 (1883). 

• A. Gelkie— Quart, four. Geol. soc. 89: 207 (1883). 

JHiUebrand, quoted by Gregory— U. 8. Geol. soxv. Bull. 165 1 184 (1000). Also quoted by Clarke—, 
ibidy Bull. 168 : 20(1900). 

• HJUebrand, quoted by O. H. Williams— U. 8. Geol. surv. Bull. 69 1 152 (1800). 

From the point of view of the influence of this material on the soil, 
the most interesting thing about the analyses is the considerable con- 
tent of potassium which they show. Among the volcanic dusts only 
those of Pel6e and La Soufridre show less than 1 per 'cent of K,0, and 
the tuffs of Table X are still higher. In addition to the values given 
in the tables, other analyses of Krakatoa dust have given K,0 per- 
centages of 1.00, 6 1.06, c 1.46, d 1.82, € 2.25/ and 2.46.« Van der 
Burg' obtained a value of only 0.155 per cent, but this is so 
much below all other determinations as to be seriously in doubt, 
especially as his analyses have been questioned on other grounds.* 
In the West Indian dusts of 1902 Hillebrand' found 0.67 per cent 
K a O; Steiger' found 0.72 per cent; Griffiths* found 0.65 per cent; 
Pisani' found 0.89 per cent; and Schmelck" 1 found 0.96 per cent and 
0.55 per cent. The dust from the eruption of this volcano in 1851 
contained 1.66 per cent K a O." Dust (probably volcanic) which fell 

« All percentages are figured to the ignited weight as in the tables. 

& Murray and Renard— Nature 29: 688 (1884). 

c Verbeek— Krakatau, p. 311 (1886). 

<*Sauer — Sitzungsb. naturf. Ges. Leipzig 10: 87 (1883). 

« Verbeek— Krakatau, p. 305 (1886). 

/ Judd— Roy. soc. Rept. on Krakatoa, p. 40 (1888). 

9 Rec. trav. chim. Pays-Baa 2: 298-303 (1883). 

* Verbeek— Krakatau, p. 319 (1886). 
<Hovey— Amer. jour. sci. (4) 14: 327 (1902). 

i Science (n. s.) 15: 948 (1902). See also Diller— Nat. geog. mag. 13: 291 (1902). 

* Chem. news 88 : 231 (1903). 

* Quoted by Lacroix— Gompt. rend. 184: 1329 (1902). 
»Chemztg. 27: 34 (1903). 

* Pisani, quoted by Lacroix, loc. cit. 



THE COMPOSITION OF VOLCANIC DUSTS, 157 

in Scandinavia March 30, 1875, contained 1.40 per cent K,0. a The 
Vesuvius dust of 1906 contained of K,0, soluble in concentrated 
hydrochloric acid, 2.07 per cent. 6 Additional analyses of uncon- 
solidated tuffs from the western United States give values of 1 .48,° 
2.92, d 3.46,« 4.25/ 4.88,' 5.01,* and 5.58' per cent. Four samples 
from the Philippines gave 1.86, 2.72, 2.84, and 3.63 per cent.' 
On the other hand, Nicholson's' analysis of an average sample of 
Nebraska tuff shows only 0.36 per cent K,0. Whether this indicates 
an actual deficiency of potash in Nebraska tuffs or whether it is to 
be referred to error of analysis or sampling it is impossible to say.* 
The relatively high potash content of volcanic dusts can, and does, 
persist after the processes of metamorphism have been completed, as 
is shown by analyses 20, 21/ 22, and 24 in Table XI. In analysis 
23, however (where the cement is calcareous), the potash is low, and a 
silicified tuff containing but 0.88 per cent K,0 has been reported from 
near Triberg, in the Black Forest, Germany." 1 

The appreciable quantities of phosphorus in the Pel6e dust* and in 
the tuffs from Cottonwood Canyon, Idaho, Owens Lake, California,' 
and Castle Hill, Maine,* are also of interest from an agricultural 
point of view. Phosphorus was also found in Krakatoa duat by van 

o Nordenskiald— Met. Zs. 11: 211 (1894). 

&Bruttini— Boll, quindic. Soc. agric. ital. 11: 343 (1906). 

cFrom Bozeman, Mont.: Clarke— U. 8. Geo!, surv. Bull. 42: 141 (1887). 

<*From Redding, Gal.: Melville— U. S. Geol. surv. Bull. 148: 197 (1897). 

«From Devil's Pathway, Montana: Whitfield— U. S. Geol. surv. Bull. 42:141 
(1887). 

/From Ravalli County, Mont.: Berry, quoted by Rowe — Univ. of Mont. Bull. 17: 
9 (1903). 

fDownieville area, California: Steiger— Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. 17, I: 627 
(1896). 

* Genesee Valley, Idaho: Wedderburn— Ann. Rept. U. 8. Geol. Surv. 17, I: 627 
(1896). 

i Cox— Philip. Jour. Sci. 3: 404 (1908). 

i Quoted by Barbour — Proc. Nebraska acad. sci. 1894-95: 13. 

*Cf., however, the high value for the Harlan County tuff (analysis 10, Table X). 

J Another analysis of tuff from near Chemnitz gives 3.90 per cent EgO (Knop — 
Neues Jahrb. Min. 1859: 575). 

»G. H. Williams— Neues Jahrb. Min. Beilagebd. 2: 630 (1883). 

» Analysis 6, Table I. Griffiths (Chem. news 88: 231 [1903]), found 0.20 per cent 
P a 5 , and Wiechmann (Science (n. s.) 15 : 910-911 [1902]) found traces of phosphorus 
in Pelee dust. Hillebrand and Steiger (loci citati, on p. 156) each found 0.18 per 
cent P a O a in the West Indian dust. 

o Analysis 18, Table X. 

V Analysis 19, Table X. 

9 Analysis 23, Table XI. Cf . also the trace of phosphorus in the sample from Mar- 
quette, Mich, (analysis 24, Table XI). 



158 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

der Burg," and in Vesuvius dust by Bruttini* and Paris/ and is 
probably quite generally present in small amounts. 4 

VOLCANIC DUST IN THE SOIL. 

The potash, phosphorus, and other elements contained in volcanic 
dust are rapidly and easily made available for plants on account of 
the comparatively great solubility and rapidity of disintegration of 
the material, due both to its chemical composition and its physical 
nature. The glassy matter* is easily attacked by the soil solution, 
and the irregular form of the particles exposes a great surface to this 
action. The general loose structure and prevailingly good floccula- 
tion of volcanic dusts, caused by the uniform size and irregular shape 
of the particles, promotes the absorption and retention of moisture 
and allows the rapid movement of the soil solution and its contact 
with every soil particle. This not only promotes the disintegration 
of the particles, but itself assists the growth of plants in the resulting 
soil. 

It is to be expected, therefore, that volcanic dusts would make 
excellent soils/ and such is actually found to be the case. Volcanic 
regions are well known to be exceedingly fertile, as, for instance, 
Java, Japan, the Hawaiian Islands, the vicinity of Naples, etc.* 
This, of course, is partly due to the fertility of soils derived from the 
decay of lavas and pumice, but no small share, at least in the main- 
tenance of fertility, must be ascribed to the continual accretion of 
volcanic dust. The permanent fertility of the soils of the Limagne 
(France) is believed by Alluard* to be due to blown volcanic ash. 
The beds of volcanic tuff in the western United States make excellent 
soil and are under cultivation in many localities. Ancient soils 
formed from volcanic dust have been found interstratified with 
unaltered material in several beds of tuff/ indicating that the vol- 
canic action must have been interrupted long enough to permit the 
formation of a soil and the production of a vegetation which was later 
destroyed by a renewal of the volcanic activity and covered by a 
deposition of a new layer of dust. So valuable are volcanic materials 

o Rec. trav. chim. Pays- Baa 2: 296-303 (1883). Cf., however, note *, p. 156. 

b Boll, quindic. Soc. agric. ital. 11: 343 (1906). 0.64 per cent P,0 6 was found. 

cStaz. sperim. agrar. ital. 41: 321-328 (1908). 

d Cf. the presence of apatite in several volcanic dusts, p. 153. 

« In general about 90 per cent of the whole. See p. 152. 

/ Shaler— Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 12, I: 242 (1892). 

Cf. Shaler— loc. cit., pp. 243-244; Semmola— Atti 1st. incorr. Naples 8: 100-103 
(1848); Hill— Trans. N. Z. inst. 19: 387 (1886); de Grazia— Ann. R. Scuola agr. 
Portici (2) 7:13-26(1907). 

ACompt. rend. 100: 1081-1083 (1885). 

i E. g., in Alaska, by Brooks (Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. 21, II: 366 [1900]), and 
in Hawaii by Brauner (Amer. jour. sci. (4) 16: 315-316 [1903]). 



• VOLCANIC DUST IN THE SOIL. 159 

to the soil that Rowe° has suggested the use of the Montana dusts as 
fertilizers; and Russell 6 believes that the high potash content and 
great fertility of the soils of Nez Percys County, Idaho, may be due to 
the volcanic dust which is abundant in this region. Showers of vol- 
canic dust, when not so heavy as to smother or mechanically injure 
the plants, have no injurious effect on vegetation. In fact, exactly 
the opposite is the case. The fertilizing action of dust from the 
West Indian volcanoes on the soil of the surrounding islands, espe- 
cially Barbados, has been noticed both after the eruption of 1812 e 
and after that of 1902.<* The great dust falls following the eruptions 
of Santa Maria did no harm, except where the plants were mechan- 
ically injured, and the fertility of the soil seemed to be increased by 
the volcanic increment.* On the island of Krakatoa, where all 
vegetation was destroyed by the eruption, plants had begun to take 
hold within less than three years, in spite of the fact that even the 
seeds had to be brought from elsewhere by the wind and sea and by 
birds/ In 1902 the island had again become largely covered with 
vegetation.* On the surrounding islands the Krakatoa dust did no 
harm to vegetation, except where the fall was heavy enough to pro- 
duce mechanical injury.* 

As a soil material, therefore, volcanic dust is of considerable 
importance — an importance which has been recognized by but few 
investigators of soil formation. Not only are there large areas in the 
neighborhood of active volcanoes where recent volcanic dust forms 
the main constituent of the soil, but there are other much larger areas 
over which the soil has been, and is being, formed from volcanic tuffs, 
and still other and yet larger areas over wliich wind-borne dust of 
recent or ancient volcanic origin is added to the soil in sufficient quan- 
tity to be worthy of consideration, particularly as a source of potas- 
sium. Those soils which have never been affected by the products 
of volcanic action are probably far in the minority. In our own 
country the volcanic soils of the Northwest form no inconsiderable 
portion of the arable lands. 

« Univ. of Montana Bull. 17: 11 (1903). 

6 U. S. Geol. eurv. Wat. supp. pap. 53: 34 (1901). 

c Kingsley — At last, vol. 1, p. 90 (1871), through Belt, The naturalist in Nicaragua, 
p. 354 (1888). 

d Anderson and Flett— Proc. Roy. soc. 70: 429 (1902); Teall— Quart, jour. Geol. 
roc. 58 : 370 (1902). N 

« Sapper— Centbl. Min. 1903 : 66-70. 

/ Treub— Ann. Jardin bot. Buitenzorg 7: 213-223 (1888). 

flPenzig— Ann. Jardin bot. Buitenzorg (2) 3: 92-113 (1902). See also Ernst— 
Vierteljs. naturf. Ges. Zurich 52: 289-363 (1907); and D. H. Campbell— Amer. nat. 
43: 449-460 (1909). On the analogous case of the re vegetation of Pelee and La 
Soufriere after the recent eruptions see: Hovey — Bull. Amer. geog.soc. 40: 662-679 
(1908), 41: 72-83 (1909). 

* Nature 29: 437(1884). 



160 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WMTD. 

Both in the past and in the present the winds have been the great 
agents in the distribution of volcanic materials. The area covered 
by material actually thrown from volcanoes is comparatively very 
small, but the winds extend this radius many hundredfold and it is 
really because of their assistance that volcanic material is of import- 
ance to soils in general. Even when the material has once been 
deposited the wind's action thereon has not necessarily ceased. Many 
beds of loose tuff in the western United States, laid down and perhaps 
buried in former geologic time, have been exposed by changing con- 
ditions and are again being attacked by the wind and being redis- 
tributed over the now existing surface. Among the translocating 
activities of the wind the movement of volcanic dust is by no means 
the least important. 

THE WIND TRANSPORT OF VEGETABLE MATTER. 

The material carried by the wind is not entirely mineral, but 
includes as well much vegetable matter, which is, of course, of impor- 
tance in supplying humic materials to the soil. On account of their 
low specific gravity and usually irregular form fragments of vegetable 
origin are transported with peculiar ease, and especially is this true 
of the finer dusts. Samples of blown dusts of all sorts invariably 
contain plant fibers, pollen, and other organic substances, as has 
been shown by many microscopical and chemical examinations. 
Among 50 samples of sirocco dust examined by Macagno and Tac- 
chini° 25 contained more organic matter than inorganic, 18 were 
predominantly inorganic, and 7 had approximately equal quantities 
of organic and inorganic constituents. The presence of organic 
matter in sirocco dusts has also been noticed by Sementini, 6 Reissek, e 
Arago, d Bouis,* Silvestri/ von Lasaulx,? von John,* Passerini,' 
Palmeri,' Becke,* Chauveau,' and Fruh. w Organic material is pres- 
ent in cryokonite* and has been found in volcanic dust, in dust 

a Ann. meteor, ital. (2) 1:73 (1879); see also pp. 69-71. 

&Giorn. fis. chim. stor. nat. (2) 1: 28-32 (1818). 

c Ber. Mitt. Freunden Naturw. 4 : 153 (1848). 

d Oeuvres completes 12: 468-470 (1869). 

eCompt. rend. 56: 972 (1863). 

/ Atti Accad. Gioenia Catania (3) 12: 140-141 (1878). 

Tschermak's min. Mitt. 3: 526, 529 (1880). 

*Verh. geol. Reichsanst. 1896: 259. 

<Atti R. Accad. econ.-agr. Georg. Florence (4) 24: 139, 142, 152 (1901). 

/Rend. R. Accad. sci. fis. Naples (3) 7: 156 (1901). 

* Anz. Kaiserl. Akad. Wise. Vienna 38: 108 (1901). 

'Ann. Soc. m6t6or. France 51: 75 (1903). 

w Met. Zs. 20: 174(1903). 

» von Lasaulx— Tschermak's min. Mitt. 3 : 522 (1880). For definition of cryokonite 
see p. 103. 

o Nordenskidld— Met. Zs. 11: 206-208(1894); Rennie and Higgin— Trans. Roy . soc. 
South Aust. 27: 205-206 (1903); Woolnough— Ibid., p. 207; Janeifc— Met. Zs. 23s 
224 (1906); Paris— Staz. sperim. agrar. ital. 41: 321-328 (1908). 



Bui 68, Burtlu of Soili. U S D«pt of Ajr.culb 







THE WIND TRANSPORT OF VEGETABLE MATTES. 161 

collected from snow on top of Ben Nevis, in dust from the cathedral 
tower at Nancy, France, 6 in dust fallen in Indiana in January, 1892,* 
and m dust from the south Russian dust storms. d Tissandier found 
that ordinary atmospheric dust contained from 25 per cent to 34 per 
cent of combustible organic matter/ The falls of pollen, etc., which 
occasionally occur are mentioned on page 91. Living spores or 
•seeds of plants are always present in air dusts, and indeed many 
plants are largely disseminated in this way.' 

The wind distribution of seeds, spores, etc., is not, however, of 
much importance to the soil, for the amount of vegetable matter so 
supplied is negligibly small. Much more important is the blowing 
about of general plant dfibris, and especially of dead leaves from the 
deciduous trees. Were it not for the action of the wind on such 
material a plant could supply with humus only the soil immediately 
beneath it. As it is, what might be called the humifying radius of 
the plant is greatly enlarged, and the distribution of humus through- 
out the soil is made much more uniform. 

The quantity of such dead plant material which is blown about by 
the wind is a matter of common knowledge, so obvious, in fact, that 
it has quite generally escaped attention. It consists not only of 
fallen leaves, but of small twigs, flowers, fruits, seeds, etc. In 
some cases, as, for instance, the "tumble weeds," whole plants are 
blown and rolled over the surface. 

There is no question that the importance of such vegetable matter 
to the soil is very great indeed. It has even been argued that 
the material derived from its decay is in large part responsible for 
the growth in thickness of certain deposits and the resulting burial 
of articles left on the surface as described on pages 106-108. This, 
however, seems unlikely, since the vegetable matter tends constantly 
to disappear, leaving no permanent residue except the very small 
amount of ash which it contains. The final products of the decay 
and oxidation are mainly gaseous. It is not probable that blown 

, _ - ■—- ■_ i j. . 

« Murray and Renard— Nature 29: 591 (1884). For another instance of organic 
matter in dust from snow Bee Nature 27 : 496 (1883). 

b Thoulet^-Compt. rend. 146: 1347 (1908). 

cSomerB— Science 21: 304 (1893). 

d KlossovsW— Ciel et terre 15 : 564-666 (1895). 

«Les Poussieres de Pair, p. 11, 16 (1877). 

/On the dissemination of plants by the wind see: De Candolle — Geographic botan- 
ique raisonnee, vol. 2, p. 613-615(1855); Keraer — Zs. deut. Alpenver. 2: 144-172 
(1871); Hildebrand— Die Verbreitungsmittel der Pflanzen, 1873; Beccari — Malesia, 
vol. 1, p. 216-224 (1878); E. J. Hill— Amer. nat. 17: 812-818 (1883); Kerner— 
Natural history of plants, 1st English ed., 2: 848-862 (1895); Kronfeld— 8tudien 
Qber die Verbreitungsmittel der Pflanzen, 1900; Vogler— Flora 89: 1-137 (1901); 
Schimper— Pknt geography, Fisher's trans., pp. 79-80 (1903); Ernst— New Flora of 
Krakatoa, Eng. ed., pp. 60-68 (1908). 

53952°— Bull. 68-11 11 



162 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

vegetable matter would cause any great growth of soil, but its 
importance is in no wise lessened by this fact. Rather is it increased, 
since the very fact that the organic matter of the soil tends to disap- 
pear makes it extremely important that this loss be made up by a 
continual supply of new material. 

The distances to which organic matter is carried by the wind are 
usually not great. The activity is rather in distributing the humus- 
forming material over a territory a little wider than it could other- 
wise reach, than in supplying it to regions at a distance. It is true 
that individual leaves, light seeds, etc., may be carried considerable 
distances by the wind as is instanced by the finding of leaves on 
mountains and especially on the Alpine glaciers at distances up to 
12 miles from the nearest possible source. a The soil mentioned on 
page 105 which was collected by Mr. Robinson from the top of Mount 
Monadnock in New Hampshire contains numerous twigs of spruce, 
though the upper limit of this tree is far below the summit. Making 
all possible allowances for the action of animals, many of these twigs 
must be regarded as carried by the wind to the situation in which 
they were found. This soil contains 49.95 per cent of organic matter, 
much of which is undoubtedly blown from the country below, though 
a part is probably formed in situ by mosses and similar plants whose 
spores have been carried up by the wind and whose growth is encour- 
aged by the moist condition of the soil which occurs in rock basins 
which collect and hold the rain. All largely eolian soils in the humid 
regions are likely, however, to contain much organic matter, 6 as is 
seen in the "soils" already mentioned which are formed by the 
accumulation of blown material on the roofs of houses, in rain 
spouts, etc. 

TRANSLOCATION IN GENERAL— SUPPLEMENTARY ACTION OF 

THE AGENTS. 

In the first three chapters of this bulletin the various translocating 
agents were discussed, and in the succeeding chapters one of these — 
wind — has been shown to have a much greater importance than is 
usually assigned to it. For purposes of discussion it is necessary to 
treat the various agents separately and to discuss the work of each 

a Schibler— Jahrb. Schweizer Alpenclubs 33: 286 (1897-8); Vogler— Flora 89: 
83-86 (1901). Koldewey found leaves on the arctic ice 8 miles from the coast (German 
Arctic Exped. of 1869-70, vol. 1, 120 [1874]). Cf. also the recorded "rains" of hay, 
seeds, etc., which must have come from a distance (Phipson — Compt. rend. 52: 
108-109 [1861]; Benson— Nature 12: 279 [1875]; Nature 12: 298 [1875]; Galton— 
Nature 44: 294 (1891); Berti, in Tacchini— Rend. Accad. Lincei (5) 6: 299 [1897]; 
Symons's Meteor. Mag. 32 : 106-107 [1897]). 

& Fischer suggests that the high content of organic matter of the black earth (" tirs ") 
of Morocco may be due to accretions of vegetable dust (Mitt. geog. Ges. Hamburg 18 : 
154 [1902]). It may be permissible to ascribe a similar origin to the organic matter of 
the chernozem. 



TRANSLOCATION IN GENEBAI* 168 

as though it were distinct and independent, but the translocation 
which actually takes place in nature is seldom so simple as this. All 
the agents, and especially wind and water, are constantly interacting 
in the most complex manner, with the result that nearly all translo- 
cated material has been moved by both wind and water and fre- 
quently by other agents as well. a Sometimes the movement is 
mainly eolian; sometimes it is mainly aqueous, but almost always 
it is something of both. The translocation going on on the earth's 
surface is the result of all the actions of all the various agencies — a 
system of actions usually so complex as to defy detailed analysis. 

This mutual action of wind and water is well exhibited in translo- 
cation by rivers. In the first place, much of the river's load is sup- 
plied by eolian action. It has been pointed out on page 20 that the 
river itself is able to attack only its bed and banks, and that its 
detrital load is supplied mainly by rain wash and by the wind. In 
some regions the wind supplies nearly all the load. 6 The assistance 
of the wind does not, however, stop with the supply of material, but 
is of even greater importance in distributing over the flood plain 
the material which the river has brought down. All streams throw 
up sand and mud along their banks and deposit sediment during 
freshets, all of which material soon dries and is scattered by the wind 
over the surrounding country, this being the only way in which the 
detrital material of a river can be distributed over territory not 
reached by its waters. c Sometimes this material is sandy and is 
supplied in sufficient quantities to form dunes, producing the well- 
known river dime systems, which in general are composed of material 
representing the whole drainage area of the river. 

The same conditions apply to coastal dunes. They are made up 
of material from hundreds of sources — the detritus supplied by 
rivers, dfibris from the wave erosion of the coast, bits of shells, frag- 
ments of pumice and volcanic dust, etc. Sometimes the sands of the 
coastal dunes have been so much worked and pounded by the waves 
that practically nothing but quartz remains, but usually the sands 
are newer and show traces of their origin, or rather of their origins. 
Cobb* thinks that the dune sands of Hatteras are glacial debris 

a The origin of loess, as discussed on pp. 129-141, furnishes an excellent example of 
this complexity. 

*See Shaler— Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 10: 247 (1899). 

«For examples of this process of wind distribution of river-borne sediment, see Hew- 
itt— Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc. 7: 22-24 (1892); Blake— Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. 53 1 
241-242 (1897); Walther— Wttstenbildung, p. 119 (1900); Lomas— Kept. Brit. Assoc. 
1903: 654-656; Davis— Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pub. 26: 60-63 (1905); 
Ferrar— Survey Notes (Egypt) 1: 18-20 (1906); Huntington— Pulse of Asia, p. 103 
(1907); Stein— Ancient Khotan, pp. 124-125, 198, Appendix G (1907). 

4 Jour. Elisha Mitchell sci. soc. 22: 17-19 (1906), Nat. geog. mag. 17: 314, note 
(1906). For the similar case of the dune sands of Holland, see Retgere — Ann. ficole 
polyt. Delft 7: 1-50 [1891]. Gf. also: Thoulet— Compt. rend. 144: 93&-940 (1907). 



164 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

from the New England granites, scraped off by the ice sheet and worked 
southward along the coast by waves set up by the prevailing winds. 
A very striking example of the complexity of movement displayed 
by translocated material was observed by Sickenberger. A horn- 
blende-rich sand was produced by the weathering of the hornblende 
granites of Assuan in Egypt, was carried down to the Mediterranean 
by the Nile, moved by the coastal current 150 miles to the east to 
El Arish, where it was thrown upon the beach, picked up by the 
winds, and blown inland in a line of dunes. This was a journey of 
over 700 miles by river, ocean, and wind. 6 There is no reason to 
believe that this case is unusual in anything except the possibility 
of identifying the material and tracing the path it had traveled. 6 

The dunes represent only the coarser material deposited by the 
river. The finer mud and silt are blown clear away (when dried) and 
widely distributed over the valley and the adjoining uplands. Virlet 
d'Aoust d (as already mentioned) found high on the mountains of 
Mexico eolian soils entirely composed of the material of the river- 
deposited alluvium of the valleys. 

EXCESSIVE BLOWING OF THE SOIL. 

The moderate amount of wind movement of the soil which is normal 
to most agricultural areas is, on the whole, beneficial, because of the 
resultant increase (or maintenance) of heterogeneity and the supply 
of minerals which might otherwise be deficient. e Under exceptional 
conditions, however, it is possible for the erosive activity of the 
wind to become so excessive that both the soil and the plants it sup- 
ports are seriously injured/ The damage caused in some places by 

a Quoted by Walther— Wustenbildung, p. 118 (1900). 

& On the similar case of magnetite from the Pyrenees in the dunes of Gascony, see 
Fabre— Bull. geog. hist, descrip. 1902: 132-148, and authorities there cited. 

c On the possibility of identifying sand grains (by their internal character) and 
tracing their history, see Mackie — Trans. Edinb. geol. soc. 7: 148-172 (1897). 

<*Bull. Soc. geol. France (2) 15: 129 etseq. (1857). 

' Another occasionally important beneficial effect of wind action on the soil is the 
improvement of physical condition due to the addition of blown sandB to heavy clays. 
For examples, see p. 124 above. 

/ For instances of damage by extreme blowing of soil see T. D wight — Travels in New 
England, vol. 2, p. 494, vol. 8, p. 91-92 (1822); Studer— Lehrbuch der physische 
Geographie und Geologie, vol. 1, p. 334 (1844); Pacific Rural Press 11: 37, 60 (1876), 
19: 200(1880), etal.; Reid— Geol. Mag. (3)1: 167(1884); H.T. Fuller-Bull. Geol. soc. 
Amer. 8: 148-149 (1892); W. 0. Knight— Wyo. agr. expt. Btat. Bull. 14: 104 (1893); 
F. H. King— Wise. agr. expt. stat. Bull. 42, 1894; Vysotskfl— Trudy Eksped. Ross. 
Lftsn. Dept. 1: 33-48 (1894); Abbe— Mon. weath. rev. 23: 19 (1895); Bieletskfl— 
Mater, isuch. russ. pochv 9: 1-40 (1895); Payne— Col. agr. expt. stat. Ann. rept. 9: 
184 (1896); Shaler— Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 10: 245-252 (1899); Rept. Roy. comm. on 
condition of crown tenants, New South Wales 1: viii, 24-26 (1901); Woeikof— Ann. 
g6og. 10: 113 (1901); Emeis— Allg. Forst.-Jagdztg. 78: 401-414 (1902); McMaster— 
Jour. Proc. Roy. soc. N. S. Wales 37: 138-145 (1903); Heintz— Poln. entsik. russ. 



EXCESSIVE BLOWING OF THE SOIL. 165 

wind removal of soil is quite comparable to that produced in other 
localities by water erosion, and consists not only in the loss of the 
soil material itself, which is usually relatively unimportant, but 
much more largely in the removal of soil from around the roots of 
plants, causing their death or loosening them, so that they themselves 
can be blown away. The extent to which this removal of the soil 
may sometimes go is illustrated by the tree shown in Plate II, figure 1, 
which has had several feet of soil removed from around its roots. The 
great dust storm of May 6-7, 1889, in the Middle West removed the 
soil in some places to a depth of 5 or 6 inches. 6 Noble c records the 
wind removal of 1 foot of soil from an area of over 100,000 acres in 
Australia. During the dust storms of the spring of 1894 in the south 
of Russia the soil was removed to an average depth of about 6 inches, 
and nearly 200 square miles under cereal crops were ruined. 4 Ac- 
cording to information obtained by Huntington 4 the spring winds 
in the Turfan basin (Asia) not infrequently remove 2 or 3 inches of 
soil. 

selak. khoz. 8: 50-51 (1903); Kearney— U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. plant ind. Bull. 86 1 
15, 22 (1905); I. A. Williams— Iowa Geol. surv. 16: 497 (1905); Hart and 
Gleason— Bull. 111. State Lab. nat. hist. 7 : 164-171 (1906); Hertzberg— Deut. landw. 
Presse 83: 368-369 (1906); Prometheus 18: 54-55 (1906); Hilgard— Soils, p. 9, 
(1907); C. G. Hopkins and Pettit— 111. agr. expt. stat. Bull. 123: 246 (1908); W. H. 
Stevenson, Schaub, and Snyder— Iowa agr. expt. stat. Bull. 95: 14 (1908); G. B. 
Smith— U. S. Dept. agr. Fanners' Bull. 323: 15-18 (1908); Reagan— Science (n. s.) 
28: 653-654 (1908); Hazen— U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Plant Ind. Bull. 130: 51-63 
(1908); Gill-Jour. Dept. agr. South Aust. 11: 1028-1031 (1908); Wright— ibid. 18 1 
235-237 (1909); Oklahoma City Farm journal, March 15, 1909; Scofield and Rogers— 
U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Plant Ind. Bull. 157, especially p. 10 (1909); Hunter— ibid. 
Pub. No. 495 (1909); Alway— Nebraska agr. expt. stat. Bull. Ill, 1909; Beadnell— 
An Egyptian oasis, p. 198-211 (1909); Simmons— Nebraska Farmer 49: 431 (1910); 
Helder— Bull. Dry Farming Congress 3: 318 (1910); and Field Operations, Bureau 
of Soils, 1900: 390; 1901: 528, 544; 1902: 470, 471, 473, 743, 753, 781-782; 1903 1 
118, 150, 174, 954, 1035, 1054, 1059, 1270-1272; 1904 : 63, 699, 760, 782-783, 902-904, 
1140-1141; 1905: 769, 901, 935; 1906: 268, 469, 571, 579, 748, 843-844, 938, 976, 
979; 1907: 319-320, 341, 635, 823-824, 915-916, 918, 921. 

« This tree stands in Whiteside County, 111. A photograph of another and even 
more striking example which occurs in central Australia is given by Benbow — Agr. 
gaz. New South Wales 12, facing p. 1252 (1901). Other photographs of similar 
phenomena are given by Flerov — Schr. naturf. Ges. Univ. Dorpat 10, I: facing p. 
296 (1902); Coulter— Proc. Ind. acad. sci. 1906: 127; Britton— Bull. Torroy bot. 
club 30: plate 25, and p. 573 (1903); and Zavitz — Rept. on reforestation of waste 
lands in southern Ontario, p. 8, 28 (1909). 

& Amer. geol. 3: 398 (1889). 

<Mon. weath. rev. 32: 364 (1904). On the damage by soil drift in Australia see 
also Rept. of Commission on condition of crown tenants, New South Wales 1 s 24-28 
(1901). 

d Klossovskfl— Ciel et terra 15 1 661 (1895); Heintz—Poln. entsik. russ. selsk. 
khoz. 8:50-51(1903). 

t Pulse of Asia, p. 300 (1907). 



166 . MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Nor does the damage stop with the removal of the soil. The 
blown material collects on the fields to leeward and frequently causes 
more injury to the crops upon which it is deposited than was caused 
by the removal from its original location. Grain and other standing 
crops are especially liable to damage in this Way, though in this case 
it is probable that the damage is due not so much to the deposit of 
the blown material on the plants as to the cutting action of the 
flying grains of sand. a Blown sand has been known to injure trees 
severely and even to kill them, and its effect on green plants is nat- 
urally even more injurious. In addition, however, to the cutting 
action there is a good deal of actual burial of young plants growing 
close to the ground. 

Damage by both erosion and deposition may occur on the same 
field, as is shown in Plate III, where some strawberry plants have 
been blown entirely out of the soil while others have been buried. 
The damage done in this case can be better appreciated by com- 
parison with Plate IV, which shows a portion of the same field planted 
just before the photograph was taken, and not yet subjected to 
severe wind action. This portion of the field is seen also in the 
upper left-hand corner of Plate III. Plate V shows a field on the 
same soil, where the blown sand has drifted in between the rows of 
plants. 

In all cases the damage by blowing is more largely to the crop 
than to the soil. Plants are blown out, buried, or mechanically 
injured, but the soil itself is usually not greatly affected. In some 
cases, of course, soil is blown entirely away in sufficient quantity to 
constitute a serious loss, but such cases are not the rule, and even 
then the loss is usually not permanent, being made up sooner or 
later by a balancing deposition; and, on account of the usual fer- 
tility of the wind-deposited material, such deposition is in most 
cases beneficial to the soil, whatever may be its effect on the crop. 6 
In some few cases the deposited material may be injurious, as, for 
instance, certain industrial dusts, the dust of smelter smoke, etc. c 

a Hooker— Gardener's chronicle (2) 9: 12 (1878); Paletskfl— Fixation of sand (Ru$- 
iian), p. 22 (1901); Udden— Pop. sci. mon. 49: 663 (1896); Cowles— Bot. gaz. 
27: 108 (1899); Harshberger— Proc. Acad, nat. sci. Phila. 1900: 626; Brock- 
mann-Jerosch and Heim — Vegetations-bilder 6, Heft 4 (1908); Olsson-Seffer — Bot. 
gaz. 47: 116-117 (1909). Even blown snow crystals have been known to kill trees 
(C. King— Exploration Fortieth Parallel, vol. 1, p: 527 [1878]). 

& When the subsoil is well weathered and of good quality, and when the generation 
of humic matters is easy, even a not too great removal may be beneficial by progres- 
sively lowering the zone of root activity and adding fresh soil material thereto. See 
Menzel— Kosmos 2: 239 (1905). 

cHaselhoff and Lindau — Die Besch&digung der Vegetation dutch Rauch, 1903; 
Haselhoff— Landw. Vers. Stat. 67: 157-206 (1907), 69: 477-482 (1908); Fuhling's 
landw. Ztg. 57: 609-615 (1908); Ebaugh— Jour. Amer. chem. soc. 29: 951-970 (1907); 
Frazer— Trans. Amer. inst. min. engs. 38: 498--555 (1908); Cohen and Ruston — 
Nature 81: 468-469 (1909); Formad— Ann. Kept. Bur. Animal Industry, U. S. 
Dept. Agr. 25: 237-268 (1908). 



EXCESSIVE SLOWING OF THE SOIL. 167 

In this last case, however, the observed damage has been shown" 
to be more largely due to the gaseous constituents of the smoke 
than to its suspended solids, and in any case the injury to the soil 
from such sources is of vanishing importance. 6 It has been claimed 
by Tacchini ° that sirocco dust is injurious to plants upon which it 
falls, but from his statements it seems probable that the injuries 
were due rather to the hot, dry winds which accompanied the falls 
of dust than to the dust itself. It has already been pointed out 
that the material carried by dust storms is in general markedly ben- 
eficial to plants and to the soil, and there is no reason why the prop- 
erties of the sirocco dust should be exceptional.* But, though the 
injury to the soil is seldom grave or permanent, excessive blowing is 
nevertheless very serious and very harmful because of the direct 
effect on the crop. This is particularly the case if the blowing occurs 
on recently seeded fields or where the plants are young, and unfor- 
tunately there are many parts of this country in which violent winds 
are to be expected just at this season. Throughout the arid and 
semiarid West, now being rapidly brought into cultivation, soil blow- 
ing has been found a most serious problem, and is demanding the 
best efforts of agriculturists in the attempt to minimize its ravages. 
In these regions nearly all the types of soil are likely to be affected, 
but in the more humid areas of the East, wind damage is mainly 
confined to sands, and in fact even in arid climates the maximum 
of blowing is usually encountered on such soils and on those com- 
posed of silt particles more or less uniform in size. The greater 
blowing of sandy soils is largely ascribable to the moisture relations 
already discussed on page 130 in connection with the wind-damaged 
sands of Anne Arundel County, Md. 

In Table XII are given the mechanical analyses of a number of 
soils which have been found to blow badly/ The analysis of a soil 

« Haywood— U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. chem. Bull. 89, 1905, and Bull. 113, 1908, 
with references there cited. 

6 See Widtsoe— Utah agr. expt. stat. Bull. 88: 149-164, 177-179 (1903); Haywood— 
Science (n. s.) 26: 476 (1907). 

cCompt. rend. Assoc, franc, a van. sci. 7: 477 (1878). Ivchenko speaks also of a 
" burning " of vegetation by the blown dust of the steppes (Ann. geol. min. Rubs. 
7, 1: 230 [1904]). On injury by the "mgla" or dust fog of southeastern Russia see 
Ivanov— Viestn. selsk. khoz. 1903 No. 9. 

<* Plants are sometimes injured by air-deposited dusts through the "setting" of 
the latter into an impervious or rigid coating on the leaves and other parts, clogging 
the stomata and interfering with growth. This has been observed in the case of 
volcanic dust by Sands (Agr. news 5 : 381 [1906]) and Bruttini (Boll, quindic. Soc. 
agric. ital. 11: 343 [1906]), and in the case of dust from a cement mill by Peirce 
(Science [n. r.] 30 : 652-654 [1909]). 

<Noe. 1 to 4 are analyses already published by the Bureau of Soils, as follows: 
No. 1, Field Operations 1901: 529; No. 2, ibid. 1907: 916; No. 3, ibid. 1906: 
S45; No. 4, ibid. 1906: 571. Sample No. 5 was collected by the writer. No. 6 was 
furnished by Mr. T. H. Means, U. S. Reclamation Service. No. 7 was furnished by 
Mr. 0. K. McClelland, superintendent of the Kansas experimental farm at Hays, to 
whom 1 am also indebted for information with regard to soil blowing in this locality. 
(See also Hazen, loo. cit. on p. 165.) 



168 



MOVEMENT OP SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 



from the Maryland locality, just mentioned, has already been givfen 
in Table I, on page 30. Nos. 1, 2, 5, and 6 are typical of the easily 
attacked sands, which are of frequent occurrence. No. 6 also con- 
tains some volcanic dust, which makes it still more susceptible to 
attack. Nos. 3 and 4 represent the fairly uniform fine sands which 

Table XII. — Mechanical analyses of soils subject to blowing. 



Constituent. 



Ven- 
tura 
County, 
Cal. 



Gravel (2 to 1 mm.) 

Coarse sand (1 to 0.5 mm.) 

Medium sand (0.5 to 0.25 mm.). 

Fine sand (0.25 to 0.1 mm.) 

Very flue sand (0.1 to 0.06 mm.) 

Sflt (0.05 to 0.005 mm.) 

Clay (below 0.005 mm.) 



1. 



2.5 
10.2 
37.1 
31.1 
10.0 
4.0 
1.9 



Mini- 
doka, 
Idaho. 



a. 



0.1 
0.5 
16.7 
61.9 
8.5 
1.4 
2.6 



Blue 

Earth 

County, 

Minn. 



Okla- 
homa 
tCounty, 
Okla. 



S. 





1.3 

5.5 
64.7 

9.8 
10.8 

8.3 



4. 



0.3 

2.7 

15.5 

60.9 

14.7 

3.8 

2.3 



Her- 

miston, 

Oreg. 





7.6 

17.8 

52.5 

21.4 

.4 

.5 



Fallon, 
Nev. 



1.5 
14.0 
15.1 
42.5 
13.4 
10.5 

3.0 



Hays, 
Kan*. 



7. 





1.0 
.2 

1.5 
14.0 
65.8 
17.8 



have proven quite troublesome at several points in the humid 
regions. No. 7 is of the silty type, which blows badly when too dry 
or lacking in organic matter. In this soil the content of so-called 
"colloidal" clay,° as distinguished from material which is simply 
less than 0.005 mm. in diameter, is probably very low. 

Of course the mechanical composition of a soil is not by any means 
the only factor affecting its susceptibility to blowing, and in fact in 
many cases it is not even the controlling one. The magnitude and 
constancy of the water content, the presence or absence of organic 
matter, and other less important factors come into play, and indeed 
in practice the occurrence or nonoccurrence of excessive blowing is 
usually controlled by factors altogether external to the soil and in- 
cluding as most important the strength and seasonal relationship of 
the winds, the topography (with relation to the active winds), and the 
character and permanence of the vegetal cover. The characteristics 
of vegetation and of moisture in protecting soils from wind action 
have already been fully discussed on pages 28 to 31. 

The processes of cultivation naturally tend to increase the degree 
of exposure of the soil to wind action, and in regions of strong 
winds it not infrequently happens that when the soil is broken pre- 
paratory to cultivation much of it is blown away. The removal of 
the natural vegetal cover for purposes of cultivation is necessary, 
and any soil loss which may be occasioned thereby must be regarded 
as an unavoidable concomitant of agriculture, but the destruction 
of the vegetation and consequent loss of soil is as often the result of 
misuse of the land as of its use. For instance, the overworking of 



oHilgaid— Soils, pp. 59-12 (1907). 



EXCESSIVE BLOWING OF THE SOIL. 169 

pasture land will often so thin the grass that, with the advent of a 
dry season, it dies and erosion by both wind and water is greatly 
increased. 

Neither is the loss of soil which so often follows the initial clearing 
of western lands always entirely unavoidable. The damage is fre- 
quently due to clearing at the wrong season or to clearing in too large 
portions or too long before the land is ready for crops. In areas 
where soil drift is to be feared, the land should be exposed no more 
than is necessary, and, if possible, never at the season of heaviest 
winds. The native vegetation should be left on the land until every- 
thing is ready for culture, and if the crop planted is at all slow- 
growing, it will frequently pay to plant also some quick-growing and 
easily rooted crop in order to tide over the period of exposure between 
the clearing and the establishment of a more permanent crop (as, 
e. g., alfalfa). Rye has been found useful in this way in some regions. 
Often it will pay to adopt the expedient of clearing the land only in 
alternate strips 20 to 30 feet wide and at right angles to the prevail- 
ing direction of the dangerous winds. The strips of native vege- 
tation thus left will protect the cleared strips until the latter can be 
put into cultivation, and when this is accomplished the uncleared 
strips may be cleared in their turn, being now protected by those 
upon which the planted vegetation has taken hold. This scheme, 
variously modified, has proven of great service in many cases. 

On irrigated farms, where arrangements must be made for the dis- 
tribution of water, the necessary leveling often forbids the leaving of 
native vegetation, or clearing it only in strips. Even in these cases, 
however, it will be found wise to clear in as small areas as circum- 
stances will permit and to leave occasional strips of the native brush 
wherever the configuration of the ground makes it possible. Tem- 
porary cover crops will also be found useful, and in sage-brush sec- 
tions the covering of the surface with the uprooted bushes has a 
considerable protective value. By the use of such precautions and 
the general exercise of common sense in the time and manner of 
clearing, wind damage can be greatly reduced even on lands where 
general clearing and leveling is deemed necessary. 

The between-crop cultivation of years following that of initial 
clearing must also be designed to leave the soil exposed as little as 
possible, and that at the season when wind movement is as nearly as 
possible at a minimum. It is usually not difficult to design a cultural 
routine which will meet this requirement under any given conditions. 
Fortunately, each year of use will, if the cultural scheme be properly 

o Fuller— Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 3: 148-149 (1892); Forbes— Ariz. agr. expt. stat. 
Bull. 38: 249-255 (1901); Burgess and Coffey— Field Operations Bureau of Soils 
1904: 903; Worthen and Eckman— ibid. 1907: 824; Gill— Jour. Dept. Agr. South 
Aust. 11: 1028-1029 (1908); Wright— ibid. 13: 235-237 (1909). 



170 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

designed and carried out, add more organic matter to the soil, decrease 
its sandiness, and put it in better shape to withstand the attack of the 
wind. Wind drift is very largely a trouble of the new soils, and it is 
largely because of the great amount of arid soil just now being broken 
for use that the subject attracts so much present interest. How- 
ever, if the cultural routine is to improve the soil it must be designed 
with this in view, and on all sandy soils, arid and humid alike, the 
danger of wind-drift should be always in mind in designing the 
system of cultivation. 

Another cause of wind damage has come with the recent spread 
of the methods of "dry farming" over the semiarid West. A part 
of these methods is the use of the dust mulch, and this use has brought 
its accompanying disadvantage, for the surface layer of loose dust 
thus produced is readily attacked by the wind, and the entire mulch 
of a field may be stripped off by a single storm. a On soils where the 
physical texture will permit, a granular or clod mulch may be main- 
tained instead of one of dust. This not only decreases wind attack 
but is more satisfactory in every way. But on sands and some 
loams this is impossible, and in Lse cases, if wind damage is to 
be feared, the mulch must be abandoned or the field covered with 
straw or brush. Such a layer will furnish an efficient protection 
and under it a dust mulch will rest undisturbed. _ 

This last procedure, however, belongs to a class of preventive • 
agents whose expense precludes their use under ordinary circum- 
stances. Here also belong the incorporation of clay with the sand, 5 
the addition of large quantities of stable manure, etc. These things 
are of unquestioned value, but too costly for most fields. In general 
on soils which have been found in practice to be subject to serious 
blowing the economical restriction and prevention of the evil is 
likely to be largely a matter of properly arranging the cultural rou- 
tine. Every effort should be made to maintain an adequate content 
of organic matter and if possible to have the land covered during 
the windy season with some close-growing crop which will keep the 
wind from the soil surface. If the summer fallow is found to induce 
extensive blowing, it can in many cases be abandoned in favor of a 
leguminous crop which is afterwards plowed under, performing the 
triple function of preventing wind erosion, adding organic matter, 
and supplying nitrogen. Where a sufficient supply of irrigation * 
water is available, easily blown soils should be kept moist during the l 

«Hazen— U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Plant Ind. 130: 51-53 (1908). 

& This is sometimes economically possible where the clay (or silt) can be added as 
materia] suspended in irrigating water. (See Holmes and Mesmer — Field Operations, 
Bureau of Soils, 1901: Plate LXXXIII; Mc Lend on and Jones— ibid. 1906: 579.) 
In this case care must be taken to prevent injury to the soil through the deposition 
thereonof an impervious layer of silt. See Forbes— Ariz. agr. expt. stat. Bull. 53, 1906. 



EXCESSIVE BLOWING OF THE SOIL. 171 

 

season when such damage is to be apprehended. In many cases 
damage may be avoided by the proper timing of the plowing, harrow- 
ing, and similar cultural operations, or by the employment of other 
operations, such as rolling, etc., which tend to compact the surface. 9 

Without full knowledge of the special local conditions, it is of 
course impossible to say just what procedure will be best under any 
particular set of circumstances. Climatic, biologic, and economic 
factors must be taken into account, and the general principles as 
above outlined must be modified and adjusted to each individual case. 
There are unquestionably circumstances under which the prevention 
of wind erosion is not possible, with due regard to economy; but even 
in such cases the damage can usually be reduced by a little care and 
forethought and at slight expense. 

When the crop is valuable in relation to the land covered, it is fre- 
quently advisable to employ lines of trees, hedges, fences, or other 
obstacles which can act as wind-breaks. 5 If set sufficiently close 
together they will entirely prevent damage to the crop, either by 
wind erosion of the soil, by the drying action of hot winds, c or by the 
direct mechanical action of the wind itself. 4 In a field protected by 
wind-breaks there is, however, a considerable proportion of idle land, 
consisting not only of the land actually occupied by the trees or 

a On cultural operations to prevent blowing see King — Wis. agr. expt. stat. Bull. 
42, 1894; Smith— U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmers 1 bull. 323: 17-18 (1908); Reagan— Sci- 
ence (n. s.) 28: 653-654 (1908); Wright— Jour. Dept. agr. South Aust. 13: 235-237 
(1909); Brand and Westgate— U. 8. Dept. Agr. Bur. plant ind. Circ. 24 x 13-14 
(1909). 

* On. wind-breakB see Bernhardt— Landw. Jahrb. 3: 449-454 (1874); Lake— Wash- 
ington agr. expt. stat. Bull. 3 : 60-63 (1892); King — Wisconsin agr. expt. stat. Bull. 42 
(1894); Vysotskfl— Trudy Eksped. roes. Llesn. dept. 1: 33-48 (1894); Payne— Ann. 
rept. Colorado agr. expt. stat. 9: 184 (1896); Card — Nebraska agr. expt. stat. Bull. 48 
(1897); Kellogg— U. S. Dept. Agr. Forest service Bull. 52 (1904); Green— Farm 
wind-breaks and shelter-belts (1906); Hertzberg— Deut. landw. Presse 33: 368-369 
(1906); Smith— U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmers' Bull. 323: 15-18 (1908); Hunter— U. S. 
Dept. Agr. Bur. Plant Ind., Pub. 495 : 10-11 (1909). On the use of fences, etc., for 
similar purposes see Hedin — Genom Khorasan och Turkestan, vol. 1', p. 239 (1892); 
Millar— Chambers's Jour. (6) 8: 237 (1905); Willey— Sci. Amer. supp. 65: 120-121 
(1908); Beadnell— An Egyptian oasis, pp. 207-210 (1909); Vischer— Geog. jour. 33: 
241-266 (1909). 

c King — loc. cit., thinks that wind damage is largely due to this drying action. See 
also Hensele— Forech. Geb. Agr. Phys. 16: 311-364 (1893); Bfeletskfl— Mater, izuch. 
russ. pochv 9: 1-40 (1895). 

<* On the action of wind on vegetation see: Klinge — Bot. Jahrb. 11 * 304-312 (1889); 
Hansen — Die Vegetation der ostfriesischen Inseln, 1901; Frtih— Jahresb. geog.-ethnog. 
Gee. Zurich 1901-2 : 56-153; Flahault— G6ographie 5 : 357, 359-360 (1902) ; Hansen— 
Flora 93: 33 (1904); De Bruyne — Handel. Vlaamsch natuurgeneeskundig Congres 
8: 54-59 (1904); Geinitz— Naturw. Wochens. 19: 1025-1031 (1904); Devaux— Proces- 
yerb. Soc. sci. phys. nat. Bordeaux 1904-5 : 58-62; Noll— Sitzungsb. naturh. Ver. 
preuss. Rheinl. Westf. 1907(A): 58-68; Emeis— Allg. Forst.-Jagdztg. 83: 1-5 (1907). 



172 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

hedges, but also of the contiguous shaded portions which are thus 
rendered less productive; and this necessary loss of effective field 
area restricts the use of wind-breaks to cases of intensive cultivation 
of valuable crops. The use of wind-breaks must be thorough and 
comprehensive if it is to be of value. A single line of trees may do 
more harm than good, for sand drifting in from unprotected areas 
will collect behind it and ruin both crop and land. This is well 
illustrated in Plate II, figure 2, showing drift sand collected behind 
a fence at Hermiston, Oreg.° 

Where the use of the land is not desired, the only necessity being 
to prevent its migration into adjoining areas, the usual methods of 
dune fixation as already outlined may be employed, due regard being 
had to the local conditions. In these cases grassing or f orestation, 
usually the latter, will be found the best method of control. Similar 
methods can be used to prevent wind scouring of road ditches, the 
banks of irrigation canals and similar works. Here the various small 
bushes, such as the willows and tamarisks, have proven very useful. 
Rye has been much and successfully used for temporary fixation 
until bushes could be successfully started. 

CONCLUSION. 

Of the many standpoints from which it would be possible to view 
the known facts of the action of wind on the solid matter of the 
earth's surface, but three have received attention in the foregoing 
pages — the geologic, the agronomic, and that of the student of soil 
formation. Of these the general geologic aspect as been accorded 
but passing notice, and the agronomic, though briefly outlined in 
the last chapter, must await detailed discussion elsewhere. The 
main emphasis has been laid upon the action of the wind in soil 
genesis, and this bulletin is an effort to present the pertinent facta 
in their influence on our conception of the ways in which soils are 
made and changed. If the argument here advanced can be condensed 
into any one conclusion, it is simply that in these matters the wind 
has no minor r61e, and is not the least of the great dynamic agents 
which we now know affect the soil, and whose recognition has ren- 
dered no longer tenable the older static conceptions. 6 But to say 
that wind is important does not apply that it is most important. 
There are many agents which move the soil, and the one which is 
dominant here and now may not be dominant there and then. There 
are, of course, individual cases in which the soil may be labeled as 
mainly water-laid, or mainly eolian, or mainly the product of this 

« Another photograph showing this condition is published in the Field Operation* 
of the Bureau of Soils 1901 : Plate LXXXIII. 

& Cameron—Jour, indue, eng. chem. It 806-810 (1909), Jour. phys. chem. 14 1 320- 
372, 393-431 (1910). 



CONCLUSION. 173 

or that other agent, but the histories of most soils are not to be read 
so easily, and general comparisons are of little value. To decide, 
for example, whether in the whole world wind or water moves and 
lays the more soil is quite impossible and almost equally useless. 

The soil-forming actions of the wind may be classed roughly under 
two headings, soil removal and soil mixing. In removal the wind 
is but one of several agents (of which running water is probably 
the chief) which, by removing weathered soil material from the 
land surface into the sea, progressively expose the rocks beneath to 
the processes of decay, enabling the maintenance of that balance 
upon -which depends the permanence of the soil layer. Among 
these- agents the wind is greatest only in areas of considerable aridity, 
and even there it is by no means the sole active factor. From our 
present viewpoint, the second or mixing action is of far greater and 
more general importance. The carrying of soil material from place 
to place across the land surface makes possible, as already discussed, 
the existence in any particular soil of minerals not present in its 
parent rocks, and is one cause of the well-known and remarkable 
constancy with which the useful minerals occur in the soils of the 
world. In this action the wind shows its greatest effectiveness. As 
a mixer of soils already formed it yields to none. Nor is this action, 
like the former, confined to arid lands. The foregoing pages should 
serve to show that even in humid regions there is much movement of 
soil by wind and that soil mixing by such movement is a factor 
which must not be neglected. Wind action, both in removal and 
transfer, must be regarded as an important item in the newly em* 
phasized dynamic explanations of the soil and its fertility. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF EOLIAN GEOLOGY. 

By S. G. Stfntz and E. E. Frbb. 

The list of references following forms a fairly complete bibliography of eolian geology, 
especially of deflation and those other phenomena closely connected with the subject- 
matter of the bulletin. Little effort has been made to attain completeness on the 
less closely related lines, such as the occurrence and distribution of dunes, dune con- 
trol, and general geology of deserts, the occurrences of the loess, volcanic dust, etc. 
Sufficient references are given on those subjects, however, to introduce the reader to 
the literature, and it is believed that all important articles specifically concerned with 
eolian action have been included. Many very important references, even in the lines 
most completely covered, have been omitted, or cited only as "quoted by" another 
writer, because it has been found impossible to verify them. Some few references 
have been included without verification where the information was complete enough 
in regard to them. Most writers, however, even of high scientific reputation, and 
practically all reviewers, in making references either translate or omit titles altogether, 
or give them only in brief, and give only date of publication or page references instead 
of full and exact volume, page, and date statistics. For this reason many articles 
which could not be found in American libraries have of necessity been omitted. 
Practically every reference given has been verified by one of the two compilers, 
usually by both, and the others are given only on good authority, such as the Royal 
Society Index or the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature. 

The form of reference is that now generally used — author, title in full without ab- 
breviation, standard abbreviation for the name of the periodical, and in the following 
order: Series number in parentheses, volume number in heavy-faced type, colon, 
followed by the inclusive pages of the article with its discussion, closing with the 
date of publication in parentheses. Where volume numbers are not used, the year 
is given in heavy-faced type, and in case of annuals, reports, etc., reading "for the 

year ," the date of the volume rather than the usually later date of publication 

is given in parentheses. In some cases, however, the latter is also given where the 
year is used as volume number. "Part" or "Abtheilung" is expressed in Roman 
notation. The abbreviations for the titles of journals used in the International Cat- 
alogue of Scientific Literature have been found in some cases either too cumbrous or 
not sufficiently clear, so that a system of our own has been employed. It is believed 
that all are easily intelligible. 

The titles are arranged chronologically under authors' names, and those in languages 
other than modern European or Latin are given in translation into some one of these 
languages, preferably the one in which an abstract is published, either with the 
article or in a place cited. Translations are also given for the Russian and Hungarian 
titles. Anonymous articles are entered under the titles with reference from the name 
of the periodicals in which they were published. The locations of translations, 
abstracts, and reviews, usually not mentioned in the text, are given whenever con- 
venient and in the usual form. 

The numbers following the references refer to the pages of the text upon which they 
are cited. The location (in the text) of the most comprehensive analysis of any paper 
is indicated by the italicizing of that page number. It is therefore possible not only 
to use the bibliography as an author index to the bulletin, but also to obtain by the 
joint use of it and the text synoptic information concerning many of the articles cited. 
The literature of any special subject can be found through the subject index by 
examining the pages of the text upon which that subject is treated. 

Though every care has been taken to avoid errors, it is practically impossible to 
make any bibliography either entirely correct or entirely complete. The compilers 
will be very glad to be notified of any errors in citation, or of any additional titles 
which should be included. 

174 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

Page 

A. R. [A. PJ Yxp^iueHie necKOB*. [Fixation of drift-sands.] Seifxe- 

/f&jaraecx. raaera iGazette d 'agriculture J 1899, no. 30 75 

Abbe, Cleveland. Remarkable hail. Mon. weath. rev. 22: 215 (1894) 91 

Snow duet. Mon. weath. rev. 23: 15-19 (1895) 164 

The duststorms of April 14 and 15. Mon. weath. rev. 23:130 

(1895) 79 

 Duet storms in Burma and elsewhere. Mon. weath. rev. 29: 175 

(1901) 80 

Vertical components of atmospheric motions. Mon. weath. 

rev. 81: 536-537 (1903) 34 

 > Aunorderung betrachtenswurdige Beobachtungen der Vermin- 

derung der Durchsichtigkeit der Erdatmosphare in den Jahren 1902 und 1903. 
Astron. Nachr. 165:286-288(1904) 11* 

- The convection theory of whirlwinds. Mon. weath. rev. 34: 

164-165(1906) 86,14& 

Abbot, Henry Larcom. See Humphreys, Andrew Atkinson, and Abbot, 

Henry Larcom. 
Abel, Othenio. tfber sternfdrmige Erosionssculpturen auf Wustengerollen. 

Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 51: 25-40 (1901) 25, 26 

[Abels, H. F.] Aoeacrb, I\ [Sur une chute de poussiere d'Afrique dans le 

gouvernement de Perm, le 12 mars, 1901.] O Bsma^eHiit A$pHKaHCKoJfc 

mum b% IlepMcKoJfc ryoepHift, 12 Mapra 1901. [Bull. Soc. oural. nat.] 

3anHCKH ypajibcsaro OdmecTBa joo/prrejieft ecTecTB03HaHin 25: 1-5 (1905) . . 89 
Abercromby, Ralph. Observations on the motion of dust as illustrative of 

the circulation of the atmosphere and of the development of certain cloud 

forms. Quart, jour. Roy. meteor, soc. 16: 119-126 (1890) 63,84 

About, Edmond. Le progres. Paris, 1864 54,75 

Chapter 7 discusses dunes. 
Aehlardl, Giovanni. See Passerini, Napoleone. 
Aekroyd, William. On the circulation of salt and its bearing on geological 

problems, more particularly that of the geological age of the earth, rroc. 

Yorkshire geol. polyt. soc. n. s. 14: 401-421 (1901). Abet. Chem. news 83: 

265-268(1901). 113 

The circulation of salt in its relations to geology. Geol. mag. 

(4)8:445-449(1901) IIS 

On a principal cause of the saltness of the Dead Sea. Quart. 

statement Palestine explor. fund. 1964: 64-66 113 

Adamovlc, Lujo. Die Sandsteppen Serbiens. Bot. Jahrb. 33: 555-617 

(1904) 71,76,77 

Agassis, Alexander. A reconnoissance of the Bahamas and of the elevated 

reefa of Cuba . . . January to April, 1893. Bull. Mus. comp. zool. Harv. 

coll. 26: 1-203(1894) 144 

 A visit to the Bermudas in March, 1894. Bull. Mus. comp. 

zool. Harv. coll. 26: 205-281 (1895) 144 

 The Florida elevated reef. Bull. Mus. comp. zool. Harv. coll. 

28:29-62(1898) 144 

Agassis, Louis Jean Rudolph. Animals [Infusoria] found in red snow. Rept. 
Brit, assoc. 1840, Trans., 14; Amer. jour. sci. 41: 64 (1841) 91 

Uber den Ursprung dee Loss. Neues Jahrb. Min. 1867: 

676-680 127,130 

— Report upon deep-sea dredgings in the Gulf Stream. Bull. Mus. 

comp. zool. Harv. coll. 1: 363-386 (1869) 144 

[Agfeer, M. V.l ArKem, M. B. [Fixation of drift-sands in Valuisk dis- 
trict, Voronesn gouvernement] yKp&njieHie cmrpnm> necxoKb bt> Bajiyift- 
ckomt> yfo^fc, BopoHOKCKoft rr6. [Messager de l'lndustrie forestier] JHbco- 
npoMunueH. Bacthkxa. 18ft, no. 48 75 

175 



176 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL, BY THE WIND. 

Page. 

Agostlnl, Giovanni de. Sulla gragnuola di sal marino a Mantova. Ann. met. 
Hal. (2)1: 3-8(1879) 113 

[Agrlnskll, K. F.] ArpHHcirift, K. 6. [The meteorological conditions of the 
appearance of "mgla" in the Saratov region during the 20 years from 1879 to 
1898.] MereopojionraecK. jcjioblh noHBjieHin mivih bt> CapaTOBCK. Kpafe 
aa nocjrB^Hie 20 jrfcn>, ct> 1879 no 1898 r. [La Semaine Territorial e de 
Saratov] CapaTOBCK. 3*mck. Helium. 1898, supp. no. 49; 1-18 118 

Alllo, Julius. Ober Strandbildungen des Litorinameeres auf der Insel Mant- 
sinsaari. Bull. Comm. geol. Finiande 7, 1898. 43 p 54 

Airy, Hubert. Microscopic examination of air. Nature 9: 439-440 (1874) 114 

Aitken, John. On dust, fogs, and clouds [1880-1] Trans. Roy. soc. Edin- 
burgh 30: 337-368 (1883) Abst. Proc. Roy. soc. Edinburgh 11: 14-18, 122-126 
(1882) Nature 23: 195-197, 311-312, 384-385 (1881) Ill, 115 

On the formation of small clear spaces in dusty air. Abst. Proc. 

Roy. soc. Edinburgh 12: 440-448 (1883-84) Nature 29: 322-324 (1884). . , . Ill, 115 

The remarkable sunsets. Proc. Roy. soc. Edinburgh 12:448- 

450, 647-660 (1883-84) Ill, 115 

Note on hoar-frost. Proc. Roy. soc. Edinburgh 14:121-125 

(1886-87) 111,115 

On improvements in the apparatus for counting the dust particles 

in the atmosphere. Proc. Roy. soc. Edinburgh 1«: 134-172 ( 1888-89) Ill, 115 

• On the numbers of dust particles in the atmosphere. Trans. 

Roy. soc. Edinburgh 35: 1-19 (1889) Abst. Nature 37: 428-430 (1888) Ill, 115 

- On the number of dust particles in the atmosphere of certain 

places in Great Britain and on the continent, with remarks on the relation 
between the amount of dust and meteorological phenomena. Proc. Roy. soc. 
Edinburgh 17: 193-254 (1889-90) Abst. Nature 41: 394-396 (1890), 45: 299-301 
(1892) 111,115 

On a simple pocket dust-counter. Proc. Roy. soc. Edinburgh 

18: 39-^2 (1890-91) Ill, 115 

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Edinburgh36: 313-319 (1891) Abst. Nature 44: 279(1891) 111,115 

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Edinburgh 19: 260-263 (1891-92) Ill, 115 

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On the number of dust particles in the atmosphere of certain 

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Albuquerque, J. P. d'. See Notes on fall of volcanic duet at Barbados, March 

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Oaserv. Collegio Romano 8: 20 (1869) 89 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 177 

Page. 



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American geologist. See A sandy simoon in the northwest. # 

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Anderson, Tempest, and Fiett, John Smith. Preliminary report on the recent 

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53952°— Bull. 68—11 12 



178 MOVEMENT OP SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 
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Sketches of the physical geography and geology of Nebraska. 

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Geology of Plymouth County [Iowa] Iowa Geol. surv. 8: 

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Geology f Carroll county [Iowa] Iowa Geol. surv. 9:49-107 

(1898) 132,133 

See also Calvin, Samuel, and Bain, Harry Foster. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 179 

Page. 

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Bale, Charles. La vgrite' but la fixation des dunes 75 

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See also Hooker, Joseph Dalton, and Ball. John. 

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Baltzer, Armin. Uber den Loss im Kanton Bern. Mitt, naturf. Ges. Bern 

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180 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL, BY THE WIND. 

Page. 

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Note on the variation of the sizes of nuclei with the intensity of 

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Corpuscular radiation from cosmical sources. Science n. s. 23: 

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Time variation of the initial nucleation of dust-free air. Science 

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The nucleation of the uncontaminated atmosphere. Carnegie 

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Baschiii, Otto. Die Entstehung wellenfihnlicher Oberflachenformen. Bin 

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A wind-worn pebble in boulder clay. Geol. mag. (5) 2: 358-359 

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B&tky, "EL [Handbook of the fixation and utilization of drifting sands.] 

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BaudlMln, Adalbert graf. Bericht uber die DOnen der Insel Sylt. Nord- 

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Blicke in die Zukunft der nordfriesischen Inseln und der 

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Beadnell, Hugh John Llewellyn. Decouvertes geologiques recentes dans la 

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51, 52, 58, 60, 64, 124, 165, 171 
The sand-dunes of the Libyan desert. Their origin, form, and 

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Beasley, H. C. Some difficulties with regard to the Formation of the Upper 

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— r Bemerkungen zu der Uebereicht uber die Forstculturen bei 

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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL. INDEX. 181 

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Mikroskopische Untersuchung der Proben von Staubscnnee 

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Becker, Arthur. See SachsBe, Robert, and Becker, Arthur. 

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Benko, Jerolitn, frttherr von Boinik. Die Reise S. M. Schiffes "Frundsberg" 

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[titer Geschiebe von pyramidale Gestalt.] Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 

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Geschiebedreikanter oder Pyramidal-Geschiebe. Jahrb. K. 

Preuss. geol. Landesanst. 1884: 201-210 26 

-[Dreikantner von Leu then.] Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 28:478(1886)... 26 

[Berg, L. S.] BepFb, JL G. [Quelquee phenomenes de la denudation sur le 

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182 MOVEMENT OF BOIL MATERIAL, BT THE WIND. 

Page. 

Bergeat, Alfred. Die Produkte der letzten Eruption am Vulkan S. Maria in 

Guatemala (Oktober 1902). Centbl. Min. It03: 112-117 153 

Berghaus, A. Das Dunengebiet lange der Ostsee im Stettiner Regierungs- 

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Bergmann, A: See Goebel, Friedemann, Claus. C, and Bergmann, A. 
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[BernatskH, N.] BepHaxrjriH, H. [On dune regulation. OnGerhardt.] 06* 

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Bernhardt, A. Gesetz-Entwurf, betreffend die Erhaltung und Begrundung 

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Bertololy, Ernst. Krauselungsmarken und D linen. Munchener geog. Stu- 

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Die Bestimmung dee Luf tstaubes. Prometheus 10: 173 ( 1904) 115 

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Geology of Hardin county [Iowa] Iowa Geol. surv. 10« 241-306 



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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL, INDEX. 188 

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184 MOVEMENT OF SOU, MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

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Bonney, Thomas George. Notes on the microscopic structure of some rocks 
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March dust from the Soufriere. Nature 67:584(1903) 150 

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BouthilUer de Beaumont, Henri. Sur la formations des dunes et son impor- 
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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL, INDEX. 185 

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427-428(1879) ; 128,130,135 



186 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 

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« Note prehminaire sur l'origine probable du limon hesbayen ou 

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 A propos de Torigine eolienne de certains limons quaternaires. 

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 Lea poussieres africaines. Les pluies de sang et la mer des tene- 

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 Poussieres v&uviennes observers a Bruxelles. Ciel et terre 

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Brockmann-Jerosch, Heinrich, and Heim, Arnold. Vegetationsbilder vom 
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Brooks, Alfred Hulse. A reconnoissance from Pyramid Harbor to Eagle 
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Brown, John Croumbie. Pine plantations on the sand-wastes of France. 
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Brown, W. D. On some erratics of the Boulder Clay in the neighborhood of 
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Brttckner, Eduard. Klima-schwankungen seit 1700 nebst Bemerkungen fiber 
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Klitterne i Ringkjdbing Amt. En historisk fremstilling af 

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Brugman. Verhandelingen over een zwavelagtigen nevel. 1783 119 

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Bruyne, Cam de. Invloed van den wind op den vorm van de boomen onzer 

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 Vergleichung der nordfriesischen Inseln mit den ostfriesischen 

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. Die Pflanzenwelt der ostfriesischen Inseln. Abh. naturw. Ver. 

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 Der Wind und die Flora der ostfriesischen Inseln. Abh. 

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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 187 

Page. 
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Buffault, Pierre. Etude sur la cdte et lea dunes de M6doc; Littoral ancien, 

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Burg, Eduard Alexander van der. Examen des cendres tombles a Batavia 

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ISM. 
Burgsdorf, Friedrich August Ludwig von. Von Sandbaue oder von Urbar- 

machung der fliegenden Sandschollen. In his Forsthandbuch, vol. 1, abs. 

5, p. 441-461. le. Aufl. Berlin 1788, 3e. Aufl., 1800 75 

Burkett, Charles William. Soils. N. Y., 1907. x, 303 p 22 

Burkhardt, Karl. La formation pampeenne de Buenos Aires et Santa Fe. 

Rev. Museo del Plata 14: 146-171 ( 1907) 128 

Burmelster, Hermann. [La formaci6n de la Pampa]. Ann. Museo publico 

Buenos Aires 1: 100-114 h864-69) 128 

Barnes, Sir Alexander. Travels into Bokhara: being the account of a journey 

from India to Cabool, Tartary, and Persia. London, 1834. 3 v 62, 84 

[Bychlkhin, A. A.] Eu^hxhh'b, A. A. [Observations on the influence of 

winds on the soil.] HaAJncyjeHitf Ha£?> BJiiflHieMi* B^Tposi> Ha novy. 

(Publication of the "Comite" p&iologique "). 1891 22 

[On ^ e mmien c e °* the wind on the soil] O bjuahih B*BTpoB*& 

na noisy . [Trudv Imp. voln. ekon. obshch.] Tpy^H HMnep. bojii>h. 3Koh. 

o6m. 1892: 312-390. Abst. ibid., 1891, II, npoTOKOju* (protokol) : 14 22 

[BykovskTI, A. V.] BuKOBCKift, A. B. [Damage by winds on the sandy 

stretches of the Transcaspian railway, and means of prevention.] IIoBpe- 

as^eHLH, npHMH&HeMHH TOTpoMi* sejrB3HO^opoacHOMy nyTH vb neciaHHXb 

yqacncax'b SaKacnrftcK. as. a h cnocotii* ycTpaHeHia me*. [Journal des Inge- 

nieurs St. Petersburg] HHaceHepH. asypH. 1898: 907-916 57 

C^H. H. S«H.,C.H. 

Cadell, Henry Mowbray. Some geological features of the coast of West Aus- 
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A visit to the New Zealand volcanic zone. Trans. Edinb. geol. 

soc. 7: 183-200 (1896) 150 

Calne, Thomas A. See U. S. Dept. of agr., Bureau of soils. Field operations, 
1902. Soil survey from Arecibo to Ponce, Porto Rico. 

Calker, Friedrich Julius Peter van. Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Groninger 
Diluviums. Zs. deut. eeol. Ges. 36: 713-736 (1884) 26 

"Sandschliffe" en "Kantengeschiebe." Een geologisch ver- 

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-, and Tenne, G. A. Uber ein Vorkommen von Kantengeschieben 



und von Hyolithus- und &oofttftu«-Sandstein in Holland. Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 

42:577-583(1890) > 26 

Call, Richard Ellsworth. Fossils of the Iowa loess. Amer. nat. 15:585-586 

(1881) 126,128 

The loess in central Iowa. Amer. nat. IB: 782-784 (1881) . . . 126, 128 

The loess of North America. Amer. nat. 16: 369-381, 542-549 

(1882) 125,126,128,130,185 



188 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BT THE WIND. 



Call, Richard Ellsworth. See alio Key**, Charles RoUin, and Gall, Richard 

Ellsworth. 

See also McGee, W J, and Gall, Richard Ellsworth. 

Calvin, Samuel. Geology of Jones county [Iowa]. Iowa Geo!, surv. it 33-112 

(1895) 128 

Geology of Johnson county [Iowa] Iowa Geol. surv. 7: 33-116 

(1896) 128,130,193 

Geology of Delaware county [Iowa] Iowa Geol. surv. 8: 119- 



192(1897) 135 

Iowan drift. Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 19: 107-120 (1899) 128, 133 

Geology of Page County [Iowa] Iowa Geol. surv. 11: 397-460 



(1900) 138 

Geology of Howard county [Iowa] Iowa Geol. surv. IS* 21-79 



(1902) 131 

Geology of Mitchell county [Iowa] Iowa Geol. surv. IS: 299- 



352(1902) 128 

Geology of Winneshiek county [Iowa] Iowa Geol. surv. 16s 



37-146(1905) 131 

15th annual report of the state geologist. Iowa Geol. surv. 



IV: 1-6 (1906) 128 

Quoted in discussion of Grabau, Amadous William. Physical 



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•, and Bain, Harry Foster. Geology of Dubuque county [Iowa] 



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Camerar, Johan Friedrich. Beschreibuagen und Nachrkhten von der Insel 
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Camerlander, Carl, /reiferr von. Der am 5. und 6. Februar 1888 in Schlesien, 
M&hren und Ungarn mit Schnee niedergefallene Staub. Jahrb. geol. Reichs- 
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Cameron, Frank Kenneth. The dynamic viewpoint of soils. Jour, indus. 
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See also U. S. Dept. of Agr. Bureau of Soils. Bull. 89, £A. 



Campbell, Douglas Houghton. The new flora of Krakatau. Amer. nat. 

43: 449—460 (1909) 159 

Campbell, John T. Origin of the loess. Amer. nat. 23: 78&-792 (1889) ...... 128 

Quoted in Cleveland Abbe. Snow dust. Mon. weath. rev. S3: 

18(1895) 81 

Campbell, M. R. Basin range structure in the Death Valley region of south- 
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Camplnl, Giovanni. Intorno alia piogpia rosso caduta in Siena la Sera del 28 

dicembre 1860 e in altri giorni successivi: letters al Prof. Matteucci. Nuovo 

Cimento 12: 353-359 (1860) 89 

Canaval, R. Rother Schnee zu Grafendorf im Gailthale. Carinthia 91: 77-78 

(1901) 89 

Candolle, Alphonse Louis Pierre Pyramus de. Geographie botanique raison- 

nee . Paris, 1855 . 2 v 91, 181 

Candolle, Augustin Pyramus de. Notice sur la matiere qui a colore" le lac 

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Mem. Soc. phys. Geneva 3: II: 29-42 (1826); Edinburgh jour. sci. 6: 307-311 

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Canobblo, GiambatUsta. Description et analyse d'une eau de pluie rouge 

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Ann. Soc. met. France fls 75 (1903) 92,95 

Capeder, G. See Viglino, Alberto, and Capeder, G. 

Capus, Guillaume. Sur le loess du Turkestan. Compt. rend. 114:958-960 

(1892) 127,135,136,138 

Card, Fred W. Windbreaks. Bull. Nebraska agr. expt. stat. 48, 1897. 27 p. 171 

Carmody, P. [Analysis of Pelee dust.] Trinidad Mirror, May 22, 1902 154 

Carnegie, David Wynford. Spinifex and sand. London, 1898. 454 p... 36,65,84 
Carpenter, P. Herbert. Pine-pollen mistaken for flowers of sulphur. Nature 

); 195-196 (1879) 91 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL, INDEX. 189 



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15S-156 (1885) 103 

Casafl, A. L'ammoniaca delle acque meteoriche e la pioggia sanguinante. 

Ann Soc. agr. prov. Bologna 41: 187-199 (1901) 89 

La pioggia oisangua. Bologna [Gioxnale] "Ilreeto del Carlino," 



April 15-16. 1901 89,92 

Castelnau, de. Pluiedepoiseonsjtrembleinentde tern a Singapore. Compt. 

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Caaalls de Foadouet, Paul. Erosion de cailloux quaternaires due a Taction 

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Action erosive du sable en mouvement sur des cailloux de la 

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Chamber!!!!, Thomas Chrowder. Supplementary hypothesis respecting the 

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and Salisbury, Rollin D. Preliminary paper on the driftless 

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(1885) 126,127,128,130,132,133,136,136 

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Chambrelent. M&noire sur rassainissement et la mise en valeur des Landes 

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(1904) 79,81,83,104 

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Cbasslron* See Gillet-Laumont, Tessier, and Chassiron. 

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See also Clarke, Frank Wigglesworth, and Chatard, Thomas 

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Chatterjea, Chunder Sikar. Note on a whirlwind at Pundooah. Proc. 

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Chellus, Carl. Einige Diluvialfaunen des ndrdlichen Odenwalds. Notizbl. 

Ver. Erdk. Darmstadt 1884: 1-24 125 

1st eine Conchylienfauna des echten Loss bekannt? Notizbl. 



Ver. Erdk. Darmstadt 18W: 21-23 125,133 

FlugBand auf Rheinalluvium und zur Jetzteeit. Neues Jahrb. 



Min. 1892,1:224-226 102 

See also Sauer, Adolf, and Chelius, Carl. 

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Cbemlcal news. See Analysis of the volcanic dust from the recent eruption 

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Chladnl, E. F. F. Nouveau catalogue des chutes de Ipierres et de fer, 

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190 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BT THE WIND. 



Choffat, Paul. Sur quelques cas d'eroaion atmospherique dans lee granites 

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Choisy, Auguste. Chemin de fer tranesaharien. Documents relatifs a la 

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Cholnoky, Jend". [Die Bewegungsgesetze des Flugeandes.] A Futdhomok 

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soc. n. s. 5: 335-347 (1880) 80 

[Chumakov, S. D.J ^yMaxoBi, C. R. [Work of reforesting ravines and 

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Hajr*. S6,Protok.: 106-111, 201-221(1900) 75 

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sel marin suivant 1' altitude; Tempgte de sable en Islande; Transport de l'em- 

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10 marzo 1901. Bull. mens. Osserv. Moncalieri (2) 21: 53-55 (1902) 89 

Clapp, Frederick Gardner. Set Fuller, Myron Leslie, and Clapp, Frederick 

Gardner. 
Clarke, Frank Wigglesworth. Volcanic dust. Bull. U. S. Geol. surv. 4S: 

141-142(1887) 155,157 

Analyses of rocks from the Laboratory of the United States Geo- 
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716 p * 14 

 , and Chatard, Thomas Marean. A report of work done in the 

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, and Millebrand, William Francis. Analyses of rocks with a 



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154,155 
Clarke, W. R. Sand-binding plants. In Watts, Diet. econ. prods. India 

6:455-457(1893) 75 

Claus, C. See Goebel, Friedemann, Claus, C, and Bergmann, A. 

CIav6, Jules. Etudes sur l'economie forestiere. Paris , 1862 75 

Clayton, Edwy Godwin. Discoloured rain. Proc. Chem. soc. London 19: 

101-103 Q903) 95 

Clayton, Henry Helm. Volcanic eruption in Java, brilliant sunset glows in 

1901, and probable glows from the eruption in Martinique. Nature 66: 101- 

102(1902) 117 

- A second Bishop's ring around the sun and the recent unusual 

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Cleghorn, Hugh Francis Clarke. Note on the sand-binding plants of the 

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Clements, Frederick Edward. See Pound, Roscoe, and Clements, Frederick 

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Boll. Soc. geol. ital. M: clxix-clxxviii (1901), til xxix (1902) 95 

Ancora sulle polveri sciroccali e sulle pallottole dei tufi vul- 

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Clyde, James. School geography. 12th ed. Edinburgh, 1870 113 

Cobb, Collier. Notes on the geology of the Currituck Banks. Jour. Elisha 

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, Where the wind does the work. Nat. geog. mag. 17: 310-317 

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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX, 191 

Page. 

Coffey, George, and Praeger, R. Lloyd. The Antrim raised beach: a contri- 
bution to the neolithic history of the north of Ireland. Proc. Roy. Irish 
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Coffey, George Nelson. Clay dunes. Jour. geol. 17: 754-755 (1909) 40, 68 

See also U. S. Dept. of Agr. Bureau of Soils. Field opera- 
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Cohen, Emil. Die zur Dyas gehOrigen Gesteine dee eudlichen Odenwaldes. 
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151-152; NeuesJahrb. Min. 1872: 98-102 156 

See also Benecke, E. W., and Cohen, Emil. 

Cohen, Julius B. A method of estimating the weight of solid matter in the 
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, and Ruston, A. G. The nature and extent of air pollution by 

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Cohn, Ferdinand. Uber den Staubfall vom 22 Januar 1864 in der Umgegend 
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Colncy, Henri de. La carte generale des dunes du departement des Landes. 
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Colby, George E. Quoted in Loughridge, Robert Hills. Mechanical and 
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(1902) 155 

Coles, C. St. A. Adust shower. Nature 07: 463 (1898 ) 89 

Collation, Daniel. Contributions a l'e'tude de la gr&le et des trombes aspi- 
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Collomb, Eduard . Quelques observations sur le terrain quaternaire du bassin 
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Conrad, Frederik Willem. Over duinen en stranden. In kis Verspreide 
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Conrad, Victor. Bemerkung zu einer Messung des verticalen Luftstromes. 
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Luftelektrische und Staubmessungen von Prof. Dr. G. Ludeling. 

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Cook, Henry. Notes on a march to the hills of Beloochistan in North West 
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Cornish, Vaughan. The rippling of sand. Abst. Rept. Brit, assoc. 1890: 
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Sand dunes. Rept. Brit, assoc. 1890: 857 57 

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On sea-beaches and sandbanks. Geog. jour. 11: 528-543, 628- 



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On desert sand-dunes bordering the Nile delta. Geog. jour. 



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On the formation of wave surfaces in sand. Scott, geog. mag. 



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Terrestrial surface waves. First report of the British Associa- 



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On snow-waves and snow-drifts in Canada. Geog. jour. 20: 



137-175 (1902). Abst. Nature 00: 543-545 (1902) 62, 63, 65, 67 

[Snow-mushrooms.]. Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 08: Proc. ii, iv 



(1902) 67 

[Action of wind on snow.] Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 08, Proc. ii 



(1902) 67 

On the observation of desert sand dunes. Geog. jour. 01: 400- 



402(1908). Abst. Ann. geol. min. Russie 10, III: 246 (1908) 57 



192 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND, 

Page. 

Cornish, Vaughan. Wind waves in water, sand, enow, and cloud. Quart. 

jour. Roy. met. soc. 35: 149-160 (1909). Abst. Nature 80: 119 (1909) 67 

  See also Floyer, E. A. 

Corstorphlne, G. S. Superficial deposits. Ann. rept. Geol. comm. Gape 

Good Hope 2: 25-28 (1897) 143 

Coste, F. H. Perry-. See Perry-Coste, F. H. 

Cotton, F. Notes on the works of sowing or consolidation of the dunes or 

coast sand-hills of Gascony . . . with a view to the introduction of similar 

works on the sanddrifts that are rapidly advancing over and threatening 

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(1875) 75 

Coulter. Note sur une nouvelle propriete* de Pair. Jour, pharm. chim. (4) 

22: 165-173 (1875). Abst. Naturforscher 8: 400 (1875) Ill 

Coulter, Stanley. The Michillinda (Michigan) sand dunes and their flora. 

Proc. Ind. acad. sci. 1906: 122-128 55,71,165 

Courbls, E. Les dunes et les eaux souterraines du Sahara. Compt. rend. 

Soc. geog. Paris 1889: 114-119 53,73 

Les dunes sahariennes: RSponse a la note de M. G. Holland. 

Compt. rend. Soc. geog. Paris 1880: 256-261 53, 73 

Courty, Georges. Contribution a l'etude experimentale des dunes de sable. 

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Examen de poussieres cosmiques recueillies a Chauffour-les- 

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and Hamelin, L. fetude relative a la formation des. loess de 

Villejuif. Bull. Soc. g^ol. France (4) 7: 444-446 (1907) 127 

Cowles, Henry Chandler. The ecological relations of the vegetation on the 

sand dunes of Lake Michigan. Bot. gaz. 27: 95-117, 167-202, 281-308, 361- 

391(1899). Also separate 55,60,71,72,76,166 

* The physiographic ecology of Chicago and vicinity. The 

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The plant societies of Chicago and vicinity. Bull. Chicago 

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Cox, Alvin J. Volcanic tuff as a construction and a cement material. Philip- 
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Cragln, Francis Whittemore. Preliminary notice of three late Neocene ter- 

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Craig, J. I. Circular dust-storms. Survey noteB 1: 357, 374-375 (1907) 84 

Cramer, C. tfber den sogenannten Fohnstaub aus Biinden vom Janttar 1867. 

Vierteljs. naturf. Ges. Zurich 13: 312-313 (1868) 89 

Cber die in der Nacht vom 16 auf den 17 Februar 1858 in 

unsern Centralalpen gefallene rothlichbraune Subatanz. Vierteljs. naturf. 

Ges. Zurich 13: 313 (1868) 89 

Meteorstaub von St. Denis du" Sig, Provinz Oran, Algier, 

gefallen am 15 Nov. 1867. Vierteljs. naturf. Ges. Zurich 13: 313-314 (1868).. 89 
« tJber einige Meteorstaubfalle und fiber den Saharasand. 

Schweiz. meteor. Beob. [Meteor. Centralanst. schweiz. naturf. Ges.] 15: 

vii-xviii (1868) 89 

Crawford, James Coutts. Directions for raising and spreading Ammophila 

arundinacea and Elymus arenarius. Trans. New Zealand inst. 5: 111 (1873). . 75 
On wind-formed lakes. Trans. New Zealand inst. 12: 415-416 

(1880) . 40 

On fixing blowing sands by means of planted grasses. Trans. 

Proc. Bot. soc. Edinburgh 14: 351-355 (1883) 75 

Crosby, William Otis. Colors of soils. Proc. Boston soc. nat. hist. 23: 219-222 

(1888) 145 

On the contrast in color of the soils of high and low latitudes. 

Amer. geol. 8: 72-82 (1891); Techn. quarterly 4: 36-45 (1891) 145 

Cross, Charles Whitman. Geology and mining industries of the Cripple Creek 

district, Colorado. Part I. General geology of the Cripple Creek district, 

Colorado. Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 16, II: 13-112 (1895) 152 

• Wind erosion in the Plateau country. Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 

19:53-62(1908) 25,41,123 

— See also Emmons, Samuel Franklin, Cross, Charles Whitman, 

and Eldridee, George Homans. 
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8:161-166(1901) 84,85 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL. INDEX. 193 

Page. 
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Cutting, Hiram A. Dust storm in Vermont, 12 February, 1870. Archives 

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Preliminary report of the geology and water resources of Ne- 
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Chute de poussiere observee Bur une partie de la Suede et de la 

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Examen des poussieres volcaniques tombees le 4 Janvier 1880, 

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63952°— Bull. 68—11 13 



194 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 

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Journal de mon troisieme voyage d'exploration dans l'empire 

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Voyage en Mongolie. Bull. Soc. geog. Paris. (6) 9: 5-45, 

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Second voyage d'exploration dans l'ouest de la Chine 1868 a 

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An excursion to the Grand Canyon of the Colorado. Bull. Mus. 

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The geographical cycle in an arid climate. Jour. geol. II: 

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Dawkins, William Boyd. In discussion of Enys, John Davies. On sand -worn 

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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 195 

Page. 

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[Report on an investigation of the drift-sands of Kharakhusov 

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[Almanach du gouvernement de Astrachan] ILimath. KHiraaca AcTpaxascK. 
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[Drift-sands of Erketenev village.] Cunynie necKH 3pKeTeneB- 

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Denis, Francesco. Pioggia di sabbia. Ann. sci. md. Milan 6, 1:107-108 
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Pluie de sable arrivee en Italie, du 13 au 14 F^vrier 1870. 

Compt. rend. 70: 534-537 (1870); Zs. Meteor. 5: 186-189 (1870). Abtt. Ghau- 
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Deschmann, Karl. Staubregen in Krain. Zs. Met. 4: 206 (1869) 89 

Dessau, B. Staubfall und Blutregen. Umschau 5: 413-414 (1901) 89 

Devaiu, H. Influence du vent marin sur lee deformations au pin maritime. 
Proc.-verb. Soc. sci. phys. nat. Bordeaux 1904-05: 58-62 171 

Dlener, Carl. General N. M. PrZewaisskijs vierte Forschungsreise in Zen- 
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Diller, Joseph Silas. The felsites and their associated rocks north of Boston. 
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Volcanic sand which fell at Unalaska, Alaska, Oct. 20, 1883, 

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Report on atmospheric sand-dust [volcanic] from Unalaska. 

Nature 30: 91-93 (1884) 148 

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Notes on the geology of northern California. Bull. Phil. soc. 

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A late volcanic eruption ic northern California and its peculiar 

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5 Volcanic rocks of Martinique and St Vincent, collected by 

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 and Steiger, George. Volcanic dust and sand from St. Vincent 

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Dlnklage, Ludwig Eduard. Die etaubfalle im Passatgebiet des Nordatlantis- 
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Documents relatifs a la Mission dirig6e au sud de 1'Alglrie par le lieutenant- 
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196 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 
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See also U. S. Dept. of agr. Bureau of Soils. Field operations, 

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Mon. weath. rev. 28: 382-389 (1900) 117 

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69 (1896) 54, 68, 143 

Ueber die Richtungsumkehr einer Dunen wanderung bei 

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Douglass, Andrew Ellicott. [Crescentic dunes of the desert of Islay.] El 

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The study of atmospheric currents by the aid of large telescopes, 

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The crescentic dunes of Peru. Appalachia 12: 34-45 (1909) 63 

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Sur quelle echelle s'accomplit le phenomene du transport 

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Oripine des sables ayant contribue" aux formations eolieniies 

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La carte manuscrite de Claude Masse (fin du xvii* siecle); sa 

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Nature min^ralogique et composition chimique des cendres 

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Rapport sur la nature de la substance pulverulente tombee au 

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Examen chimique et microscopique d'une poudre recueillie a 

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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 197 

Page. 
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Du Pasquler, Alphonse. Notice but une pluie de terre, tomble dans les 

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See also Penck, Friedrich Carl Albrecht, and Du Pasquier, 

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Stat. zool. Arcachon 5: 51-67 (1900-01) 114 

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Durfegne, E. Sur la distinction de deux ages dans la formation des dunes 

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Dunes primitives et fordts antiques de la cdte de Garonne. Bull. 

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Dunes anciennes et modernes. Actes Soc. linn. Bordeaux 55: 

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Contribution a Te'tude des dunes. Dunes anciennes de Gas- 
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Dust showers in the southwest of England. Symons's met. mag. 37:1-4 (1902) . 89 
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52, 130, 381 (1895), 31:536 (1903), 33:350 (1905), 35:583 (1907), 36:103 

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Dust whirls and fairy dances. Mon, weath. rev. 27: 111 (1899) 85 

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198 MOVEMENT OP SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND, 

Page. 

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Uber das Aussere una die Mischungstheile der am 9ten Februar 



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Eine reichliche Centurie historischer Nachtrage zu den blut- 



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Monatsb. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1858:1-41 89,120 

Ueber den am 24 Marz dieses Jahres mit Nord-Ost-Sturm gefal- 



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ttbersicht der seit 1847 fortgesetzten Untersuchungen uber das 



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Eldrldge, George Homans. See Emmons, Samuel Franklin, Cross, Charles 

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Paris, 1847-1869. 2 v 15, 22, 54, 59, 74, 149, 150 

[Ellsfdev, S.] dxacfawb, C. [Fixation and fores tati on of drift sands]. 

yKp&nvieHie h o&r&ceHie craiyWx'b necKOB*. [Bull. Soc. agron. Earache v] 

H3B^cTifl KapaieBCK. OtimecrBa CejocK. X03. 1903: 157-159 75 

Emels. Uber die ungunstige Einflusse von Wind und Freilage auf unsere 

Bodenkultur. Allg. Forst- Jagdztg. 78: 401-414 (1902), 70: 444-447 (1903), 

81: 365-371 (1905), 83: 1-5 (1907); Landw. Wochenbl. Schlesw.-Holst. 53: 

320-323 (1903), 54: 614-617 (1904); Landbote, Prenzlau 25: 604-606, 655-656, 

678-679, 688 (1904) , 102, 164, 171 

Emerson, Benjamin Kendall. Diabase pi tchs tone and mud incloeures of the 

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Emmons, Samuel Franklin, Gross, Charles Whitman, and Eldridge, George 

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[Engelhardt, M.] 3HFejnup;rrb, M. [Geologische Wirkungen des Windes und 

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Engels* See Halenke, Kling, and Engels. 

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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 199 

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Erlkson, Johan. Studier dfver sandfloran i tatra Skane. Bihang K. Svenska 

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Ernst, A. Yellow rain [Rosario de Cucuta, New Grenada, Dec. 1870] Nature 

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Evans, C. Red hail. Nature 33: 54-65 (1885) 89 

Evans, John William. Mechanically-formed limestones from Junagarh (Kath- 

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(1900) 142,143 

Erersmann. HagelmitmetallischemKera. Ann. physik (Gilbert) 76: 340-341 

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La magnetite pyreneene dans les sables gascons. Bull. geog. 

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Remarques de M. Faye au sujet de la precSdente communica- 
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Fellenberg, Edmund von. tfber Vorkommen von Loss im Kanton Bern. 

Mitt, naturf. Ges. Bern 1885: 34-43 127,136 



200 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 

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Ferrler, Walter F. Petrographical characters of some rocks from the area of 
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Fkker, H. von, and Defant, A. tlber den taglichen Gang der elektrischen 
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Fincke, Leonhard Ludwig. Der Moorrauch in Westphalen. Ein Beitrag zur 
Meteorologie, Linden, 1825 118 

Flnckh, L. tfber einen am 6 Jan. 1908 in Norddeutschland beobachteter 
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Fippln, Elmer Otterbein. See U. S. Dept. of Agr. Bureau of Soils. Field 
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Fischer, Ludwig. Untersuchung zweier Proben rothen Schnees aus den 
Schweizeralpen. Mitt, naturf . Ges. Bern 1867: 210-213 91, 102 

Fischer, Theobald. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse einer Reise im Atlas-Vor- 
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Zur Elimatologie von Marokko. Zs. Ges. Erdk. Berlin S5: 

365-41 7 ( 1900) 84, 118, 123 

Meine dritte Forschungsreise im Atlas-Vorlande von Marokko 

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Fisher, William Rogers. Forest protection, being an English adaptation of 
" Der Forstechutz ,r by Dr. Richard Hess. London, 1895. 593 p. (Schlich, 
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[Fixation and forestation of drift-sands.] Published by the Forestry depart- 
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AenapT. M-cTBa 3eMjie^. h VocyA- St. Petersburg, 1902. 23 p. [Also in 
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d 'agriculture] SeMju. TaaeTa 1902, nos. 43-45. [Extract in Messager officiel] 
npaBirrejrbcTBeH. BicTHHVb 1902, no. 239 75 

[Fixation of drift-sands and ravines in 1902.] YKpfenjieHie necsoKb  
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St. Petersburg] Hspbctiji M-cTBa SeMxefl. h Tocy&. HMynjecrvb. 
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[Fixation of drift-sands in 1901.] YspBiueHie jreTvunx* necKOBT> aa 1901 r. 
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IIpaBHTejn>cTBeH. Bbcthhk% 1902, no. 125 75 

[Fixation of drift-sands in Woronesh, Chernigov, Kharkov, Poltava, Tabriz, 
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bt» BopoHeaiccR., HepHHTOBCR., XapBKOBCR., IIojrraBcR., TaBps«iecx. ; h 
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Flahault, Charles. Vegetation et forSts de la Nouvelle-Z61ande. Geographic 
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Les lies de la Frise allemande: Sylt, Borkum; le vent et la 

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Flammarion, Camille. La pluie rouge. Bull. Soc. astron. France 15: 190-194 
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[Flerov, A. Th.] OjiepoB'b, A. 9. [The flora of the Vladimir Government.] 
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Fletcher, C. C. Examination of blown dust quoted 45 

Fletcher, James. Reclaiming sand dunes. Canad. forestry jour. 1: 182-184 
(1905) 74 

Fletcher, Stevenson Whitcomb. Soils, how to handle and improve them. 

N. Y., 1907. xxviii, 438 p 22 

Flett, John Smith. Note on a preliminary examination of the ash that fell 
on Barbados after the eruption at St. Vincent. With a chemical analysis by 
Dr. William Pollard. Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 68: 368-370 (1902) 153, 154 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 201 

Page. 
Flett, John Smith. Note on the microscopic characters of the "blood rain" 

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See also Anderson, Tempest, and Flett, John Smith. 

Flight, Walter. A chapter in the history of meteorites. Geol. mag. (2) 2: 

16-30, 70-30, 115-123, 152-163, 214-226, 257-267, 311-320, 362-372, 401-412, 

497-504, 548-560, 589-W8 (1875) 103 

FIttgel, J. H. L. Ueber den eisenhaltigen Staub im Schnee. Zs. Met. 16: 

32 1-330, 368 (1881) 102, 104, 110, 1 12, 120 

Flores, Eduardo. Pioggia di sabbia. Boll. mat. sci. fxa. nat. Bologna 2, no. 

4(1901) 89 

 Polveri sciroccali e pisoliti meteoriche. Boll. Soc. geol. ital. 

22:81-84(1903) 92 

Florschtltz. Der Loss. Jahrb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 47 :123-133 (1894). .. 127,131 
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Foeke, W. O. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Flora der ostfriesischen Inseln. 

Abh. naturw. Ver. Bremen 3: 305-323, 549-551 (1873) 71 

Fontannes, F. Sur lee causes de la production de facettes but les quartzites 

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Foote, Robert Bruce. On the geology of parts of the Madras and North Arcot 

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See also King, William, jr., and Foote, Robert Bruce. 

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Fore hhammer, Johan Georg. Geognostische S tudien am Meeres-Ufer . Neties 

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[fichantillons de poussieres eoliennes tombees en 1902 sur divers 

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Poussiere eolienne [pollen] Bull. Soc. vaud. sci. nat. (4) 39: l 



(1903) 91 

Le cercle de Bishop, couronne solaire de 1903. Compt. rend. 



137: 380-382 (1903) 117 

Le cercle de Bishop de 1902-1904. Compt. rend. 138: 688-690 



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Le cercle de Bishop de la montagne Pelee de la Martinique. 



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Fttrster, B. tfbersicht fiber die Gliederung derGeroll und Ldssablagerungen 

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Jtingerer Loss auf die Niederterrasse [Elsass-Lothringen] Mitt. 

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Forsyth, Sir Thomas Douglas. On the buried cities in the shifting Bands of 

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202 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 
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Foetterte, Franz. [Geognoetische Aufnahme in eud weetlicnen Mahren .] Jahrb . 

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Die geologischen Verhaltnisse der Gegend zwischen Nikopoli, 

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N. Y. and Bombay, 1902 84 

Foureau, Fernand. Documents scientifiques de la Mission saharienne (Mis- 
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Quelques considerations sur les dunes et sur les phenomenes 

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Fourtau, Rene\ Sur le gres nubien. Compt. rend. 135: 803-804 (1902) 142 

Fowke, Gerard. Surface deposits along the Mississippi between the Missouri 

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Fraas, Eberhard. Die Bildung der germanischen Trias, eine petrogenetische 

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Fraas, Oskar. Aus dem Orient. Stuttgart, 1867 25,69 

Frantien, W. Die Entstehung der Losspuppen in den alteren ldssartigen 

Thonablagerungen des Werrathales bei Meiningen. Jahrb. pre use. geol. 

Landesanst. 1885: 257-266 125 

Fraser, Persifor. Search for the* causes of injury to vegetation in an urban 

villa near a large industrial establishment. Trans. Amer. inst. min. enga. 

38: 49&-ol9 (1908) 166 

'■ Bibliography of injuries to vegetation by furnace gases. Trans. 

Amer. inst. min. engs. 38: 520-555 (1908) 118, 166 

Free, Edward Elway. A possible error in the estimates of the rate of geologic 

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Fridlander, E. D. Atmospheric dust observations from various parts of the 

world. Quart, jour. Roy. meteor, soc. 22: 184-203 (1896) 116 

Frtedberg, Wilhelm. [Fossile Dunen] Atlas geologiczny Galicyi 13: 32-37 

(1903) 64 

[Les dunes de la plaine de Rzeszow]. Kilka uwag w sprawie 

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Friedel, E. Staub- una Blutregen in der Mark Brandenburg. Branden- 

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Frfese, W. Uber den Staub- und Russgehalt der Dreed en er Luft. SitzungBb. 

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Fritsch, F. E. See Tansley, A. G., and Fritsch, F. E. 

Fritsch, Karl von. Allgemeine geologie. Stuttgart, 1888. xxxvi, 500 p 98 

Frtfmbllng, Fr. W. Die naturhistorischen und forstwirtschaftlichen Zustande 

der Dunen an den pommerschen, dann west- und ost-preussischen K us ten 

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Frtth, Jakob. t)ber Windschliffe am "Laufen" bei Laufenburg am Rhein. 

Globus 07: 117-120 (1895) 25 

tfber postglacialen, intramoranischen Loss (Loss-Sand) im 

Schweizerischen Rhonethal. Eclogae Geol. Helv. 0: 47-59 (1899) 127, 131 

Der postglaciale Loss im St. Gall en Rheinthal mit Beruck- 



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137-191(1899).. 69,70,125,126,127,131,135 

Die Abbildung der vorherrschenden Winde durch die Pflanzen- 



welt. Jahresb. geog.-ethnog. Ges. Zurich 1901-02: 56-153. Abst. Geographic 

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Quoted in Vanderlinaen, E. La pluie de poussiere des 21 et 

22 fevrier 1903. Ciel et terre 24: 50-51 (1903) f6 

t)ber die Natur des Staubes vom 21.-23. Februar 1903. Met. 



Zs. 20: 173-175 (1903) 45,92,96,106,152,153,160 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 203 

Page. 
Frith, Jakob. Tiber poatglacialen intramor&nischen Loss (Loss-Sand) bei An- 

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Fry,Edw. Fall of mud or dust. Nature 65: 317 (1902) . 80 

Fry, Harry Shipley. [Dust in air in Cincinnati.] Announcement* Cincinnati 

Section Amer. chem. soc. 1907: 18-19 101 

Fryer, A. C. Dust-fall in southwestern England. Proc. Nat. soc. Bristol (3) 

10 : 83-89 ( 1903 ) 89 

Fuller, Homer Taylor. Effects of droughts and winds on alluvial deposits 

in New England. Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 3: 148-149 (1892) 164, 169 

Fuller, Myron Leslie, and Clapp, Frederick Gardner. Marl-loess of the lower 

Wabash Valley. Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 14: 153-176 (1903); Amer. geol. 31: 

158(1903). 126,128,132,135,136 

Futteier, Karl. Ein Beispiel fur Winderosion am Heidelberger Schloss. Mitt. 

grossh. badischen geol. Landesanst. 3: 471-496 (1897) '. 27 

Ueber die Erosionsphanomene der Wuste Gobi-. Verh. Ges. 

deut. Naturf. u. Arzte 73, II, 1: 227-229(1901) 25 

Der Pe-Schan als Typus der Felsenwuste. Ein Beitrag zur 



Charakteristik der Felsenwusten Zentralaeiens. Geog. Zs. 8: 249-266, 323- 
339(1902) 25,26 

Gabb, William M. Hog wallows. Nature 16: 183-184 (1877) 50 

Gaberel, J. Note sur une poussiere m^teorique tombee a Genes le 16 mai 

1846. Arch, sci. phys. nat. Geneva 2: 87-88 (1846) 89 

Gagel, G. tJber das Vorkommen von Facettengeschieben im danischen 

Diluvium. Centbl. Min. 1906:593-600 26 

Gallagher, Francis Edward. See U. S. Dept. of Agr. Bureau of Soils. Bull. 30. 
Galll, Ignazio. Lettera intorno al Eamsin in Africa e la pioggia di sabbia. 

Bull. met. Osserv. Collegio Romano 13: 51 (1876) 89 

Delle polveri terrestri che possono essere sospese neiratmosfera. 

Mem. Accad. Nuovi Lincei (5) 31: 367-406 (1903) 89 

Sulla pioggia di sabbia e sulle straordinarie colorazioni cre- 



puscolari. Atti Accad.Nuovi Lincei 73: 151-152 (1904) 89 

Communicazione su due pioggie di sabbia in Velletri. Atti 



Accad. Nuovi Lincei (5) 14: 217 (1905) 89 

Pioggia di sabbia awenuta nella notte dal 5 al 6 nov. 1905. 



Atti Accad. NuovF Lincei (5) 13: 60 (1905) f 89 

Gallon, Francis. Meteorological phenomenon. Nature 44: 294 (1891) 162 

[Galuno?, M.] rajiyHOKb, M. [Analysis of drift-sand in Woronesh govern- 
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Om 



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204 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BT THE WIND. 

Page. 
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Gelnitz, Franz Eugen. Beobachtungen im Sachsischen Diluvium. Zs. deut. 

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Die Bildung aer " Kantengertille " (Dreikanter, Pyramidalge- 

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Ueber Kantengerolle. Neues Jahrb. Min. 1887, II : 78 26 

Bilder von Wind wirkungen am Strande . Naturw . Wochens . 19: 



1025-1031 (1904) 67, 171 

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Gentil, Louis. [Sur lee cendres rejetees par le volcan de la montagne Pelee 

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De Porigine des terres fertiles du Maroc occidental. Gompt. 

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Gents, Erich. In den Wanderdunen Deutach-Sudwestafrikas. Deut. Kol. 

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Gerhard Kohlfs's Expedition in die libyBche Wuste. Petenn. Mitt. 29: 

178-185 (1874) 66 

Gerhard t, Paul. Uferdeckungen durch Binsen, Rohr, Schilf, und Weiden. 

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Handbuch des deutschen Dunenbaues. Berlin, 1900. xxviii, 

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Gessert, Ferdinand. Sandwellen und Wanderdunen. Naturw. Wochens. 

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Unterscheide des Bodens in Steppen verschiedenen Klimate. 

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Gibbs, George. Salt plains in New Mexico. Amer. nat. 4:695-696(1870).. 68 
Gibbs, Oliver Wolcott. Chemisch-mineralogische UnterBuchungen. . . . 

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Gibson, W. The Hemlock Stone; Stapleford Hill, Nottinghamshire. Brit. 

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Glfford, John Clayton. The control and fixation of shifting sands. Eng. mag. 

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Wind-drift erosion. Amer. jour. sci. (3) 9: 151-152 (1875) \ . . . . 25, 26 



Report on the geology of portions of Nevada, Utah, California. 

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Lake Bonneville. U. S. Geol. surv. Monogr. 1, 1890. 



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Lake basins created by wind erosion. Jour. geol. 3: 47-49 



(1895) 40 

Gill, Walter. The drifting sand problem. Jour. Dept. agr. South Aust. 

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GUtet-Laumont, Tessier, and Ghassiron. Rapport sur les different* M6moires 

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Glllman, F. Salt, rain and dew. Nature 29: 172 (1883) 113 

Ginestous. Sur une pluie rouge tombee a Bizerte (Tunisie) [Nov. 4, 1896]. 

Compt. rend. 123: 1093-1094 (1896). Abst. Met. Zs. 14: 197-198 (1897) 89, 92 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 205 

Page. 
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Glrardtn, Paul. Les dunes de France. Ann. geog. 10: 267-272 (1901) 54, 75 

Glraud, Jules. Sur la formation des surfaces ondulees dans le sable, d'apres 

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Gteason, Henry Allan. See Hart, Charles Arthur, and Gleason, Henry Allan. 
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Gilbert. SeeZ. 

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Godwin-Austen, Robert Alfred Cloyne. On the valley of the English chan- 
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On the superficial accumulations of the coasts of the English 

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Goldschmldt, Viktor. Uber Wustensteine und Meteoriten. Tschermak's 

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Goldthwait, James Walter. See Huntington, Ellsworth, and Goldthwait, 

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Th e geological history of Lower Tweedside. Proc. Geol. assoc. 

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Quaternary geology of Keokuk, Iowa, with notes on the under- 
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Geology of Van Buren county [Iowa]. Iowa Geol. surv. 4: 

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See also Barenborg, and Gottsche, Carl. 

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206 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 
Graebner, Carl Otto Robert Peter Paul. Studien liber die norddeuteche 

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Grant, Ulysses Sherman. See Winchell, Newton Horace, and Grant, UlyBses 

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Greely, Adolpnus Washington. Three years of Arctic service; an account of 

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Green, Samuel Bowdlear. Farm wind-breaks and shelter-belts, their formation 

and care. St. Paul, 1906. 69 p 171 

Gregorlo, A. de. Sulla pioggia di sangue del 10 marzo. Nuovi Ann. agric. 

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Gregory, F. T. On the geology of a part of western Australia. Quart, jour. 

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Gregory, Herbert Ernest. Contributions to the geology of Maine. Part II. 

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31, 65, 78, 84, 105, 113, 118 
Grempe, P. M. Der Dunenbau an den deutschen Kusten. Meer und Kueten 

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Griffiths, A. B. The volcanic dust of Mont Pelee. Chem. news 88:231 

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Grlsellni, Franz. Versuch eines politischen und nattlrlichen Geschichte des 

Temeswarer Bannate. Wien, 1779-80 54 

Grand, Alfred. Die Probleme der Geomorphologie am Rande von Trocken- 

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96, 127, 131, 137, 140 
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  Die Sandformen der Dread ner Haide, bezogen auf die Ausbil- 

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42-54. Also separate 26,54,68 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX, 207 

Page. 
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Sitzungsb. *Ge3. Nat. Heilk. Dresden 1867: 18-20 54 

GutiwIUer, A. Der Loss mit besondere Berucksichtigung seines Vorkommens 

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Die Diluvialbildungen der Umgebung von Basel. Verh. 

naturf. Ges. Basel 10:512-691 (1895) 127,131 

Der Loss des Honroderhubels und der Wittenheimer Sandloss. 

Ber. Vers, oberrhein. geol. Ver. Stuttgart 34: 12-18 (1901) 127 

Zur Altersfrage des Loa§. Verh. naturf. Ges. Basel 13: 271-286 

(1901) 127,131,136 

H., C. H. Weshalb ist am "Loss" keine Schichtung wahrnehmbar? Ausland 

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Haast, Julius von. Snow and ice flora. Nature 80: 55 (1884) 92 

Hagen, Gotthilf . Handbuch der Wasserbaukunst. 3. Tl. Das Meer. Sect. 28. 

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Hahn, R. Die Sable-Insel. Eine Wanderdune inmitten des Atlantischen 

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Halenke, Kling, and Engels. Ueber Ldssboden und Ldeemergel. Vierteljs. 

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Hall, Alfred Daniel. The soil; an introduction to the scientific study of the 

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Hall, Christopher Webber and Sardeson, Frederic William. Eolian deposits 

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Vict. nat. 18: 47-52 (1901} 54 

HaWer, Ernst. Merkwurdige Erscheinung bei einem Sturm auf Helgoland. 

Ann. Phys. Chem. (Poggendorf) (2) 112: 343-344 (1861) 86 

Ueber eine Bchone Interferon zerscneinung auf der Dune zu 

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Hamelln, L. See Courty, Georges, and Hamelin, L. 

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Abst. Prometheus 0: 684 (1898) 89, 95 

Handmann, R. Zur Kenntniss der Lossfauna von Nagy-Kapornak (Zala, 

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Hann, Julius. Uber die Ursache des Staubfalles vom 21-22 Februar 1903. 

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Warming and Hansen. Engler's Bot. Jahrb. 31: 556-586 (1902); 32, Beibl.: 

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Experimentelle UnterHiichun^en fiber die Beschadigung der 

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H&pke, Ludwig. Notizen Uber die Flora von Borkum. Abh. naturw. Ver. 

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Der Staubfall vom 10 und 11 Marz 1901 und diasen Eisengehalt. 

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Wustenstaub in Bremen. Met. Zs. 18: 237-238 (1901) 89 

Vulkanische Asche von Martinique. Himmel u. Erde 15: 

89-92 (1902) 150 

Vulkanische Asche auf Bremer und Hamburger Seeschiffen, 

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Harder, Agnes. Die Wanderdiinen der kurischer Nehrung. Vom Fels zum 

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Harlg, Edouard. Cailloux a facettes des environs de Bordeaux. Bull. soc. 

geol. France (3) 28: 70 (1900) 26, 2* 



208 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL, BY THE WIND. 

Page. 
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Harriott, John. Struggles through life, exemplified in the various travels 

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Harris, Gilbert Dennison. See Dall, William Healey, and Harris, Gilbert 

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Additional observations on the strand flora of New Jersey. 

Proc. Acad. nat. sci. Phila. 54: 642-669 (1902) 54,71 

The comparative leaf structure of the sand dune plants of 

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Hart, Charles Arthur, and Gleason, Henry Allan. On the biology of the sand 

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Hart, L. [Occurrence of amethyst and garnet in dust fallen 12/27/1896 in 

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Hartlg, Theodor. Ueber Bildung und Befestigung der Dunen lanes den 

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Hartley, Walter Noel. On haze, dry fog, and hail. Sci. proc. Boy. Dublin 

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Haselhoff, Emil. Versuche Uber die Einwirkung von Flugstaube auf Boden 

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Versuche uber die einwirkung von flugstaub auf gras. Landw. 

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Beschadigung von Boden und Pflanzen durch Flugstaub. 

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and Lindau, Gustav. Die Beschadigung der Vegetation durch 

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Hauser, G. P. Chronik der friesischen Uthlande. Altona, 1856 54 

Hautreux, A. La cdte dee Landes de Gascogne. Geographic 2: 337-342, 

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Haworth, Erasmus. Physical properties of the Tertiary. Univ. geol. surv. 

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Underground waters of southwestern Kansas. U. S. Geol. 

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Hay, Robert. A geological reconnoissance in Southwestern Kansas. Bull. 

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Hayden, Ferdinand Vandeveer. First annual report of the United States 

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64 p 135 

Preliminary report of the United States geological survey of 

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Hayes, Charles Willard. An expedition through the Yukon district. Nat. 

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Hayes, Isaac Israel. The open Polar Sea; a narrative of a voyage of discovery 

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Haywood, John Kerfoot. Injury to vegetation by smelter fumes. Bull. 

U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Chemistry 80, 1906 167 

Smelter smoke. Science n. s. 36:476-478(1907) 167 

Injury to vegetation and animal life by smelter wastes. Bull. 

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Haien, L. E. Blowing soils. In Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. plant ind. 139: 

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Headlee, Thomas J., and Dean, George A. [The mound building prairie ant.] 

Bull. Kans. agr. expt. stat. 154: 165-180(1908) 16 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 209 

Page. 
Heeker, Oskar. Zur Entstehung der Inselbeiglandschaften im Hinterlande 
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179(1905) 39 

Hedln, Sven Anders. Genom Khorasan och Turkestan. Stockholm, 1892-93. 75,171 

A journey through the Takla-Makan desert, Chinese Turkestan. 

Geog. jour. 8: 356-372 (1896) 64 

Through Asia. N. Y. & London, 1899. 2v 27, 

53. 60, 62, 65, 66, 67, 72, 78, 80, 82, 84, 118, 119 
Die geographisch-wisseiischaitlichen Ergebnisse meiner Reisen 



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62, 65, 66, 72 
Central Asia and Tibet towards the holy city of Lassa. London 



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Scientific results of a journey in Central Asia, 1899-1902. [v. 1. 



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Heer, Oswald. Die Urwelt der Schweiz. Zurich, 1865 130 

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Hetan, Albert. liber die Schliffe an den Porphyrbergen von Hohburg. Neues 
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Vierteljs. naturf. Ges. Zurich 82: 383-385 (1887) 26 

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Vorlaufige Mittheilung uber den Staub-Regenfall in Nord- 

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53952°— Bull. 68—11 14 



210 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 
Hepworth, M. W. Campbell. Atmospheric dust. Quart, jour. Roy. met. soc. 

28:68(1902) *9 

Herodotus. Historiae. Book iii, chap. 26 78 

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Herrmann, E. Die Staubfalle vom 19. bis 23. Februar 1903 tlber dem nord- 

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Herschel, Alexander Stewart. Heights of sunset after-glows in June, 1902. 

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Hershey, Oscar H. Early pleistocene deposits of northern Illinois. Amer. 

geol. 17: 287-303 (1896) 132 

Observations on dirt storms. Amer. geol. 23: 380-382 (1899) . . 79 

The upland loess of Missouri. Its mode of formation. Amer. 

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Hertsberg, R. von. windschutz in der Landwirtschaft. Deut. landw. 

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1890 56 

Hesselman, Henrik. Om flygsandsfalten pa Ffirtm och skyddskogslagen af 

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Geographic It: 136-138(1909) 54,75 

Hettner, Alfred. Gebirgsbau und Oberflachengestaltung der Sachsischen 

Schweiz. Stuttgart, 1887. (Forschungen z. deutschen Landes- u. Volks- 

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Hewitt, W. The physical conditions of the Aralo-Caspian region as bearing 

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Hey wood, A. W. Report on the drift sands in the Divisions of Caledon and 

Bredasdorp (Cape Colony). Printed by Colonial Gov't. Capetown, 1893 54,77 

Sand-stay grasses. (Marram grass. — Ammophila arundinacea) 

Aerie, jour. Cape Good Hope 7: 342-344 (1894) 75 

Hlbbert, Samuel. History of the extinct volcanoes of the basin of Neuwied. 

Edinburg, 1832 127, 129 

Hicks, Lewis Ezra. Geyserite in Nebraska. Amer. geol. 1:277-280 (1888)... 151 
[Volcanic dusts from Krakatoa and from Nebraska and Kansas.] 

Amer. geol. 2: 64 (1888) 151 

Hlggln, A. J. See Rennie, E. H., and Higgin, A. J. 

Hilber, Vincenz. Geologische Studien in den ostgalizischen Miocan-Gebieten. 

Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 32: 193-330 (1882) 125, 131 

Hildebrand, Fried rich. Die Verbreitungsmittel der Pflanzen. Leipzig, 

1873 161 

Hildebrandson. Quoted by N. A. E. Nordenskiold, Distant transport of 

volcanic dust. Geol. mag. (2) 3: 295 (1876) 104 

Hllgard, Eugene Woldemar. Report on the geology and agriculture of the 

state of Mississippi. Jackson, 1860. xiii, 391 p 128, 135 

The lce^s of the Mississippi Valley and the jEolian hypothesis. 

Amer. jour. sci. (3) 18: 106-112 (1879) 128, 130, 135 

— The prairie mounds of Louisiana. Science n. a. 21: 551-552 (1905) 16 

Soils. N. Y., 1906. Rev. Science n. s. 24: 681-684 (1906). . . . 15, 

16,17,22,165,168 
Hill, Ellsworth Jerome. Means of plant dispersion. Amer. nat. 17:811-820, 

1028-1034 ( 1883) 161 

The sand dunes of northern Indiana and their flora. Garden 

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Hill, H. [Traces of volcanic dust-showers at Napier . . . ] Trans. New 

Zealand mrt. 19: 385-387 ( 1 886) 158 

Hill, Robert Thomas. Physical geography of the Texas region. Topog. folio 

U. S. Geol. surv. 3:8 (1900) 38 

Report [to the National Geographic Society] on volcanic dis- 
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Peculiar formations of the Mexican arid regions. Eng. min. jour. 

83:662-666(1907) 50,56,123 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 211 

Page. 

Hill, Robert Thomas. Growth and decay of the Mexican plateau. Eng. 
min. jour. 85: 651-688 (1908) 39, 53, 85 

Hflfebrand, William Francis. Quoted in Williams, George Huntington. The 
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Quoted in Diller, Joseph Silas. A late volcanic eruption . . . 

Bull. U. S. Geol. surv. 79, 1891. p. 29 154 

Quoted in Williams, Henry Shaler, and Gregory, Herbert 

Ernest. Contributions to the geology of Maine, pt. I. Bull. U.S. Geol. surv. 
165:184(1900) 156 

Quoted in Clarke, Frank Wigglesworth. Analyses of rocks from 

the Laboratory of the United States Geological Survey, 1880-1899. Bull. U. S. 
Geol . surv. 168: 20 (1900). 156 

— Quoted in Russell, Israel Cook. Geology and water resources of 

Nez Perce county, Idaho. U. S. Geol. surv. Water-supp. pap. 53: 34 (1901). . 155 

Quoted in Hovey, Edmund Otis. Observations on the erup- 
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Chemical discussion of analyses of volcanic ejecta from Mar- 
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Quoted in Rowe, Jesse Perry. Some volcanic ash beds of Mon- 
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See also Clarke, Frank Wigglesworth, and Hillebrand, William 

Francis. 

Hlmmel und Erde. See R. P. Staubuntersuchungen in Berlin. 

Hitchcock, Albert Spear. Controlling sand dunes in the United States and 
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Methods used for controlling and reclaiming sand dunes. Bull. 

U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. plant ind. 57, 1904. 36 p 74, 75 

Hitchcock, Edward. Final report on the geology of Massachusetts. North- 
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On the trap tuff or volcanic grit of the Connecticut Valley, 

with the bearing of its history upon the age of the trap rock and sandstone 
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Hlxon, Hiram W. Volcanic ash. Mining and scientific press 65: 809 (1907) ... 148 

Hobbs, Hermann E. Volcanic and atmospheric phenomena. Mon. weath. 
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Hobbs, William Herbert. Personally quoted 104 

Hodgkln, Thomas. On some superficial geological appearances in north- 
western Morocco, abridged from notes taken during the late mission of Sir 
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Hoffmann, George Christian. On a peculiar form of metallic iron found in 
Huronian quartzite, on the north shore of St. Joseph Island, Lake Huron, 
Ontario. Trans. Roy. soc. Canada8, 111:39-42 (18S0) 121 

Hoffmann, J. F. Einige Ursachen und Folgen senkrechter Luftbewegungen. 
Beitr. Geophysik 6: 543-559 (1904) 34 

[Hofschnelder, M. G.] rognraeftAeprb, M. V. [Fixation of sands.] Yicp£- 
mieHie necKOBT*. [Moniteurde la Oenologie.] B^cthhkb Bhhoa&iiih 1899: 
149-151 75 

Htfgbom, A. G. [Sandslipade och sondersprungna stenar.] Geol. foren. forh. 
16: 387-390 (1894) 26, 32 

Holland* Thomas H., and Christie, W. A. K. The origin of the salt deposits 
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8«: 381 (1910) 113 

Holmes, J. Garnett. See U. S. Dept. of Agr. Bureau of Soils. Field opera- 
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of the Imperial area, California. 

Holmgren, Nils. Ameisen (Formica exsecta Nyl.) als Hugelbildner in Sump- 
fen. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Biol. 20: 353-370 (1904) 16 

Hoist, Nils Olof. Berattelse om en ar 1880 i geologiskt syfte fdretagen resa 
till Gronland. Sveriges Geol. undersdkn. Ser. C no. 81, 1886. 68 p. Abst. 
Neues Jahrb. Min. 1888 103 

Homer. Iliad. Book 11, lines 52-54, book It, lines 459-460 89 

Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton. Sand blast. Gardener's chron. (2) 9:12 (1878); 
La Nature 1: 176 (1878) 166 



212 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 



Hooker, Sir Joseph Dal ton, and Ball, John. Journal of a tour in Marocco 
and the Great Atlas. London, 1878. 489p 54,84 

Hopkins, Cyril George, and Pettit, James Harvey. The fertility in Illinois 
soils. Bull. 111. agr. expt. stat. 123, 1908. 294 p 55, 140, 165 

Hornaday, William Temple. Camp-fires on desert and lava. N. Y., 1908. . . 53, 

55, 57, 118 

Horaemann, Friedrich Eonrad. Voyage de F. Hornemann, dans l'Afrique 
septentrionale, depuis le Caire iusqu'a Mourzouk . . . Paris, 1803. 2 v 118 

Horner, Johann Kaspar. Von Wasserhosen und Erdtromben und ihrer ver- 
wustenden Kraft, neuere Bemerkungen. Ann. Physik (Gilbert) 73: 95-96 
(1823) 86 

Horusitoky, Henrik. Ldszterfiletek Magyarorszagon. [Die Ldssgebiete Un- 
garns] Fdldtani K6zl6nv 28: 29-36, 109-113 U898Y 127, 131 

A diluvi&lis mocsarloszrdl [liber den diluvialen Sumpfloez]. 

Fdldtani K6zl6ny 33: 209-216 [267-2741 (1903) 127 

[Ober die Feuchtickeit der Sandhugel langs des Vag-Flusses.] 

A vagmenti homokbuczkak nedvessegerdl. Faldtani Kozldny 34: 339-341, 
373-375(1904) 73 

Elozetes j 61 en tee a Nagy-Alfold diluvialis mocsarldszerdl [Vor- 

l&ufiger Bericht uber den diluvialen Sumpfloss des ungarischen grossen 
Alfofdl. Fdldtani Kozldny 35: 403-404 [451-452J ( 1905} 127 

Hovey, Edmund Otis. Observations on tne eruptions of 1902 of La Soufriere, 
St. Vincent, and Mt. Pelee, Martinique. [Analysis by William Francis 
Hillebrand.] Amer. jour. sci. (4) 14: 319-358 (1902) 147, 154, 156, 157 

Martinique and St. Vincent; a preliminary report upon the 

eruptions of 1902 . Bull . Amer. mus. nat. hist. 16: 333-372 ( 1902) 147 

The eruptions of La Soufriere, St Vincent, in May, 1902. Nat. 

geog. mag. 13:444-459(1902) 147 

A geological reconnoissance in the western Sierra Madre of Chi- 
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Ten days in camp on Mt. Pele\ Martinique. Bull. Amer. geog. 

soc. 40: 662-679 (1908) 159 

Camping on the Soufriere of St. Vincent. Bull. Amer. geog. 

8oc.41:72-83(1909) 159 

Howard, Luke. The climate of London. 2d. ed. London, 1833. 3v 119 

Howe, Ernest. Recent tuffs of the Soufriere, St. Vincent. Amer. jour. sci. 

(4) 16: 317-322 (1903) 152 

Ho worth, Henry Hoyle. Traces of a great post-glacial flood. Geol. mag. 
(2) 3:9-18, 69-80, 224-231, 266-272, 305-311, 416-424, 433-440, 509-518, 
553-559 (1882), 10: 9-16, 71-78, 113-120, 356-368, 413-423 (1883) 129 

The loess— A rejoinder. Geol. mag. (2) 9: 343-356 (1882) 129 

The fauna and flora of the European loess, being a reply to 

Prof. Dr. Nehring. Geol . mag. (2) 10: 206-215 (1883) 129 

The loess and the epoch of the mammoth. Geol. mag. (2) 10: 

381-384 (1883) 129 

Httbbe. Der Diinenbau der Koniglichen preussischen Regierung auf den 
Schleswigschen Westsec-Inseln, 1876. Landw. Jahrb. 8: 371^16 (1879) 54 

Hubeny, Josef. Anleitung zur Kultur und Bindung des Flugsanaes in Un- 
garn. Pest, 1835 75 

Hubert, Karl August. Grundsatze uber die Bedeckung und Urbarmachung 
des Flugsandes oder vielmehr der Sandschellen. Berlin, 1824 75 

Httbner. Staubregen. Wetter 21: 96 (1904) 89 

Hudleston, Wilfrid Hudleston. On the geological history of iron-ores. Proc. 
Geol. assoc. (2) 11: 104-144 (1889) 145 

Hughes, Frank. Notes on Egyptian and Soudan soils. Yearbook Ehediv. 
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Hughes, Thomas McKenny. Notes on earthworms. Nature 30: 57-58 (1884).. 107 

HuD. OverdenOorsprongendieGeschiedenisderHollandscheDuinen. 1838. 17,54 

Hull, Edward. In discussion of Cornish, Vaughan. On the formation of sand- 
dunes. Geog. jour. 9: 278-309 (1897) 57 

Hult, R. Flygsand i det inre af Finland. Geog. f6ren. tids. 3: 133-140 (1891). . 54 

Humboldt, Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander, freiherr von. Kosmos. 
Entwurf einer physischen Weltbeschreibung. Stuttgart und Tubingen, 
1845-62. 5 v 148 

Aspects of nature, v. 1« Steppes and deserts, tr. by Mrs. 

Sabine. London, 1850 84 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 213 

Page. 

Hume, A. 0. See Henderson, George, and Hume, A. 0. 

Hume, William Fraser. Notes on Russian geology. II, The loess: its distri- 
bution and character in South Russia. Geol. mag. (3) 9: 549-561 (1892) 84, 

127, 130, 136, 141 

Notes on Russian geology. Ill, The black earth. Geol. mag. 

(4)1:303-312,349-357(1894) 127,136 

Topography and geology of the Peninsula of Sinai (southeastern 

portion). Survey dept., Egypt. Cairo, 1906. 280 p 50, 142 

The Southwestern desert of Egypt. Cairo sci. jour. 2: 279-286, 

314-325 (1908). Abst . Nature 79: 471 (1909) 25, 31, 57 

See also Barron, Thomas, and Hume, William Fraser. 

Humphrey, H. B. The plant societies of Monterey Peninsula. Plant world 
12: 79-82, 152-157 (1909) , 55, 71, 76 

Humphreys, Andrew Atkinson, and Abbot, Henry Larcom. Report upon the 
physics and hydraulics of the Mississippi River. Professional papers U. S. 
Army Corps Topog. eng. 4, Philadelphia, 1861. xiii, 456, cxlvi p. Reprint. * 
Washington, 1867. Also Professional papers 13, Washington, 1876, 691 p 18 

Hundhausen, J. Die Crau. Globus 90: 46-48 (1906) 39, 140 

Hunter, Byron. Hints to settlers on the Umatilla project, Oregon. Pub. 
U. S. Bur. Plant ind. 495, 1909. 12 p 165, 171 

Huntington, Ellsworth. Some characteristics of the Glacial period in non- 
glaciated regions. Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 18: 351-388 (1907) 52, 140. 142, 145 

The pulse of Asia, a journey in Central Asia illustrating tne 

geographic basis of nistory. Boston and N. Y., 1907. xxi, 415 p 26, 

36, 50, 51, 52, 57, 80, 82, 84, 111, 118, 140, 143. 163, 165 

, and Goldthwait, James Walter. The Hurricane fault in tne 

Toqueville district, Utah. Bull. Mus. coin p. zool. Harv. coll. 42 (Geol. ser. 

•): 199-259 (1904) 142 

I., la. See la. I. 

[la. I.] fl. H. ["Mgla"or"pomocha."] Mrjm mm noMoxa. [Khutorianin] 
XyropflHHH'b 1898, no. 13: 225-226 118 

Iddings, Joseph Paxson. Quoted in Diller, Joseph Silas. The educational 
series of rock specimens collected and distributed by the United States Geo- 
logical Survey. Bull. U. S. Geol. surv., 160, 1898. pp. 14&-148 151, 153 

Illustrated London news. See Shower of hay at Wrexham, Denbighshire. 

Inkey, Belatol. [Use]. A losz kepzodeserol. Foldtani Kozlony 8:15-26 
(1878) 127,130 

[Investigation of drift-sands of Kamyshinsk district, Saratov government.] 
Hscjr&AOBauie jierrymx'b necKOB*b bi> KaMBimHHcKOM'b y., CapaTOBCR. ry<5. 
[Meseager officiel St. Petersburg.] HpauHTeJibcTBeH. B&cTHHKb 1902, 
no. 280 54 

[Investigation of the sandy public lands of the Kharkov government.] 
H3CJTBAOBaHie njioin&AH nec^anuxi 3eMeju> m> XapBKOBCK. ry<5. [Messager 
officiel St. Petersburg.] ELpaBHTejiBcTBeH. Bbcthhki* 1991, no. 115 54 

Ippen, Josef A. Ueber den "rothen Schnee" (gefallen am 11. Marz 1901) 
Centbl. Min. 1901: 578-582; Mitt, naturw. Ver. Steiermark 38: 256-266 
(1901). Abst. Globus83: 148(1903) 89,94,95 

Irwin, Wilfrid. The soot deposited on Manchester snow. Jour. Soc. chem. 
ind. 21: 533-534 (1902). Abst. Trans. Amer. inst. min. eng. 38: 545-546 
(1908) 102 

[Ispolator, E.] HcnojiaTOB'b, £. [Sandy areas of Tabriz government.] IlecKii 
TaBpiroecKoft ryo\ [Revue sciences naturelles et geographie] EcTecTB03HaHie 
h reorpa$ia. 1902, nos. 9-10: 1-10 54 

[On the vegetation of the sands of Tabriz government] O 

pacTHTejn>HOCTH necKOBT* TaBpmecK. ryo\ [Travaux Imp. Soc. natural is tea 
St. Petersburg. Sect, botanique] Tpyjpj Minn. C.-IterepoyprcK. OtiinecTBa 
EcTecTBOHcnHTaT. Ot^. Eotshhkh. 33: 71-77 (1903) 71 

[Ivanov, A.] HBaHOBt, Ah. [Mgla] Mrjia. [Vicstnik selsk. khoz.1 Bbct- 
HHRb cejibCKaro Xo3tfftcTBa 1903, no. 9. Abst. [Zhur. opytn. agron.j MCyp. 
ohht. arpoH. 4: 38G-387 (1903) 118, 167 

[Ivanovskll, I. K.] HBaHOBciriH, H. K. [Tremblements de terre etamoncelle- 
ments de sable sur le chemin de fer Transcaspien.] O seMjieTpHceuiH h 
nec^iaHBix'b saHocax'b Ha 3aKacniHcKoft ». &. [Zhelfeznodorozhnoe D&lo] 
3KejrB3HOflopo«H0e. fljkao 1896, no. 40 : 327-334 . [Extract in Mem. Soc. Imp. 
Techn. Russe] 3anncKH Hmh. pyccK. TexHHiecK. 06m> 1896: 89-92 75 






214 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL, BY THE WIND. 



Page. 



[Ivchenko, Aleksandr.] Hbmchko, AjreKcaHAp*. [Denudation of the step- 
pes. (From observations rn the Kirghiz steppes in 1903.) TJeHyflaniH 
crenH. (Ho HatfjiKyjeHLHin. vb KnpnracKoft ctcich 1903 r.) [Ann. geol. 
min. Russie.] Excero.^HHKb Teojior. MiiHepajt. Poccin. 7, I: 43-59,216- 
240 (1904), 8, 1 : 135-197 (1906) 25. 26, 39, 50, 62, 67, 69, 84, 88, 140, 167 

[The mobility of dunes.] IIoabiukhoctb ^khtb. [Ann. g£ol. 

min. Russie] EaceroAHUKb reojior. Mxraepajor. Poccin9, 1: 244-254 (1908). 

Fren chabst.p.2bb 60 

[La stratification dans lea depdts eoliens] Cjiohctoctb bt> 



aojioBux-b OT^oaceHiiTX-b. [Ann. geol. min. Russie] EaceroAHHKb Teo- 
jiorin MHHepajioriH Poccin. 10, I: 18-26 (1908). French abst. p. 27-29; 

Russian abst. Ill, p. 245-246; German abst. Ill, p. 261 53, 141 

Icrfestlfl Ministerstva zemledfelila i gosudarstvennyk imushchestv. See 
Fixation of drift-sands and ravines in 1902; Fixation of drift-sands in 1901; 
Fixation of drift-sands in Woronesh, Chernigov, Kharkov, Poltava, Tabriz, 
and Ekaterinoelav governments in 1900; On the fixation of drift-sands in 
Woronesh government; Work on the fixation of drift-sands in the spring of 
1901. 

Jaehmann. Nachrichten liber die Kurische Nehrung. Preuss. Provinzialbl. 

1: 195-220, 310-334(1829) 54 

Jahresbericht des Sonnblick-Vereines, Vienna. See Ueber Fernsichten. 
J&kel, Otto. Ueber diluviale Bildungen im ndrdlichen Schlesien. Ze. deut. 

geol. Ges. 39: 277-300 (1887) 25,26 

Jamfeson, Thomas F. On the climate of the loess period in Central Europe 

and the cause which produced it. Geol. mag. (3) 7: 70-73 (1890) 137 

Janezfc, Eugen. Mikroskopische Untersuchung der Staubteilchen. Met. Ze. 

23: 224 ( 1906) 150, 160 

J&nnlcke, Wilhelm. Die Sandflora von Mainz; ein Relict aus der Steppen- 

zeit. Frankfurt a. M. [n. d.] 71 

Jaubert, Joseph. Le regime pluviomltrique de la region parisienne. Ann. 

Obs. Montsouris 5: 224-240, 328-367 (1904) 89, 91 

Jeffery, Joseph Alexander. Personally quoted 104 

Sample of blown dust sent 45 

Jenney, Walter Proctor. Notes on the dry lakes of southern Nevada and 

California, with relation to the loess. School of mines quart. 10: 315-318 

(1889) 138 

Jenny, Fr. Ueber Loss und lossahnlichen Bildungen in der Schwerz. Mitt. 

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Jensen. Quoted in Lehmann, Richard. Die danischen Untersuchungen in 

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Jentzsch, Karl Alfred. [Uber den Loss des Saalthales.] Sitzungsb. Isis 

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Das Quartar der Gegend um Dresden und uber die Bildung 

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Uber Baron von Richthofen's Lfestheorie. Verh. geol. Reichs- 

anst. 1877: 251-258 130,135 

t)ber Baron von Richthofena Lfestheorie und den angeblichen 

Steppencharakter Centraleuropas am Schluese der Eiszeit. Schriften phys.- 

6kon. Ges. Kdnigsberg 18: 161-168 (1877) 130, 135 

 Beitrage zum Ausbau der Glacialhypothese in ihrer Anwendung 

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Dfinenbildung. Abst. Verh. Ges. deut. Naturf. Aerzte 70, II, 

1:190(1898) 54 

Die Geologic der Dunen. In Gerhard t, Paul. Handbuch des 

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D iinen bildungen. Schriften naturf. Ges. Danzig n. s. 11: 

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Dunen. Die Woche 8: 1297-1299 (1906) 75 

Uber den Eiswind und das Dunengebiet zwischen Warthe und 

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Jentzsch, M. Staubfalle im Passatgebiet des Nordatlantischen Ozeans. 

Annalen Hydrog. 37: 373-376 (1909) 88 

Jeremiah, John. What is yellow rain? Nature 4: 160-161 (1871) 89 

Jerosch, Heinrich Brockmann-. See Brockmann-Jerosch, Heinrich. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 215 

Page. 
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Johnsen, Arrien. Zur Entstehung der Facettengesteine. Centbl. Min. 

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Johnson, Douglas Wilson. Block mountains in New Mexico. Amer. geol. 

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Johnson, W. H. Report on his journey to Ilchf, the capital of Khotan, in 

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Johnson, Willard D. See also McGee, W J, and Johnson, Willard D. 

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Johnston-Lavls, Henry James. On the fragmentary ejectamenta of volcanoes. 
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Joly, John. Notes on the microscopical character of the volcanic ash from 
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The circulation of salt and geologic time. Geol. mag. (4) 8: 

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Formation of [eolian] sand -ripples. Sci. proc. Roy. Dublin 

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« Ueber die Warnemunder Dtinenpflanzung. Netien Ann. 

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216 MOVEMENT OF BOIL MATEBIAL BY THE WIND. 



Karsten, Franz Christian Lorenz. Mein letztes Wort tlber die Warnemtinder 

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Kellhack, Friedrich Ludwig Heinrich Eonrad. Vergleichende Beobachtungen 

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Die Wanderdilnen Hinterpommerns. Prometheus 5: 102-108 

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Beobachtungen uber die Bewegungsgeschwindigkeit zweier 

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Keller, H. Studien uber die gestaltung von San dk listen und die Anlage der 

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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 217 

Page. 
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Nature 17: 28 (1877) 16, 107 

Keyes, Charles Rollin. Surface geology of Burlington, Iowa. Amer. nat. 

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An annotated catalogue of the Mollusca of Iowa. Bull. Essex 

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Eolian origin of loess. Amer. jour. sci. (4) 6: 299-304 (1898). 



Trans. Bull. Soc. beige geol. Trad, et rep rod. 12: 14-21 (1898). Also sep- 
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Geological structure of New Mexican bolson plains. Amer. 



jour. sci. (4) 15: 207-210 (1903) 38 

Note on block mountains in New Mexico. Amer. geol. S3: 



19-23(1904) 38 

Bolson plains and the conditions of their existence. Amer. 



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Cerargyritic ores, their genesis and geology. Econ. geol. 2: 



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Eolian origin of certain lake basins of the Mexican table-land. 



Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 15: 137-141(1908) 39 

Genesis of the Lake Valley, New Mexico, silver deposits. 



Trans. Amer. inst. min. engs. 39: 139-169 (1908) 113 

Geotec tonics of the Estancia Plains. Jour. geol. 16: 434-451 



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Erosional origin of the great basin ranges. Jour. geol. 17: 31-37 



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and Call, Richard Ellsworth. On a Quaternary section eight 



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Kikuchi, Yasushi. See Sekiya, Seikei, and Kikuchi, Yasushi. 

Kimball, Herbert Harvey. Colored snow. Mon. weath. rev. 29:465-466 

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Yellow snow in Michigan. Mon. weath. rev. 30: 29 (1902) 79 

Dust storm and mud shower [in the Middle Atlantic States, 

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Dancing dervishes or dust whirls. Mon. weath. rev. 30: 316 



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Variations in insolation and in polarization of blue sky light. 



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Variations in atmospheric transparency during 1902, 1903, and 



1904. Mon. weath. rev. 33: 100-101 (1905) 119 

Kinahan, George Henry. Suggestions in denudation. Geol. mag. 0: 109-115 

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iEolian drift or blowing sand, Ireland. Geol. mag. 8: 155-158 



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Wind driftage. Nature 14: 191 (1876) 54 

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King, Franklin ifiram. Destructive effects of winds on Bandy soils and light 

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42,1894. 29p 164,171 



5J18 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 



King, William, jr., and Foote, Robert Bruce. On the geological structure of 
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Kingsley, Charles. At last: a Christmas in the West Indies. London, 1871. " 
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Notes on the geology of China, with more especial reference to 

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The probable origin of deposits of "loess" in North China and 



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386 (1871) 127,130,133 

The border lands of geology and history. Jour. North China 



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The geology of the Asiatic loess. Nature 47: 30 (1892) 127,130 

Hydraulics of great rivers flowing through alluvial plains. 



Shanghai, 1906 127,130 

See also Skertchly, S. B. J., and Kingsmill, Thomas W. 



Kirk, Thomas. Notes on the plants best adapted for the reclamation of sand 
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Kirk, Thomas W. Sand-binding grasses. Rept. New Zealand Dept. agr. 15: 

180-185 (1907) 75 

KIttel, Ernst. Der Schnee und Staubfall am 26 Feb. 1896. Mitt. Sect. 
Naturk. Oest. Tourist Club 8: 21 (1896) 89 

Klein, Johann Friedrich Carl. Resultate der Untersuchung der Proben dee 
am 10. bez. 11. Marz 1901 in Italien, Oiterreich und Deutschland gefallenen 
Staubregens. Sitzungsb. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1901: 612-613 106 

tfber die am 7. Mai 1902 vom Vulcan Soufriere auf St. Vincent 

ausgeworfene vulcanische Asche. Sitzungsb. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 
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Kiemm, Carl Albert Gustav. Mikroskopische Untersuchungen uber psam- 
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Erlauterungen zur Section Grossenhain-Skasschen. Geol. 

Spez. Karte Sachsen. 18: 19-20 (1888) 26 

Die Gliederung des Schwemmlandes am unteren Main. Notizbl . 



Ver. Erdk. Darmstadt 1892: 25-39 131,143 

Kling. See Halenke, Kling, and Engels. 

Klinge, Johannes Christen. Ueber die topographischen Verhaltnisse der 

WestkQste Kurlands. Sitzungsb. Dorpater naturf. Ges. 9: 603-614 (1884). .... 54 
Die vegetativen und topographischen Verhaltnisse der Kuri- 

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tlber den Einfluss der mittleren Windrichtung auf das Ver- 



wachsen der Gewasser, nebst Betrachtung anderer, von der Windrichtung 
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Jahrb. 11: 264-313 (1889) 40, 171 

Klinggraeff, H. von. Bericht uber die botanischen Reisen an den Seek us ten 
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24-53(1884) 71 

Klinsmann, Ernst Ferdinand. Ueber Bildung und Entstehung von Humus 
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Kloekmann, Friedrich. Die sudliche Verbreitungsgrenze des Oberen Ge- 
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Das Vorkommen der loesartigen Lehme im ostlichen Harzge- 

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Klossovskll, Aleksandr Vikentfeevich. Les ouragans de poussiere dans la 
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Knab, Carl. Staubregen. Wetter 20: 284 (1903) 89 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 219 

Page. 

Knab, Frederick. Luminous termite hills [in Brazil] Science n. s. SO: 
574-575(1909) 16 

Knight, Nicholas. Analysis of Mount Vernon loess. Amer. jour. sci. (4) 
13: 325 Q902) 128 

Knight, Wilbur Clinton. Geology of the Wyoming experimental farms, and 
Notes on the mineral resources of the state. Bull. Wyoming agr. expt. stat. 
14:101-212(1893) 164 

and Sloeson, Edwin E. Alkali lakes and deposits. Bull. Wyo- 
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Knop, A. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Steinkohlen-Formation und des Roth- 
liegenden im Erzgebirgischen Bassin. Neuee Jahrb. Min. 1859: 532-601, 
671-720 156, 157 

Knowles, W. T. Flint implements and associated remains found near Ballin- 
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Portstewart and other flint factories in the north of Ireland. 

Jour. Anthropol. ins*. 9: 320-328 (1879) 143 

Knttpffer, F. von. Uber Bindung und Aufforstung des Flugsandes in Rues- 
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218-219(1904); Forestry Quart. 2: 125, 194(1903) 75 

Knuth, Paul. Botanische Beobachtungen auf der Insel Sylt. Humboldt 
7:109(1888) 71 

Altes und neues von der Insel Sylt. Humboldt 9, 3 hft. 1890. 54 

Botanische Wanderungen auf der Insel Sylt. Nebst eine Ver- 

zeichnis der die Sylter Pflanzenwelt betrachtungswurdige Litteratur und die 
bisher von dem Insel Sylt angegebenen Pflanzen. Tondern, 1890 71 

Sommerwanderungen auf Sylt. Deut. bot. Monatss. 8: 122-124 

(1890), 9: 13-14 (1891), 12:67-74(1894) 54 

Flora der nordfriesischen Inseln. Kiel, 1895 71 

Koch, H., and Brennecke. Flora von Wangerooge. Wise. Nachtr. Jever- 
landisch. Nachr 12: (1844) 71 

Koch, V. von. Uber die Molluskenfauna aus dem Loss des Gypsbniches 
von Thiede bei WolfenbQttel. Jahresb. Ver. Naturw. Braunschweig 1893-95: 
35-37 125 

Ktihler, Emil Johannes. Uber einige physikalische Eigenschaften des Sandes 
und die Methoden zu deren Bestimmung. Nuremberg, 1906. Abrt. Expt. 
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Ktfhler,H. Die Vulcane von Colima. Prometheus 17:214-219 (1906) 149 

Koken, Ernest Friedrich Rudolph Karl. Loss und Lehm in Schwaben. 
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Facettengeschiebe. Centbl. Min. 1903: 625-628 25, 26 

1st der Buntsandstein eine Wustenbildung? Jahresh. Ver. 

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and Noetling, Fritz. Geologische Mittheilungen aus der Salt- 
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Koldewey, Karl. The German arctic expedition of 1869-1870, and narrative 
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[Kolesov, A.l KojEecoKb, A. [Nature of drift-sand.] HpHpo^a jieTyqnxi. 
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[Nature of drift-sands and their forestation.] HpHpo/ia jieTy^HXT. 

necKOBi> h hx% oOfcceHie. XapbKOBi>, 1900. 131 p 75 

[Konoval, Iv.] KoHOBajrb, Hb. [Fixation of drift-sand. Sketch of the 
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1865-1902.] YKpiiuieHie cunysHXTj necKOBT*. Oiepxrb ^BJrrejrbHocTH m> 
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Ktippen, Wladimir. Die vorherrschenden Winde und das Baer'sche Gesetz 
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 Der Staubfall vom 9. bis 12. Mfirz 1901 und die Mechanik der 

atmospharischen Wirbel . Annalen Hydros:. 31: 45-48 (1903) 98 

[Korosteler, N. A.] KopocTejieB-b, H. A. [Gefarbter Niederschlag mitStaub, 
beobachtetim Marz, 1901.] ORpameuHBieoca^KH ci> ntuibio, Ha6jno#aBiniecH 
bt> Maprfc 1901 ro^a. [Monatl. meteor. Bull. Nikol. physikal. Haupt-Obser- 
vatoriums] EaceM-fccHMHuft MeTeop. Eiojui. HuicojiaeBcK. T^aBH. OiramecK. 
OocepBaTopin. 9,111:2(1901) 89 



220 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 

[KortT, L. H.I A western salt storm. Electricity 10: 93 (1896) 113 

[Kostlaer, A. B.l KocTaeKb, A. [Fixation and forestation of drift-sands in 
Prussia.] y KpfenjieHie h oojrfeceHie jieTyquxi. necxom* vb HpycciM. [Journal 
forestier St. Petersburg] JftcHoft xypHajPb 28: 624-646, 802-821 (1898) 75 

[Fixation and forestation of drift-sand in Hun^aryl Jlerryme 

necKB BeHrpin, hxt> yKp&uienie h oOfeoeHie. [Journal forestaerej JlicHolk 
xypHajr*29: 110-135, 243-204 (1899) 75 

[Brief instructions for fixation and forestation of drift-sands. 

Published by the Dept. of Forestry] KpaTKoe HacraBjieHie Kb jKcrbivieHuo 
h oojrBoeHiio jieTy^utrb necsopb. Ha^. JLfecHoft ^enapr. M-crsa 3eMjie£. h 
TocyA- St. Petersburg, 1900. 16 p 75 

[Brief instructions for fixation and forestation of drift-sands.] 

KpaTKoe HacraBjieHie m> yiepBiueHiK) h oojrfcceHiio jxeTyviEro neoKOB*. 
[Journal forestiere] JTbchoh aeypHajra, 30: 311-318 (1900) 75 

[Kozakovskll, A.] Ko3aKOBcxiH, A. [Drift-sands, their fixation and treat- 
ment.] IlecKH, art yKpfenjieHie h HcnojiBaoBame. [Journal Soc. agron. 
Poltawa] }KypHajrb HojiTaBcK. Of3m> C. Xos. 1900, III, Append.: 50-68 75 

[Krasllshehlftor, K.l KpacHjr&iipiKOB'b, K. [Work on the fixation of drift- 
sands, Kamshinsk district, Saratov government.] PaooTM no yKpfemieHiK) 
necKovb KaMbnnoicK. y., CapaTOBox. ry(S. [Messager de l'industrie forestier] 
Jl'feconpoMwnuieH. Bbcthhki*. 1903: 125-126 75 

Krause, Ernst H . L. Die Steppenfrage. Globus iff: 1-6 (1894) 137 

Krause, G. G. A. Der Dunenbau auf den Ostsee-Kttsten West-Preussens. 
Berlin, 1850. viii, 229 p 54 

Krause, Paul Gustaf . Das Vorkommen von Fazettengeschieben in Ost- und 
Westpreusaen. Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 57 Monatsb. : 460-462 (1905) 26 

Krebs, Wilhelm. Der diesjahrige Fruhlingsanfang. Frankforter Ztg. 18 
Marz 1901. Kleines Feuilleton 96 

Zur Frage der Staubfalle ini Marz 1901. (Staubfall bei Regen 

am 15. Marz 1901 im Unterclsass.) Annalen Hydrogr. 31: 174-175 (1903) 49 

— - Staubfallbeobachtungen Oberelsass am 22 Feb. 1903. Annalen 

Hydrog. 31: 462-463 (1903) 89 

Staubfalle, Blutregen, Blutschnee. Globus 84: 181-184 (1903). 96,106 

Atmospharische Staubfalle und verwandte Erscheinungen. 

WeltaU 4: 341-342 (1904) 89 

Staubfall-Wolken? Met. Zs. 22: 137 (1905) 89 

Wirbelsturme und Hochwassergefahr im fernen Osten. Globus 

88:124(1905) 84 

Staubfalle, besonders im Passatgebiet des ndrdlichen Atlantik. 

Neue folge. Beitr. Geophysik 8: 7-42 (1906) 79, 88 

[Krishtafovieh, N. I.] Kpirarra&oBinrfc, H. I. [The Post-tertiary deposits 
of the neighborhood of Nova- Alexandria.] nocjrBTpenraHbiH o6pa30BaHLH 
m> oKpecTHocTHxC HoBO-AjieKcaH.zrpiH. Warsaw, 1896 131 

[The loess and its principal type*?] Jl§ccb h ero rjiaBH&Hnrie 

thhh. [Zap. N. Alex. In.] 3an. H-AjieK. Hh. 1902: 108-194. Abst. 
[Zhur. Opytn. agron.] HCypH. oitht. arpoH. 5:531-535(1904) 136 

[On the genetic types of loess . J O reHerflraecKHXi THnax*b fl&ccau 

[Verh . russ. mm. Ges.] 3anncKH Hmh. Cbfj-ro MHHep. 06m. (2) 40, Protokoll : 
98-100 (1903) . .• 136 

Kronfeld, Ernst Moritz. Studien iiber die Verbreitungsmittel der Pflanzen. 

Leipzig, 1900 161 

Hummer, E. Der erste Anfang einer regelrechten Diinenbefestigung an der 
preussischen Ostseekuste und die Soren Biornsche Denkschrift vom 4 April 
1796. Zs. Bauwesen 46: 431-446 (1896) 75 

Kusnezov. Messungen von Schneemassen, die durch Wind in horizon t&ler 
Richtung getrieben wurden. Meteor. Svornik 1900: 477-481 53, 161 

Labat. Les dunes mari times et lee sables littoraux. Bull. Soc. geol. France 
(3) 18: 259-273 ( 1 890) 54 

Lacrolx, Antoine Francois Alfred. Sur les cendres des Eruptions de la Mon- 
tague Pel6e de 1851 et de 1902. Compt. rend. 134: 1327-1329 (1902). . 153, 154, 156 

Lais, Joseph. [Shower of sand at Rome June 22, 1877] Voce della Verita, 
Quoted, Nature If: 197-198 (1877) : 89, 92 

Lake, Edward R. A word about windbreaks. Wash. agr. expt. stat. Bull. 
3: 60-63 (1892) 171 

Lake, Philip. Atmospheric erosion in Corsica. Geol. mag. (5) 1: 89 (1904) . . 26 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL, INDEX. 221 

Page. 
[Lakftn, G.] JlaKHHT*, T. [Drift-sand along the lower Volga.] JEeryro necm 

Vb HHBOBbax-b p&KB Bojith, AcrpaxaHCKoft rytf. [Mem. Soc. Imp. agron. 

Rustic du sud] 3airacKH H. 06m;. C. X03. lOacHoA Poccih. 1899, noe. 

10-11 54 

[Drift-sands in the Narin forest district-L HecKH HaptiHCKaro 

jr&cHiraecxBa. [Economic rurale et forestiere] Gcjebck. X03. h. JI&coboactbo. 

1899:163-181 75 

Lam, A. Quoted by Herrmann, Die Staubfalle vom. 19. bis 23. Februar 

1903 . . . Annalen Hydrogr. 31: 477 (1903) 95 

Lamb, F. H. The sand dunes of the Pacific coast. Forester 3: 94 (1897) 55 

Lambrardte, de. Memoire sur les cdtes de la Haute Normandie. 1782 54 

Lamson-Scribner, Frank. See Scribner, Frank Lamson-. 

Landrrebe, Geore. Naturgeschichte der Vulcane und der damit in Ver- 

bindung stehenaen Erscheinungen. Gotha, 1855. 2 v 146 

Langell, K. Gelber Schnee [14 (26) Marz 1865 zu Kazan]. Hedwigia 4: 153 

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Langley, Samuel Pierpont. A vast dust envelope. N. Y. Tribune Jan. 2. 

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The internal work of the wind. Smithsonian contributions 27, 

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The internal work of the wind. Amer. jour. sci. (3) 47: 41-63 



(1894) 34 

Lapparent, Albert de. Note sur le limon des plateaux dans le Bassin de 

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Lecons de geographic physique. 2e. 6d. Paris, 1898. xvi, 

718 p 22 

Traite* deeeologie. 4e. 6d. Paris, 1900. 3v 138 

Lasaulx, Arnold von. Uber sogenannten kosmischen Staub. Tschermak's 

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Laumont, Gillet-. See Gillet-Laumont. 

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Lavls, Henry James Johnston-. See Johnston-Lavis, Henry James. 
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Lefort, M. Notice sur les travaux de la fixation des dunes. Ann. ponts 

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Lehmann, F. W. Paul. Pommerns Kiiste von der Dievenow bis zum Dares. 

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19:332-404(1884) 54,59 



222 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 
Lehmann, F. W. Paul. Zur Morphologie norddeutscher BinnendQnen. Zs. 

deut. geol. Gee. 57, Monatsb. : 264-265 (1905) 64 

Wanderungen und Studien in Deutschlands grossten binnen- 

landischen Dtinengebiet. Jahresb. geog. Gee. Greifswald 10: 351-379 (1905). 54, 

58, 64, 69 
Lehmann, Richard. Die danischen Untereuchungen in Gronland, 1876-1879. 

Peterra. Mitt, 26: 91-105 (1880) 103 

Lehzen, Philipp. Reiseerinnerungen aue Japan und China. Globus 56: 

260-264, 281-286, 296-301, 345-349, 360-365, 374-378 (1889) 80 

LelvlskK, I. Uber die Entstehung der Dunengebeite an der Kuete dee Bott- 

niechen Meerbusens. Fennia 23, no. 2 (1905). 20 p. Rev. (Rabot), Geog- 
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Le Mang, Richard. Die Dttnen der Gascogne. Deut. geogr. Blatt. 22: 235-255 

(1899); Gaea MOO: 285-292, 354-363 54, 74, 75, 76 

Die Dunen der franzosischen Nordkuste. Deut. geogr. Bl. 

24:15-25 0901) 54 

Lempfert, R. G. K. See Mill, Hugh Robert, and Lempfert, R. G. K. 
Lenz, Oekar. Timbuktu. Reise durch Marokko, die Sahara und den Sudan, 

ausgef iihrt im Auf trage der afrikaniechen Gesellechaf t in Deutschland in den 

Jahren 1879 und 1880. Leipzig, 1880. 2 v. French trans. Paris, 1886. 26, 60, 72 
Leonard, Arthur Gray. Geology of Dallas County [Iowa]. Iowa Geol. surv. 

8: 53-118 (1897) 128, 132 

Geology of Clinton county [Iowa]. Iowa Geol. surv. 16: 213- 

307(1905) 128,131,133 

Leopold Ferdinand, erzherzog. Zum Kapitel der Staubregen. Met. Zs. 

18: 460 (1901) 89 

Leppla, A. Zur Lossfrage. Bayer, geognost. Jahresh. 1888:176-187 127,130 

Zur Lossfrage. Neuea Jahrb. Min. 1890, II : 194-198 127, 130, 168 

Leprlnee-BInguet, F. Etude geologique sur le Nord de la Chine. Ann. 

mines (9) 19: 346-430 (1901) 127, 131 

Leps. [Air charge 1 de poussiere.l Compt. rend . 24: 566 (1847) 89 

Leverett, Frank. On the significance of the white clays of the Ohio region. 

Amer. geol. 10: 18-24 (1892). Abst. Amer. nat. 27: 148 (1893) 135 

Soils of Illinois. Rept. 111. Board World's Fair Commissioners. 

p. 77-92 (1895) 135 

The Illinois Glacial lobe. Monogr. U. S. Geol. surv. 88, 1899. 



817 p 126, 127, 128, 130, 133, 135 

The loess and its distribution. Amer. geol. 33: 56-57 (1904). 128*, 133 



Levy, Auguste Michel. Sur la composition des cendres projetees, le 3 mai 1902, 
par la Montairne Pel6e. Compt. rend. 134: 1123-1124 (1902) 153 

Leymann, Hermann. Die Verunreinigung der Luft durch gewerbliche 
Betriebe. [In Weyl, Theodor. Handbucn der Hygiene. Suppl. Bd. 3.] 
Jena, 1903. p. 27-126 104 

Lldbeck, Eric Gustaf. Anmarkningar vid skanska flyg-sands-tracterne, och 
deras hjalpande genom plantering. Handl. Kongl. vet.- akad. Stockholm 
20: 133-139 (1759), German trans. Leipzig, 1762 75 

Llebe, Th. Ueber die Flora der ostfriesischen Inseln Wanderooge und Spiek- 
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Llefmann, H. Uber die Rauch- und Russfrage und eine Methode des Russ- 
nachweises in der Luft. Deut. Vierteljs. Sffentl. Gesundheitspfl. 40: 282- 
344 (1908) 114 

Llnck, W. Foretliches und Jagdliches von der Kurischen Nehrung [material 
on dune lands]. Wild und Hund 10: 545-548, 561-565, 578-582 (1904) 54 

Llndau, Gustav. See Haseihoff, Emil, and Lindau, Gustav. 

Lindner, Fr. Die preussische Wiiste einst und jetzt. Bilder von der kur- 
ischen Nehrung. Osterwieck, 1898 54, 75 

Lindsey, Edward. A reddish-brown snowfall [on Feb. 2, 1904]. Science n. 8. 
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Llndstrttm. Quoted by von Lasaulx, Arnold. Uber sogenannten kosmischen 
Staub. Tachermak's min. Mitt. n. s. 3: 517-532 (1880) 103 

LIsMa, Miguel Arrojado R. Occorrencia de seixoa facetados no planalto 
Central Brasiliero. Ann. Escola minas Ouro Preto 8: 21-40 (1906) 26 

Occorrencias e evolucSo doe theorias referentes & genesis dos 

seixos facetados. Ann. Escola minas Ouro Preto 8: 45-74 (1906) 26 

The occurrence of facetted pebbles on the central Plateau of 



Brazil. Amer. jour. Bci. (4)23:9-19(1907) 26 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 223 

Page. 
Iluboslavskfl, G. JhooocjiaBCKift, I\ [Zur Frage fiber die Veranderung der 

Durchsichtigkeit der Luft unter dem Einfluss der Eruption auf der 

Insel Martinique] Kb Bonpocy o(h> n3M^HeHiH npo3paMHOcTH B03£yxa 

no;rx> BJiiHHieMi* nssepsKeuia Ha MapTminK'k. [Met. \ iest., St. Petersburg] 

MeTeopojioriiMecKiii BfcrHHRb 1903: 243-248 119 

Lftersidge, Archibald. Meteoric dusts, New South Wales. Jour. Proc. Roy. 

see. New South Wales 36: 241-285(1902); Chem. news. 88: 41-45,55-58(1903). 45, 

79, 83, 104, 106, 121 
Livingstone, David. Missionary travels and researches in South Africa. 

London, 1857 69 

Narrative of an expedition to the Zambesi and its tributaries. 

London, 1865 69 

Livy. Historiae. Book 3, chap. 10; book 10, chap. 31 89 

Lobry de Bruyn. Quoted by Dubois, Eugen. Quelle est 1' importance du 

transport atmosphenque de sel marin? Ciel et terre 28: 233 ( 1907) 113 

L6czy, Ludwig von. Die Beschreibung der geologische Beobachtungen und 

deren Resultate, In Die wissenschafthche Ergebnisse der ReLse des Grafen 

Be*la Szechenyi in Ostasien. Trans, by Franz Schafarzik. vol. 1, III, pp. 

305-851. Vienna, 1893 25, 62, 140 

See also Stein, Max Aurel. Ancient Khotan, Appendix G. 

Lomas, Joseph. The geology of the country round Southport. Rept. Brit. 

as8oc. 1903:654-656. Abst. Nature 68: 612 (1903) 145,163 

Desert conditions and the origin of the British Trias. Proc. 

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On the origin of the Trias. Proc. Yorkshire geol. soc. n. s. 

16:15-20(1906) 145 

Lomonosof, A. L 1 Expedition au Lob-Nor par N. Prj6valski. Bull. Soc. 

geog. Paris (6) 17: 581-596 (1879) 75 

Lonsdale, Elston Holmes. Geology o! Montgomery county [Iowa]. Iowa 

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Loomls, Frederic Brewster. Turtles from the Upper Harrison beds. [Ne- 
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Lorentzen, F. Entwicklungsgeschicnte der Dunen an den Westkuste von 

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Lorenzen, A. Dunen von Vendsyssel. Die Natur 48: 424-426 (1899) 54, 77 

Lortt, Jan. Les dunes int£rieures, les tourbieres basses et les oscillations du 

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De stofregen van 22-23 Febr. 1903. De Natuur, Maands. 23: 

89-91. 122-125, 150-151(1903) 89 

Loesehe, Eduard Pechuel-. See Pechuel-Loesche, Eduard. 

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Lough ridge, Robert Hills. Capacity of soils for holding water. Rept. Cal. 

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The capillary rise of water in soils. Rept. Cal. agr. expt. stat. 

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Mechanical and chemical examination of soils. Rept. Cal. agr. 

expt. stat. 1898-01: 172-184(1902) 155 

Lorel, J. Stationary dust-whirl. Nature 40: 174(1889) 85 

A dust-whirl or (?) tornado. Nature48: 77 (1893) 85 

Lozlnskl, Walery, litter von. Quartarstudien im Gebiete der nordischen 

Vereisung Galiziens. Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 57: 375-398 (1907) 131, 137, 138 

Uber die mechanipche Verwitterung der Sandsteine im gemassig- 

ten Klima. Bull, intern. Acad. sci. Cracow 1909: 1-25 69 

[Lozovskll, V. V.] JIo30BCKift, B. B. [On the fixation of sands in Kupiansk 

district, Kharkov government, and Blelgorod in Kursk government] 06* 

YKp&iuieHiH necKOVb bi> KyroracK. v., XapbKOBcK. ryo\, h BBJiropo^cK. y., 

KypcKott ryo\ [Journal foresti ere] JHscHoft xypmurb. 30, Protok.: 320-323 

(1900) 75 

Ltldellng, G. Luftelektrische Zerstreuungs- und Staubmessungen auf den 

internationalen Ballonfahrten am 2. April und 7. Mai 1903. 111. aeron. Mitt. 

7: 321-329 (1903) 116 

Luftelektrische und Staujpmessungen an der Ostsee und auf 

Helgoland. Verbff . Met. Inst. Berlin 1904: v-xxx v 89 



224 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 
Luiggf, Luis. Plantaciones para el afirmado de arenales en el Puerto Militar. 

La agricultura, Buenos Aires. Special no., Jan. 1901. Also separate 75 

Lyell, Sir Charles. Observations on the deposit of loess in the valley of the 

Rhine. Edinburgh New Phil. jour. 17: 110-122 (1834). Abst. Bull. Soc. geol. 

France (1) 4: 347 (1834) 127,130 

The geological evidences of the antiquity of man, with remarks 

on theories of the origin of species by variation. London, 1863 127, 130 

Lyon, Thomas Lyttleton. Soils of the great semi-arid region. In Bailey, 

Liberty Hyde, Cyclopedia of American agriculture 1: 342-349 (1907} 55 

Lyons, Henry George. On the stratigraphy and physiography of tne Libyan 

desert of Egypt. Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 50: 531-547 (1894). Abst. Nature 

50: 166-167 (1894) 73,140 

M. [Fixation of drift-sand. Letter from Suntszha.] yKp&nseHie necKora. 

IIhcbmo H3B CyH^KH. [La Semaine] Herfura. 1899, no. 35 75 

Dust-whirls in New Mexico. Amer. met. jour. 2: 285-286 (1885) 85 

.,V. SeeV. M. 



[M. P.] M. H. [Fixation and forestation of drift-sand.] 06b yKpfauemn 
h oojrfeceHiB necKOKb. [Agronome] Cojibck. Xo3HHH«b 1898: 547-548 75 

Maack. Die Dunen Jtltlands. Aufsatz drei, bearb. nach Andresen. Zs. 
allg. Erdk. 19: 198-237 (1865) 54 

Mabry, Thomas O. The brown or yellow loam of north Mississippi and its 
relation to the northern drift. Jour. geol. 6: 273-302 (1898) 127 

Macagno, I. Quoted in Tacchini, Pietro. Sulle polveri meteoriche e 1'analisi 
chimica dallia sabbia del Sahara. Trans. R. Accad. Lincei (3) 7: 134-136 
(1883) 93 

and Tacchini, Pietro. Sulle polveri meteoriche di scirocco rac- 

coltein Italia esegnatamente in Sicilia. Nota II. Ann. meteor, ital. (2) 1: 
65-73 (1879) 89, 92, 93, 95, 98, 106, 121, 160 

Macbrkle, Tnomas Huston. Geology of Cherokee and Buena Vista counties 

ilowa] with notes on the limits of the Wisconsin drift as Been in northwestern 
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The Alamogordo desert. Science n. s. 21: 90-97 (1905). 55. 68, 72, 123 

Geology of Sac and Ida counties [Iowa]. Iowa Ueol. surv! 10: 

509-^548 (1905) .• 128 

MacCarthy, O. Notes sur le sirocco qui a souffle" a Alger le 8 septembre 1855. 
Ann. Soc. meteor. France Bull. 3: 411-414 (1855) 89 

McClelland, Chalmers K. Personally quoted 167 

M'CUntock, Sir Francis Leopold. The voyage of the "Fox" in Arctic Beas: 
a narrative of the discovery of the fate of Sir John Franklin and his com- 
panions. London, 1859 108 

McClure, Robert John Le Mesurier. The discovery of the north-west passage 
bv H. M. S. "Investigator," Capt. R. McClure, 1850, 1851, 1852, 1853, 1854. 
Eel. Capt. S. Osborn. 2d. ed. London, 1857 103 

McDonald, Frank E. A sand dune flora of Central Illinois. Plant world 
3: 101-103 (1900) 55, 71 

MacDougal, Daniel Trembly. Delta and desert vegetation. Bot. gaz. 38: 
44-63 (1904) 50 

The desert basins of the Colorado Delta. Bull. Amer. geog. 

soc. 39: 705-729 (1907} 50, 55, 63 

Across rapagueria. Bull. Amer. geog. soc. 40: 705-725 (1908) 



Also separate 55 

Botanical features of North American deserts. Carnegie inst. 



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McGee, WJ. Personally quoted 36,53,64,66 

On the complete series of superficial formations in northeastern 

Iowa. Proc. Amer. assoc. adv. sci. 27: 198-231 (1878) 132 

On the relative positions of the forest bed and associated drift 



formations in northeastern Iowa. Amer. jour. sci. (3) 15: 339-341 (1878) 128 

Notes on the surface geology of a part of the Mississippi Valley. 



Geol. mag. (2) 6: 353-361, 412-420 (1879) 128 

The drainage system and tne distribution of the loess of Eastern 



Iowa. Bull. Phil. soc. Washington 6: 93-97 (1883) 128, 132 

The loess of Eastern Iowa. Ft. Dodge, la., 1884. 14 p 128 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX* 225 

Page. 
McGee, W J. The Pleistocene history of Northeastern Iowa. Ann. rept. U. S. 

Geol. surv. 11, 1: 199-577 (1891) 55, 126, 127, 130, 132, 133, 135 

The Lafayette formation. Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 12, I: 

347-521(1891) 127 

Sheetflood erosion. Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 8: 87-112 (1897). . . . 38, 40 

Outlines of hydrology. Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 19: 193-220 



(1908) 33 

and Call, Richard Ellsworth. On the loss and associated de- 



posits of Des Moines [Iowa] Amer. jour. sci. (3) 24: 202-223 (1882). Abti. 
Science 2: 763 (1883) 126 

ana Johnson, Willard D. Seriland. Nat. geog. mag. 7: 125-133 



(1896) 38 

MacGregor, Sir Charles Metcalfe. Wanderings in Baluchistan. London, 

1882 62 

Mftchon, Une temp&te de terre. Bull. Soc. Vaud. sci. nat. (4) 29: xxxiii 

(1903) 80 

Mack, Earl. Uber Wirbelbewegungen in vulkanischen Rauchwolken. Met. 

Zs. 18: 250-256 (1901) 87 

McKeehan, L. W. See Zeleny, John, and McKeehan, L. W. 

Maekle, William. The sands and sandstones of eastern Moray. Trans. Edinb. 

geol. soc. 7: 148-172 (1897) 14,142,145,164 

On the laws that govern the rounding of particles of sand. 

Trans. Edinb. geol. soc. 7: 298-311 (1897) 70 

The pebble band of the Elgin Trias and its wind worn pebbles. 



Rept. Brit, assoc. 1991: 650-651 . Abst. Nature 64: 565 (1901) 26, 145 

MeLane, John W. See U. S. Dept. of Agr. Bureau of Soils. Bull. 45. 
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168-173(1902) 79 

MeMahOB, Sir A. Henry. In discussion of Cornish, Vaughan. On the forma- 
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Recent survey and exploration in Seistan. Geog. jour. 28: 

333-352(1906) 62 

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MacPherson, Joseph. Quoted in correspondence, The Remarkable Sunsets. 

Nature 29: 174, 224 (1883-4) 104 

Magalhles Mesqult*, Egberto. Apontamentos acerca da regiao littoral com- 

Srehendida entre as lagoas de Mira e de Esmoriz (dunas d'Aveiro) Comm. 
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Maiden, Joseph Henry. Marram grass (P$amma arenaria R. & S.). A valuable 

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The sand drift problem in New South Wales. Jour. Proc. Roy. 

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[Makarov, V.I Maxapovb, B. [Drift-sands and their forestation in Woronesh 
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Makowsky, Alexander. Der Loss von Brunn und seine Einschlusse an dilu- 
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Uber die Gleichzeitigkeit des Menschen mit den grossen dilu- 



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7:183-186(1897) 126 

[Malakhor, M. V.j Majfaxovb, M. B. [The Fergana sands and their fixation.! 

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53952°— Bull. 68—11 15 



226 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 



Marfes, Paul. Note sur la forme des dunes et les mouvements du sable a leur 

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MarI6-Davy, H. Poussieres de l'atmosphere. Bull. mens. Obs. Montsouris. 

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MarlnelU, 0. Nebbie e pioggie rosse del 10 marz. Riv. geogr. ital. 8: 286-289 

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Marker. Anleitung zur Bindung und Urbarmachung der Sandschellen und 

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59-81 ( 1826) 75 

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(1903) 80 

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[Marshall, V.] Mapnnuub, B. [Dunes.] ,Z1>ohh. [Estestvoznanie i Geo- 

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Ru8sie2,III:92(1896) 54,75 

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Essai sur la nature et origine des differentes especes de Drouil- 

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207-228 (1851): Edinb. New. Phil. jour. 56: 229-248 (1854) 119 

Mascart, E. Remarques au sujet de la note de M. Chauveau [poussieres 

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Mason, William Pitt. Water-supply (considered principally from a sanitary 

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Massachusetts. Commissioners on Gape Cod and East Harbors. Report of 

the Commissioners of Cape Cod and East Harbors. Francis Brimley, Isaac L. 

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Massart, Jean. La biologie de la vegetation sur le littoral Beige. Bull. Soc. 

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Les conditions d'existence des arbres dans les dunes littorales. 

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Essai de geographie botanique des districts littoraux et alluviaux 

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Les aspects de la vegetation en Belgique. I. Les Districts litto- 



raux et alluviaux. Bruxelles, 1908. 86 pi 54, 76 

MatteucI, Raffaele Vittorio. Sul periodo di forte attivita esploeiva offerto 

nei mesi di aprile-maggio 1900 dal Vesuvio. Boll. Soc. sism. ital. 6: 207-312 

(1901) 36 

Matthew, William Diller. Is the White River Tertiary an eeolian formation? 

Amer. nat. 33: 403-408 (1899) 128, 140, 144 

Mattusch, J. Der Flugsand in der banater Militar-grenze, dessen Bindung 

und Aufforstung. Oest. Monats. Forstw. 96: 37-45 (1870) 75 

Maw, George. Notes on the geology of the plain of Morocco, and the Great 

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Maxwell, Walter. Lavas and soils or the Hawaiian Islands. Spec. Bull. A. 

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Maielle, Eduard. Staubfall. Met. Zs. 18: 137-138 (1901) 89 

Mittheilungen fiber den Staubfall vom 10.-11. Marz 1901. Met. 

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Vesuvasche in Cattaro. Met. Zs. 23: 223-224 (1906) 150 

Staubfall zu Triest und Abbazia. Met. Zs. 23: 224-225 (1906)-. . 89 



Means, Thomas Herbert. Personally quoted 167 

, and Gardner, Frank Duane. See U. S. Dept. agr. Bur. soils. 

Field operations, 1899* 
Medlleott, Henry Benedict, and Blanford, William Thomas. A manual of 

the geology of India. 2d. ed. rev. by R. D. Oldham. Calcutta, 1893 65 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 2fe7 

Page 
Meguscher, Franz, tfber die Sandkulturen in der unteren Donaugegend. 

Oest. Vierteljs. Foretw. •: 238-252 (1859) 71 

Meier. Beschreibung dee Tidswilder Flugsanddistriktes auf Seeland, seiner 

Dampfung und der darauf unternommenen Holzkulturen. In Nilmann's 

Vaterl&ndischen Waldberichten. Altona, 1820 64 

Meier, Hermann. Die Insel Borkum. Die Natur 13: 217-219, 239-240, 246-247, 

257-259, 271-272 (1864) 54 

Melnardus, Wilhelm. Der Staubfall vom 10. und 11. Marz 1901. Wetter 

18:73-78(1901) 89 

Uber einige bemerkenswerte Staubfalle der letzten Zeit. 

Wetter 20: 265-278 (1903) 89 

" ' ~efli -' ' ~ — 



See also Hellman, Johann Georg Gustav, and Meinardus, Wil- 



helm. 

Melnleke, Carl E. Der Gebirgsbau der Gruppe Hawaii. Peterm. Mitt. 20: 
208-2 19 ( 1874) 54 

Melander, Gustav. Bur la condensation de la vapeur d'eau dans l'atmosphere. 
Helsingfora, 1897. 141 p 115 

L'influence du Vesuve but Pair dee environs. Ofvers. Finska 

vet. soc. forh. 48: 148-160 (1901) Ill 

MerrUle, William H. Quoted in Clarke, Frank Wigglesworth, and Hillebrand, 
William Francis, Analyses of rocks with a chapter on analytical methods. 
Bull. U. 8. Geol. surv. 148: 197 (1897) 157 

MendenhaH, Walter Curran. Ground waters of the Indio region, California, 
with a sketch of the Colorado desert. U. S. Geol. surv. Water supp. pap. 
2*5,1909. 66p 27,56,79 

Menzel, Hans. Verwitterung und Wind in ihrer Einwirkung auf den Acker- 
boden des norddeutechen Flachlandes. Kosmos 2: 237-239 (1905) 99, 166 

Merrill, George Perkins. Volcanic dust from southwestern Nebraska. Science 
5: 335 (1885) 151 

Notes on the composition of certain "Pliocene sandstones" 

from Montana and Idaho. Amer. jour. sci. (3) 82: 199-204 (1886) 152 

On deposits of volcanic dust and sand in southwestern Ne- 
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The wind as a factor in geology. Eng. mag. 2: 596-607 (1892). 27,74,85 

A treatise on rocks, rock-weathering and soils. 2d rev. ed. 

N. Y., 1906. 387 p 13,15,22,151,155 

Mertens, Franz Carl. Zur Flora von Norderney. In F. W. von Halem, Die 
Insel Norderney. 1822. p. 75-S3 71 

Mesmer, Louis. See U. 8. Dept. of Agr. Bureau of Soils. Field Operations, 
1901. Soil survey of the Ventura area, California. 1902. Soil survey from 
Arecibo to Ponce, Porto Rico. 

Mesqutta, Egberto Magalhaes. See Magalh&es Mesguita, Egberto. 

Messager officiel St. Petersburg. See Astrachan drift-sands: Fixation of drift- 
sands in 1901; Gascon dunes: Investigation of drift-sands oi Kamyshinsk dis- 
trict, Saratov government; Investigation of the sandy public lands of the 
Kharkov government; The question of fixation of drift-sand; The whole 
public work of foresting sands and ravines in Spank district, Kazan govern- 
ment. 

Meunler, Etienne Stanislas. Hole geologique des poussieres atmospheriques. 
La Nature 2, 11:26-27(1874) 124,140 

Sur un alios miocene des environs de Rambouillet. Compt. 

rend. 85: 1240-1242 (1877} 142 

Sur une pluie de pierrailles calcaires recemment survenue dans 



le department de l'Aube. Compt. rend. 113: 100-101 (1891). Abst. Naturw. 
Runds. 6: 502 (1891); Met. Zs. 8: 440 (1891); Le Naturalist* 14: 45-46 (1892). . 91 
Sur la pluie de sang observee a Palerme, dans la nuit du 9 au 



10 Mara 1901. Compt rend. 182:894-896 (1901). Abst. Nature 63:604 

<1901); Met. Zs. 18: 237 (1901) 95 

Pluie de poussiere recemment observee en Island e. Compt. 



rend. 136: 1713-1714 (1903) 80 

Nouvelle pluie de poussiere recemment observee a Palerme. 



Bull. Soc. geol. Paris (4) 4: 294-295 (1904) 89 

Sur l'ongine vesuvienne du brouillard sec observee a Paris 

dans la matinee du mercredi 11 avril 1906. Compt. rend. 142: 938 (1906). 
Abst. Met. Zs. 23: 225 (1906) 119,160 



228 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 

Meunier, fitienne Stanislas, and Tissandier, Gaston. Presence des spherules 
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(1878) 110,121 

Meyen, Franz Julius Ferdinand. Reise urn die Erde ausgefuhrt auf dem 
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Meyer, and Stoop. Pluie rouge, tomb£e a Blankenberge; analyse de cette eau. 
Ann. gen. sci. phys. nat. 2: 269-271 (1819); Ann. Phys. 64: 335-337 (1820); 
Phil. mag. 65:231-232 (1820) 02 

Meyer, G. F. W. Ueber die Vegetation der ostfriesischen Inseln mit beson- 
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abgeleiteten Bemerkungen iiber den Kulturzustand des Bodens und dessen 
Belorderung. Hannoversche Magazin 1823: 785-808, 1824: 145-198, 349- 
387 71 

Meyer, Hermann von. Mittheilungen an Professor Bronn gerichtet. Neues 
Jahrb. Min. 1848: 465-473 143 

Meyn, L. [Ueber "pyramidale Geschiebe."] Zs. deut. geol. Gee. 24: 414 
(1872) 26 

Geognostische Beechreibung der Insel Sylt und ihrer Uin- 

febung. Abh. geol. Spezialkarte Preussens und der thuringischen Staaten 
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Mickwlts, A. Uber Dreikanter im Diluvium bet Reval. Neues Jahrb. Min. 
1886,11:177-179 25,26,54 

Die Dreikanter, ein Product des Flugsandschliffes, eine Ent- 

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K. Ruse. min. Gee. (2) 23: 82-98 (1886). Abst. Neues Jahrb. Min. 1888, II: 
301 26 

Mlddendorff, Alexander Theodora vich von. Reise in den aussersten Norden 
und Oeten Siberiens wahrend der Jahre 1843 und 1844. St. Petersburg, 
1858^1875. 4 v 80 

Einblicke in das Fergha-na-Tbal. Nebst. chemischer Unter- 

suchung der Bodenbestandtheile von G. Schmidt. M6m. Acad. imp. sci. 

St. Petersburg 29, no. 1, 1881 62 

Mlethe. Das Entstehung der Windhosen. Prometheus 10: 795-796 (1899) 84 

Mill, Hugh Robert. The Cornish dust-fall of 1902. Quart, jour. Roy. met. 
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, and Lempfert, R. G. K. The great duBt fall of February, 1903, 

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30: 57-91 (1904). Rev. Science 20: 153-154 (1904) 83, 90, 93, 96, 97, 98, 106, 111 

Millar, W. J. Some phenomena of snow and sand drift. Chambers's jour. (6) 
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Miller, Benjamin Leroy. See Shattuck, George Burbank, and Miller, Benjamin 
Leroy. 

Millosevfch, Elia. L'uragano della terza decade di febbraio 1879. Ann. met. 
ital. (2)1, III: [205]-[221] (1879) 89 

Mills, James Edward. Quaternary deposits and Quaternary or Recent eleva- 
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Milne, John. Earthquakes and other earth movements. London, 1886 150 

Seventh report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheridge, 

Mr. Thomas Gray, and Prof. John Milne (Secretary), appointed for the pur- 
pose of investigating the volcanic phenomena of Japan. (Drawn up by the 

Secretary, 1887.) Kept. Brit, assoe. 1887: 212-226 147 

A dust storm at sea. Nature 40: 128 (1892) 83 



Milthers, V. Sandslebne stens form og dannelse. Medd. geol. Copenhagen 

13: 33-60 (1907 ) 26 

Mlnssen, Th. Staubfall in Golf von Petschili. Annalen Hydrog. 30: 552 

(1902) 80 

Mlquel, Pierre. Etude sur les pouasieres organisers de l'atmosphere. Ann. 

Obs. Montsouris 1879: 431-512 119 

Mireher, H. Mission de Ghadames. . . . 1862. . . . Etudes sur les terrains 

par M. Vatonne. Alger 1863 69 

MoLnar, Franz. Vom Ursprunge, von der Gefahrlichkeit und Unterdruckung 

des Flugsandes. Tudomanyos Gyujtemeny [Scientific collections] 10, 1822. • 75 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 229 

Page. 
Monckton, Horace Woollaston. On aome examples of the different types of 

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Montgomery, Henry. Volcanic dust in Utah and Colorado. Science n. s. 

1:656-657(1895) 151 

Monthly microscopical journal. See The shower of sand at Rome. 
Monthly weather review. See Dust storms in the United States; Dust whirls 

and fairy dances; Pollen falls in the United States; A rain of small fish. 
Month*, Lars. Anmarkningar vid fiygsandens kultiverande. Handl. Kongl. 

vetens. akad. Stockholm Z9: 265-272 (1768) 75 

Moore, H. 0. Rainfall in Hertfordshire in 1903. Temperature and dust fall. 

Trans. Nat. field club Woolhope 1902-04: 212-220 (1905) 89 

Moore, J. W. A mud shower. Science n. s. 15: 714 (1902) 79 

Moore, Willis Luther. The autumn haze. Mon. weath. rev. 29:374(1901). 117 
Mo riot, Charles Adolphe. Lea dunes de sable mouvant de Saxon en Valais. 

Bull. Soc. vaud. sci. nat. 5: 306-307 (1857) 54 

[Morozevlch, Joseph .] Mopo3eB hto, I. [£, tude d ' une pluie de poussiere tom- 

be*e au mois de f£ vrier 1903 dans le district de Souchoum, gouv. de Koutai's, au 

bord de la mer Noire.] MnKpocxonmecKoe racjrfviOBaHie oca^Ka rpjranaro 

flpTRflfi, BHuaBm. 12 $eBp. 1903 r. wb noCepeacwk Cvxvmck. okd. KyraHccK. 

ryo\ [Bull. Comm. g&>i. St. Petersburg] M3b^ctlh Ieojior. KoMOTera 22: 

Protok 48-49 (1903) 80 

[Morosev, N.] MopoaoBi*, H. [More on the cause of the "mgla."] Em,e no 

noBo;ry miulh. [Volzhska Vfe^tnik] Bojukck. BfecTHijKb 1890, no. 149 118 

Morris, David B. [Volcanic ash from Barbados.] Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 58, 

Proc . : lxxxiv (1902) 150 

Mortensen, M. L. Meddelelse om klitterne i det nordlige Vendsyssel. Bot 

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Moureaux, Th . Sur la pluie d ' encre du 7 mai 1902 [au Pare S t . -Maur] . Compt. 

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Mousson, Alb. Ober den Loss des St. Galler-Rheinthales. Yierteljs. naturf. 

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Mtigge, Otto. Ueber Facettengerolle von Hiltrup bei Mtinster in Westfalen. 

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Mtthlberg. Die heutigen und friiheren Verhaltnisse der Aare bei Aarau. 

Programm Aargauischen Kantonschule. Aarau, 1885 131 

Mullen, A. W. Report [on sand drift in New South Wales]. Jour. Proc. Roy. 

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MtlUer. Beschreibung der kurischen Nehrung powie der auf derselben ausge- 

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Beschreibung der kurischen Nehrung, eowie der auf derselben ausge- 

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MUHer, Johann Karl August. Flora der Insel Wangerooge. Flora 22: 609-620 

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Das Buch der Pflanzenwelt. Botanische Reise una die Welt. 

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Mtlnts, Achille. Sur la repartition du sel marin suivant lee altitudes. Compt. 

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Murchison, Roderick Impey. Geology of Russia and the Ural Mountains. 

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[On the origin and character of the Sahara. Abst. of lecture 

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■' and Renard, Alphonse Francois. On the microscopic charac- 

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44, 104, 111, 121, 148, 149, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 161 



230 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL, BY THE WIND. 



[Mushketor, I. V.] MymKeroKb, H. B. [Turkestan, a geological and oro- 
graphical description based upon data obtained during the journeys of 1874 
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(1886) 44,60,62 

[Uber die geologiachen Verhaltniase des turaner oder aralo- 

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viszonyairol. Foldtani Kdzlony 17: 166-183, 257-275 (1887) 62 

[Physical Geology.] $H3iraecKaH reojioria. St. Petersburg, 

1888. 2v 131 

Die Continental-Sandd linen oder Barchane. Deut. Runds. 

Geog. Stat. 12: 147-151 (1890). Tr. from his Physical geology, v. 2, 1888. . 62, 63, 66 

MUttrich. Der Staubfall von 21-23 Feb. 1903. Zs. ForetJagdw. 35: 765-766 
(1903) 89 

[N-?.] H-b*. [On the need for the study of "mgla" or "pomocha."] O 
Heo^xoAHMocTH nayienin miuqj hjux noifoxn. [Revue sci. et geog.] 
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Nachtlgal, Gustav. Sahara und Sudan: Ergebnisse sechsjahriger Reisen in 
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Nares, Sir George Strong. Narrative of a voyage to the Polar Sea during 
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Narrative of the Challenger expedition. See Great Britain. Challenger expe- 
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Nathorst, Alfred Gabriel. Om kambriska pyramidalstenar. Ofvero. K. 
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Ueber Pyramidal-Gesteine. Neues Jahrb. Min. 1886, 1 : 179-180 26 

Nature. See: Fall of dust with snow; Red rain; The remarkable sunsets; 
Shower of hay 1875 at Wrexham, Denbighshire; Sunset effects in 1902; 
Tornados, whirlwinds, waterspouts and hailstorms; Urquhart, A. T.; Vol- 
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Naumann, Carl Friedrich. tiber die Hohburger Porphyrberge in Sachsen. 
N eues Jahrb . Min . 1874: 337-36 1 25 

Naumann, Edmund. Uber die Ebene von Yedo. Eine geographisch-geolo- 
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Neai, James C. A silent electrical and dust storm in Oklahoma. Mon. weath. 
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Nees ?on Esenbeck, Friedrich. See Senden, Bley, and Nees von Esenbeck, 
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Nehring, Karl Wilhelm Alfred. Die quaternaren Ablagerungen der Gyps- 
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Uber den Loss, seine Fauna und das Problem seiner Ent- 

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Lossablagerungen in Norddeutechland. Globus 87: 10-11 (1880) 131 

Ubereicht uber vierundzwanziger mitteleuropaische Quartar- 



Faunen. Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 32: 468-509 (1880) 125 

The fauna of central Europe during the period of the loess. 

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Ueber einige den Loss und die Ldsszeit betreffende neuere 



Publicationen, sowie uber Alactagajaculus. Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturfr. Berlin 

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Uber Tundren und Steppen der Jetzt- und Vorzeit, mit beaon- 



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Ueber die Molluskenfauna aus dem Loss des Gypebruches von 



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Zur Steppenfrage. Globus 65: 365-570 (1894) 137 



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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 231 

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232 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 

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Geology of Bremer county [Iowa] Iowa Geol. surv. 16: 319- 



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Noetllng, Fritz. See Koken, Ernst Friedrich Rudolph Karl, and Noetling, 

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Ohnesorge, Theodor. Vesuvaschenfalle im nordfetlichen Adriagebiete im 
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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 233 

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234 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL, BY THE WIND. 



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Die klimatischen Vernal tnisse Sud-Afrikas seit dem mittleren 

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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 235 

Page. 

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Petermann's Mittneilungen. See Gerhard Rohlfs' Expedition in die libysche 
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Peters, Wilhelm. Die Heidflachen Norddeutschlands. Hannover, 1862 54 

Petrte, William Matthew Flinders. Wind-action in Egypt. Proc. Roy. geog. 
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Petrino, Otto, frexkerr yon. t)ber die nachpliocanen Ablagerungen; insbe- 
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Pettit, James Harvey. See Hopkins, Cyril George, and Pettit, James Harvey. 

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Vorlaufige Mittheilung Uber den Fund von Facettengeschieben 

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Geologische Beobachtungen auf Kergueten. Ber. uber die 

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Phlpson, Thomas Lamb. Sur une pluie de foin, observee dans lee environs 

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 On the black stones which fell from the atmosphere at Bir- 
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Meteors, aerolites and falling stars. London , 1867 120 

Sur les poussieres m6talliques de ratmosphere. Compt. rend. 

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Researches on the past and present history of the Earth's atmos- 
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— — Composition and nature of the red rain. Chem . news 83: 159-160 

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Analysis of the red rain deposit which fell in Victoria, Aus- 
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Plchler, Anton. Der Schlammregen am 10 und 11 Marz 1901 in Mostar. Wiss. 
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Pletet, R. Quoted by Colladon, Daniel, Contributions a l'6tude de la grele 
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84,86 

 Sandtromben der afrikanischen Wuste. Abst. Prometheus 8: 

347-348(1896) 84 



236 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 

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Pfperoff, Chr. Geologie dee Calanda. Beitr. Geol. Karte Schweiz n. b. 32, 
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Flrsson, Louis Valentine. See Sperry, F. L. 

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[Plvovarov, la.] IIiiBOBapoB'b, fl. [Sur la question de l'origine aerienne des 
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Ploetz, Adolf. [Sand-bau, infolge Beurtheilung und Empfehlung von Fach- 
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Plufe de poussieres en 1902. Ann. Soc. meteor. Paris 93: 25-26 (1905) 118 

Plumanaon, J. R. Les poussieres atmosphenques, leur circulation dans 
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PoSta, Ph. Uber einige Versuche zur Entstehungstheorie der Ldaspuppen. 
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See also Bureau, Louis, and Poisson, Jules. 



[Polfcrov, la.] IIoji$epoBT>, fl. [Observations on the "pomocha."] 
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Polls, Peter. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Wolkengeschwindigkeit. Met. Ze. 
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Pollard, William. See Flett, John Smith. 

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PompeckJ, Josef Felix. Barchane in Sad-Peru. Centbl. Min. 1996: 373-378.. 62 

Poore, George Vivian. The story of Bremontier and the reclamation of the 
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Ptfpplg, Eduard. Reise in Chile, Peru, und auf dem Amazonenstrome wah- 
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PoSepn?, F. Zur Genesis der Salzablagerungen, besonders iener im nord- 
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Pound, Roscoe, and Clements, Frederick Edward. The phytogeography of 
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Powell, John Wesley. Report on the geology of the eastern portion of the 
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Prager, M. Sand-Sturm in Golf von Suez. Annalen Hydrog. 31: 22-23 (1903). 80 

Praeger, R. Lloyd. See Coffey, George, and Praeger, H. Lloyd. 

Pratt, Joseph Hyde. Investigations of the North Carolina Geological and 
Economic Survey relating to Forestry Problems along the North Carolina 
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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 237 

Page, 

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On the evidences of a submergence of western Europe, and of 

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238 MOVEMENT OF SOIL, MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 

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Quelques nouveaux details but le passage de la comete decouverte dans le 
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[The question of fixation of drift-sand (Narym forest, Astrachan government)]. 
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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL, INDEX. 239 

Page. 
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Razeburg. Die Sandgewachse der pommerischen Kuste. Pfeil's Krit. Bl. 

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[Raznochlntse?, I.] PaaHo^oon^eFb, H. [Drift-sands near Anashensk, Minus- 

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240 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATEBIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 

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 Letter ... on the provinces of Chili, Shansi, Shense, Sz'Chwan, 

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Page. 
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Rlnguet, F. Leprince. See Leprince-Ringuet, F. 

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Roberts, Herbert Fuller. Sand-binding grasses. Bull. Kansas agr. expt. 

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Robinson, W. 0. Personal information quoted 105,162 

Roch, F. Dust fall in Idaho. Mon. weath. rev. 36: 103 (1908) 79 

Rogers, A. W., and Schwarz, E. H. L. Notes on the recent limestones on 

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Die Sahara die Grossen Wuste. Ausland 45: 1057-1060, 1085- 

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Quer durch Afrika. Reise vom Mittelmeer nach dem Tschad-See 

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Drei Monate in der libvschen Wuste. Cassel, 1875 25 

Kufra, Reise von Tripofis nach der Oase Kufra. Leipzig, 1881. 118 

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Geologic du Sahara algenen et Apercu g^ologique sur le Sahara 

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Contribution a la connaissance du climat saharien. Compt. 

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R6na, S. Sandregen in Ungarn. Met. Zs. 13: 138-140 (1896) 89 

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53952°— Bull. 68—11 16 



242 MOVEMENT OP SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 
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Russell, Francis Albert Rollo. See Royal society of London. Krakatoa 

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Geological history of Lake Lahontan, a Quaternary lake of 



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55, 85, 151, 155 
Subaerial deposits of the arid regions of North America. Geol. 



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Subaerial decay of rocks and origin of the red color of certain 



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(1889); Pop. sci. mon. 36: 565(1889) 145 

Notes on the surface geology of Alaska. Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 



1: 99-162 (1890). Abst. Amer. geol. 5: 118-119 (1890); Amer. nat. 24: 208 
(1890) 26,151 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 243 

Page. 
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Amer. geol. 28: 319-321 (1901) 151,160 

Volcanic eruptions on Martinique and St Vincent. Nat. geog. 

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Geology and water resources of the Snake River Plains of Idaho. 



Bull. U. S. Geol. surv. 199, 1902. 192 p 25, 33, 51, 55, 79, 84, 118, 122, 151 

Notes on the geology of Southwestern Idaho and Southeastern 



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Russia. Forestry department. See Fixation and forestation of drift-sands; 

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Rydberg, Per Axel. Flora of the sand hills of Nebraska. Contr. U. S. nat. 

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Rcehak, A. [Uber die Entstehung des Lees.] Sitzungsb. naturf. Ver. Brunn 

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Die pleistocane Conchylienfauna Mahrens. Verh. naturf. Ver. 

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[S. S.] G. C. [On drift-sands in the Novo-Uzensk district of the Samara 
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[S-n, N. A.] Oh*, H. A. [On the question of the "mgla."] Kt> Bonpocy o 
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Sabban, P. Die Dunen der sudwestlichen Heide Mecklenburg und fiber 
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Sacchetl, John Mendes. A copy of part of two letters ... to Dr. De Castro, 
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Sacco, Fre'de'ric. Sur l'origine du loesB en Pigmont. Bull. Soc. g£ol. France 
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Sacnsse, Robert, and Becker, Arthur. tJber einige Lease des KGnigreichs 
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[Safonov, P. A.] C&$ohobt>, fi. A. [On the question of the study of mgla 
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Salisbury, Rollin D. Volcanic ash in south western Nebraska. Science n. s. 
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The physical geography of New Jersey. N. J. Geol. surv. 

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See also Chamberlin, Thomas Chrowder, and Salisbury, Rollin D. 



[Salomon, A. E.] Csjiomoht>, A. E. [On sandy soils in the Caucasus.] 
Kb Bonpocy o nec^aHtix'b no?Bax% Ha KaBKaafB. [Moniteur de la Oeno- 
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Samanos, Eloi. Traits de la cultur du pin maritime dans les Landes. Paris, 
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Sandberger, Carl Ludwig Fridolin von. Einiges fiber den Loss. Jour. 
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Der Land- und S usswasserconchylien der Vorwel t . Wiesbaden , 

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burg. Verh. med.-nhys. Ges. Wttrzburg 14: 12^-140 (1880) 125, 127, 130, 134 

Uber ein Lossfauna von ZollhauB bei Hahnstatten unweit Diez 



in Nassau. Neues Jahrb. Min. 1883, II: 182-183 125 



244 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 



Sandberger, Carl Ludwig Fridolin von. Die Conchylien dee Losses am 

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Sands, W. N. The influence of volcanic ash on crops in St. Vincent. Agile. 

news 0: 381 (1906); U. S. Mon. consular repts. 318x41 (1907) 167 

A sandy simoon in the northwest. Amer. geol. 3: 397-399 (1889) 70, 140, 165 

[Sanln, N.] CaHHirc>, H. [On the mgla and its importance in rural econ- 
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1898: 1025-1028 118 

Sapper, Karl. Der Ausbruch des Vulkans Santa Maria in Guatemala (Oktober 

1902) Centbl. Min. IMS: 33-44, 65-72 149, 159 

Sarasln, Paul and Fritz. Uber die mutmassliche Ursache der Eiszeit. Verh. 

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Sardeson, Frederic William. On glacial deposits in the driftless area. Amer. 

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What is the loess? Amer. jour. sci. (4) 7: 58-60 (1899) 131 

Set al*o Hall, Christopher Webber, and Sardeson, Frederic 

William. 
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R. Harvey. 
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 Uber die aeolische Entstehung des Loss am Rande der nord- 

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"Zur Lossfrage." NeuesJahrb. Min. 1800, II: 92-97 26, 

125, 127, 131 
Die klimatischen Verhaltnisse wahrend der Eiazeit mit Ruck- 

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and Chelius. Carl. Die ersten Kantengeschiebe im Gebiete dar 

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« and Siegert, Th. Uber Ablagerung recenten Losses dutch den 

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Sauer, Alfred. Gegenwartiger Stand der Lossfrage in Deutechland. Globus 

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Savage, Thomas E. Geology of Henry county [Iowa] Iowa Geol. suxv. 

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 Geology of Tama county [Iowa] Iowa Geol. surv. 13: 185-253 

(1902) 131,133 

Geology of Fayette county [Iowa] Iowa Geol . surv. 13: 433-546 

(1904) 128,131,134 

Geology of Jackson county [Iowa] Iowa Geol. surv. 16: 563-648 

(1905) 128,131,133,141 

Scacchl, Eugenic Quoted by Palmeri, Paride, Sul pulviscoli tellurici e cos* 

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Schaub, Ira Obed. See Stevenson, William Henry, Schaub, Ira Obed, and 

Snyder, A. H. 
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Met. Zs. 14: 189-190 (1897) 78,80 

Schelten, and Roloff. Geschichte der Strandschutzbauten auf der Insel 

Baltrum nebst Bemerkungen tiber die Ostfriesischen Inseln und deren Be- 

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Schlbler, Wilhelm. Uber die nivale Flora der Landschaft Davos. Jahrb. 

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Scblefer, Eduard, edler von Wahlourg. Ueber atmospharische Staubfalta. 

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Beobachtung einer Sandhose. Wetter 21: 260-261 (1904) 85 

Schlmper, Andreas Franz Wilhelm. Plant-geography upon a physiological 

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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 245 

Page. 

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Schtt&fli, Alexander. Ueber Staubtromben und den "Samum" in Unter- 

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Schmeiolc, L. Untersuchung von vulkanischem Staub aus Martinique. 

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Schmld, Ernst Erhard. Lehrbuch der Meteorologie. Leipzig, 1860. (Allge- 

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Schmidt, G. Ueber vulkanische Asche, gefallen in San Cristobal L. G. (Sud- 

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Schneider, Fr. Ueber den vulcanischen Zustand der Sunda-Inseln und der 

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Schottler, Wilhelm. Bemerkung iiber die in San Cristobal (S. -Mexico) am 

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Schrader, Frank Charles. A reconnoiseance in Northern Alaska across the 

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Schreber, D. G. Anweisungj wie der Flugsand stehend und diirre Sandfelder 

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Schreiber, Paul. Studien iiber Luftbewegungen. Abh. K. Sachs, met. 

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Schrftter, Zoltan-tol. A Gelle>thegy delkeleti lejt6ien foltart 15szr61 es duna- 

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Fdldtani Kdzlony 37: 252-254 [314-3161 (1907) 127 

Schroeder, M. Stahl-. See Stahl-Schroeder, M. 

Schtibler, Gustav. Grundsatze der Meteorologie in naherer Beziehung auf 

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Schultz, Adolf. Die Loselandschaft. Himmel und Erde 8: 379-384, 41&-428 

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[Schultz, A. A.] THyja>np>, A. A. [On the need for study of the mgla or 

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Schumacher, E. Erlauterungen zur geologischen Karte der Umgcgend von 

Strassburg. Strassburg, 1883 125, 129, 135 

Zur Verbreitung des Sandloss in Elsass. Mitt. geol. Landes- 

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Die Bildung und der Aufbau des oberrheinischen Tieflandee. 

Mitt. geol. Landesanst. Elsass-Lothr. 2: 184-401 (1888-90) 127, 136 

Schumacher, Robert H. Urbarmachung von Flugsandflachen. Oest. Forst.- 

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Schumann, J. Ein Wald unter dem Walde. Neuen preuss. Provinzialbl. 

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Der Strand zwischen Rossitten und Sarkau. Neuen preuss. 

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Schuster, Arthur. Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Schuster 

(Secretary), Sir William Thomson, Professor H. E. Roscoe, Professor A. S. 

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[and in 1883, Mr. J. B. N. Hennessey] appointed for the purpose of investigat- 
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Rept. Brit, assoc. 1881: 88-89, 1882: 90-94, 1883: 126-127, 1884: 38 103, 

114, 116, 120, 121 
Schuster, Max. Resultate der Untersuchungen des nach dem Schlammregen 

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Meteorstaub, gefallen in Sudtirol am 3. Mai. Met. Zs. 4: 336 

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Schwara, E. H. L. See Rogers, A. W., and Schwarz, E. H. L. 

Schwara, L. Staubfall. Wetter 20: 283-284 (1903) 89 

. Staubfall, [Schneekoppe, 5 Juni 1904] Wetter 21: 214-215 (1904); 

Met. Za. 21: 340-341 (1904) 89 

Schwatka, Frederick. Along Alaska's great river. N . Y., 1885 151 

Schwedoff, Theodore. Red hail. Nature 32: 437 (1885) 89 



246 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

P&gS. 

Scientific American. See Volcanic dust falls in Georgia. 

Scofield, Carl Schurz, and Rogers, Shober J. The Truckee-Carson experiment 

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Scott, H. H. [Sinking of rock fragments through soilj Nature 78: 376 (1908). 107 
Scribner, Frank Lamson-. Economic grasses. U. S. Dept. agr. Div. agrost. 

Bull. 14, 1898. 85 p 75 

Grasses as sand and soil binders. Yearbook U. S. Dept. agr. 

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Sand-binding grasses. Yearbook U.S. Dept. agr. 1898: 405-420. 74,75 

Sears, Alfred F. The coast desert of Peru. Bull. Amer. geog. soc. 27: 256-271 

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Sftblllant* Sur une chute de pluie observee a Peners (Manche). Oompt. rend. 

134:324-325(1902) 89 

Seechi, Angelo. La caligine atmosferica e la sua origine. Boll, meteor. Oss. 

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Seebach, Karl von. Ueber den Vulcan yon Santorin und die Eruption von 

1866. Abh. K. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen 13: 1-81 (1868) 87 

Seeland, F. Schlammregen in Klagenfurt. Zs. Met. 20: 419 (1885) 89 

Seffer, Pehr Hjalmar Olsson-. See Olsson-Seffer, Pehr Hjalmar. 

Seldl, F. Staubfall in Gorz am 10/11 M&rz. Met. Zs. 18: 313 (1901) 89 

Seklya, Seikei. and Kikuchi, Yasushi. The eruption of Bandaisan. Jour. Coll. 

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Sementlnl, Luigi. Relation du pnenomene d'une pluie chargee d'une poudre 

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« Analisi di una terra rossa caduta insieme alia pioggia nel regno 

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Chauveau Ann. Soc. m6t. France 51: 73 (1903) 95, 160 

Semmola, Vincenzo. Delle varieta dei vitigni del Vesuvio e del Somma. 

Atti let. incorr. Naples 8: 1-134 (1848) 158 

Senden, Bley, and Nees von Escnbeck, Friedrich. Catalogus plantarum 

phanerogamicarum in Norderney insula sponte nascentium. Flora 15, I: 

74-75, 136-140 (1832) 71 

Senft, Ferdinand. Im Reiche des Sandes. Gaea 15: 83-92 (1879) 50 

Serrell, Edward W., jr. Dust-free spaces. Nature 30: 53-54 (1884) Ill 

Shftler, Nathaniel Southgate. The origin and nature of soils. Ann. rept. 

U. S. Geol. surv. lfc, 1: 213-345 (1891). Abst. Amer. jour. sci. (3) 45: 163-164 

(1893); Amer. eeol. 14: 114-115 (1894) 15,16,29,147,158 

Phenomena of beach and dune sands. Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 

5: 207-212 (1894). Abst. Amer. jour. sci. (3) 47: 129 (1894); Amer. geol. 13: 

144-145(1894) 70,76 

 The share of volcanic dust and pumice in marine deposits. 

Abst Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 7: 490-492 (1896) 151 

Loess deposits of Montana. Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 10: 245-252 

(1899) 52,139,163,164 

[Sharln, E.] IHapHH?> 1 E. [Drift-sands and their fixation.] JleTjnie necKH 

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Shattuck, George Burbank, and Miller, Benjamin Leroy. Physiography and 

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Shaw, Charles F. Experiments by, quoted 17 

Shaw, William Napier. The treatment of smoke: a sanitary parallel. Jour. 
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Shephard, J. See Brittlebank, C. C, Stickland, and Shephard, J. 

Sherzer, William Hittell. See Grabau, Amadeus William, and Sherzer, Wil- 
liam Hit tell. 

Shifting soils. Pacific rural press 19: 200(1880) 164 

Shlmek, Bohumil. Notes on the fossils of the loess at Iowa City, Iowa. Amer. 
geol. 1: 149-152 (1888) 126,128,131 

The loess and its fossils. Bull. Lab. nat. hist. Univ. Iowa 1: 

200-214, *: 89-98 (1890) 126,128,131 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 247 

Page. 
Shlmek, Bohumil. A theory of the loess. Proc. Iowa acad. eci. 3: 82-89 

(1895) '. 126,128,131,135 

Additional observations on surface deposits in Iowa. Proc. 

Iowa acad. sci. 4: 68-72 (1897) 52, 126, 128, 131 

Is the loess of aqueous origin? Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 5: 32-45 



(1896) 126,128,131 

The distribution of loess fossils. Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 6: 98-113 



(1898) 126,128,131 

The distribution of forest trees in Iowa. Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 



7:47-59(1899). 126,128,131 

The distribution of loess fossils. Jour. geol. 7: 122-140 (1899) . . 126, 

128, 131 
The loess of Iowa City and vicinity. Bull. Lab. nat. hist. 



Univ. Iowa 6: 195-212 (1901); Amer. geol. 28: 344-358 (1901) 126, 128, 131 

The loess of Natchez, Mississippi. Amer. geol. 30: 279-299 



(1902); Bull. Lab. nat. hist. Univ. Iowa 5: 299-326 (1904) 81, 126, 128, 131 

Living plants as geological factors. Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 10: 



41-48(1902) 52,126,128,131 

Papers on the loess. [The loess of Natchez, Miss. The loess 



and the Lansing man. The Lansing deposit not loess. Loess and the Iowan 
drift. Evidences (?) of water-deposition of loess.] Bull. Lab. nat. hist. 

Univ. Iowa. «: 298-381 (1904) 55,128,131,134,142,143 

The loess and associated interglacial deposits. Abst. Bull 



Geol. soc. Amer. 16: 589 (1906) 128,132 

The loess of the Missouri River. Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 14: 

237-256(1907) 126,128,131,133 

The genesis of loess a problem in plant ecology. Proc. Iowa 



acad. sci. 15: 57-75 (1908) 52,128 

The loess of the paha and river-ridge. Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 



16:117-135(1908) 126,128 

Quoted in Udden, Johan August, Geology of Mills and Fremont 



counties (Iowa] 126, 128, 131, 140 

Shone, William. The cause of crateriform sand dunes and cwms. Geol. mag. 
(3)10:323(1893) 66,67 

[Shower of hay 1875 at Wrexham, Denbighshire]. Illust. London news Aug. 
1, 1875. Abst. Nature 12: 298 (1875) 162 

The shower of sand at Rome. Mon. microsc. jour. 18: 159 (1877) 92 

SIbirzev, N. M. fitude des sols de la Russe. Compt. rend. Cong. geol. intern. 
7: 73-125 (1897). Abst. Neues Jahrb. Min. 1899, II : Lit. 72-81 124 

Sickenberger. Quoted by Walther, Johannes. Wustenbildung, p. 118 164 

Slegert, Th. See Sauer, Adolf, and Siegert, Th. 

Slemssen, Adolph Christian. Ueber die sicherete Befestigung und nutzbarste 
Bepflanzung aer D linen zu Warnemunde, ein physicalisch-okonomischer 
Versuch, bey der allgemeinen Versammlung der Naturforschenden Gesell- 
schaf t zu Rostock am 5. Januar 1803 vorgelesen. Rostock, 1803 75 

Silvestrl, Orazio. Quoted in Denza, Francesco, Pioggia di sabbia. Ann. sci. 
ind. Milan 6, 1: 107-108 (1869) 95 

 Studio chimico microscopico di una particolare pioggia accom- 

pagnata da polvere meteorica, caduta in Sicilia nei giorni 9, 10, c 11 marzo, 
1872. Gazz. chim. ital. 2: 83-88 (1872). Abst. Jour. Chem. soc. 10: 1082- 

1083(1872); Compt. rend. 74: 911-913 (1872) 89 

Ricerche chimico-micrografiche sopra le piogge rosse e le pol veri 



meteoriche della Sicilia in occasione di grandi burrascne atmosferiche. Atti 

Accad.Gioenia Catania (3) 12: 123-151 (1878) 89,92,98,160 

Sopra un pulviscolo meteorico, contenente abbondante quantita 



di ferro metallico. piovuto a Catania la notte dal 29 al 30 marzo 1880. Trans. 

R. Accad. Lincei (3) 4:163-166(1880) 121 

Pioggia di polvere meteorica osservata il 26-27 marzo 1881 a 



Catania. Boll. mens. Osserv. centr. Moncalieri (2) 1: 71-72 (1881) 89 

Simmonds, C. Quoted by Thorpe, T. E. "Red rain" and the dust storm of 

February 22. Nature 68: 222-223 (1903) 93 

Simmons, E. F. Drifting soil [with editorial comment]. Nebraska fanner 

40:431(1910) 165 

Sinclair, W. J. Volcanic ash in the Bridger Beds of Wyoming. Bull. Amer. 

mus. nat. hist, tti 273-280 (1906) 152 



248 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 



Sinclair, W. J. The Washakie, a volcanic ash formation. Bull. Amer. rnun. 
nat. hist. 98: 25-27 (1909) 152 

Skertchly, S. B. J., and lungsmill, Thomas W. On the loess and other super- 
ficial deposits of Shantung (North China). Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 51: 238-254 
(1895) 127,141 

Slichter, Charles Sumner. Theoretical investigation of the motion of ground 
waters. Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 19, II : 295-384 (1899) 70 

The underflow in Arkansas Valley in Western Kansas. U. 8. 

Geol. surv. Water supp. pap. 158, 1906. 90 p 72 

Slosson, Edwin E. See Knight, Wilbur Clinton, and Slosson, Edwin E. 

Smith, Clarence Beaman. Clover farming on the sandy jack-pine plains of 
the North. U. S. Dept. agr. Farmer's bull. 323, 1908. 24 p 165, 171 

Smith, Joseph G. See v. S. Dept. of Agr. Bureau of Soils. Bull. 54. 

Smith, Longfield. See Notes on fall of volcanic dust at Barbados, March 22, 
1903. 

Smith, Robert Angus. Air and rain, the beginnings of a chemical climatol- 
ogy. London, 1872. 593 p. Rev. Nature 6: 325-326 (1872) 113, 114 

Smole Askl, Georgvon. Ungleichseitigkeit der meriaionaler Flusstaler in 
Galizien. Ein Beitrag zur Theorie der Asymmetrisationstatigkeit des 
Windes. Peterm. Mitth. 55: 101-107 (1909). Abst. Nature 81: 374 (1909)... 40 

Smyth, Charles Piazzi. Quoted in correspondence, The Remarkable sunsets. 
Nature 99: 149-150 (1883) 120 

Smyth, R. Brough. Atmospheric dust. Nature 90:170 (1884) 79 

Snyder, A. H. See Stevenson, William Henry, Schaub, Ira Obed, and Snyder, 
A. H. 

[Sobolev, A. N.] CoooAeKb, A. H. [Provincial forest economy on the drift- 
sands of Chernigov government.] 3eMcicoe jrfccHoe xoanttcTBo Ha necxaxra 
^epHHroBCKoft ryti. [Magasin provincial du Tschernigow] 3eMCK. CttopHiacfe 
^epHnroBCK. ry(5. 1899: 47-58, 122, 124-125 75 

[Sokolov, Nikolai Aleksfeevich.J Cokojiobi>, HwkojirA AjieKcfceBinn* [Dunes 
on the shore of the Gulf of Finland]. /Jiohu nooepeacbH $HHcicaro aajrasa. 
[Trav. Soc. imp. des. nat., St. Petersburg] TpyflH Hstn. C.-II. CX5m> 
EcTecTB. 1882 54 

[Dunes, their formation, development, and internal structure.] 

^iohh, hxt> o6pa30BaHie, paaBirrie h BHVTpeHHee cTpoenie. St. Petersburg, 
1894. 286 p. German trans, by Arzruni under title: Die Dunen, Bildung, 
Entwicklung, und innerer Bau. Berlin, 1894. Rev. Neues Jahrb. Min. 1895, 

II: 60-63; Naturw. Rundschau 1895: 257; Geog. Zs. 2: 164-166 (1896) 27, 

31, 44, 53, 57, 64, 76 

Solger, Friedrich. Ueber fossile Diinenformen im norddeutschen Flach- 
lande. Verh. deut. Gcographentages 15: 159-172 (1905) 64, 143 

Ueber interc9sante Diinenformen in der Mark Brandenburg. 

Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 57, Monatab.: 179-190 (1905) 63,64,143 

Parabeld iinen. Monatsb. Deut. geol. Ges. 1998: 54-59. Abst. 

Peterm. Mitt. 55, Littber. no. 447 (1909) 64, 143 

[Solon.] Coaoh-t* [Drift-sands of Novo-Dvor, Prushany district, Grodno 
government.] HoBO£Bopn;oBCKie necRH, DpvacaHcK. v., rpo^HcHcKoft 176. 
[Gazette du gouvernement de Grodno] rpo^neHCK. ryo\ Bb^. 1899, no. 25. 54 

Somers, A.N. A fall of colored snow. Science 31: 303-304 (1893) 79, 161 

Sorby, Henry Clifton. Presidential address before the Geological society, 
February 20th. On the structure and origin of non-calcareous stratified 
rocks. Quart, jour. Geol. soc. Proc. 96: 33-92 (1880); Nature 91: 431-432 
(1880) ., 70 

Souza-Brandfto, V. de. Uber den Staubfall in Portugal vom Januar 1902. 
Centbl. Min. 1909: 257-261 89 

Spalding, Volney Morgan. Distribution and movements of desert plants. 
Carnegie inst. Washington Pub. 113, 1909 50 

[Spasskll, V.] Cnaccicift, B. [Drift-sands and their fixation by forestation.] 
JTeTyiie necRH h hxt» jKjrkivieme oojrBcenieM'b. MocKBa, 1904. 22 p 75 

Spencer, Joseph William Winthrop. On the geological and physical devel- 
opment of Dominica; with notes on Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and 
the Grenadines. Quart, jour. Geol. soc. 58: 341-353 (1902) 152 

Sperry, F. L. The eruption of Colima. [With note on the volcanic ash by 
L. V. Pirsson] Amer. jour. Bci. (4) 15: 487-488 (1903) 149 

Sprenger, C. Die Diinen in Italien. Gartenflora 50: 275 (1901) 75 

Ein Blutregen in Italian. Gartenflora 50: 307-308 (1901) 89 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX, 249 



Sprenger, C. Die Dunen-Flora Calabriens. Wiener illust. Gartenztg. «#• 

246-250(1902} 64,71 

Spring, W. Ueber die eisenhaltigen Farbstoflfe sediment&rer Erdboden und 

uber den wahrscheinlichen Urspning der rotben Felsen. Neues Jahrb. Min. 

18W, 1 : 47-62 145 

Spurr, Josiah Edward. Geology of the Yukon gold district, Alaska. Ann. 

rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 18, III: 101-392 (1898) 151 

Origin and structure of the Basin ranges. Bull. Geol. sec. 

Amer. 13: 217-270 (1901). Abst. Science n. b. 13: 98 (1901). Rev. By W. M. 

Davis, 8cience n. s. 14: 457 (1901) 38 

Descriptive Geology of Nevada south of the 40th. Parallel and 



adjacent portions of California. Bull. U. S. Geol. surv. 206, 1903. 229 p. 55, 151 
Squlnabol, Senofonte. ' Cenni di geografica fisica e di geologica per le scuola 

secondaire. Livorno, 1900. 303 p 22 

Stabler, H. See Dole, R. B., and Stabler, H. 

Stache, Guido. Die geologischen Verhaltntsse der Umgebungen von Unghvar 

in Ungarn. Jahrb. $eol. ReichsanBt. 21:379-435 (1871) 54 

Staff, Hans von. Wind und Schnee. Zs. deut. osterr. Alpenver. 37:45-56 

(1906). Abst. Zs. Gletscherk. 3, Bibliog.: 76 (1907) 63, 67 

Stahl, Ernst. Mexikanische Xerophyten. Vegetationsbilder 2, hft. 4, 1904. 69 
[Stahl-Sfthroetter, M.l HlTajn>-IIIpe£ep'b, M. [The action of the wind on 

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h jrfecou. 196: 363-378 (1900). Abst. [Zhur. opytn. agron.] HCypH. ohht. 

arpoH. 1: 279-280 (1900) 22 

 [The action of the wind on the soil] ^-feficTBie FBTpa Ha hohbv. 

[Poln. entsik. rus. selsk. khoz.] IIojih. 3hijhk. pyc. cejcbcK. xoa. 3: 163- 

175(1900) 22 

Stapff, F. M. Das unteren IRhuisebthal und sein Strandgebiet. Verh. Ver. 

Erdk. Berlin. 14: 45-66 (1887); Peterm. Mitt. 33: 202-214 (1887) 25, 54 

Staring, Winand Carel Hugo. De bodem van Nederlanden, Haarlem, 1856. . 54 
Steel, Thomas. On "red rain" dust. Rept. Austr. assoc. adv. sci. 7:334-335 

(1898). Abst. Nature 57: 494 (1898) 79, 106 

S teens t nip, K. J. V. Om Flyvesandets Indvirkning paa Rullestenernes 

Form. Geol. fdren. f6rh. 10: 485-488 (1888) 26 

Endnu et Par Ord om Flyvesandets Indvirkning paa Rulle- 

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Om klitternes vandring. Medd. Dansk. geol. fdren. 1: 1-14 



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Stat. 19:416(1897) 54 

Stefano, G. di. Nota sulla pioggia di sangue caduta in Girgenti il giorno 10 

marzo, 1901. Girgenti, 1901 89 

Stefansson, V. Underground ice in northern Alaska. Bull. Amer. geog. 

soc. 42: 337-345 (1910) 102 

Stelger, George. Quoted in Turner, Henry Ward. Further contributions to 

the geology of the Sierra Nevada. Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 17, I: 

627 (1896) 155, 157 

See also Diller, Joseph Silas, and Stejger, George. 

Stein, Max Aurel. Sand-buried ruins of Khotan. London, 1903. 502 p 25, 

27, 50, 66, 78, 118 
Ancient Khotan. Detailed report of archeological explorations 

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Explorations in Central Asia, 1906-08. Geog. jour. 34: 5-36, 



241-271 (1909); Scott, geoe. ma^. 26: 225-240 (1910) 27, 50, 51, 69, 140 

S tetania nn, Gustav. Ueber die Ergebnisse der neueren Forschungen im 

Pleistocan des.Rheinthals. Zs. deut, geol . Ges. 44: 541-546 (1892) 26 

Uber pleistocan und pliocan in der Umgegend von Freiburg i. 

Br. Mitt, bad . geol . Landesanst. 2: 65-135 (1893) 125, 128, 131 

tlber die Gliederung des Pleistocan im badischen Oberlande. 



Mitt. bad. geol. Landesanst. 2: 745-791 (1893) 127, 136 

Ueber die Entwickelung des Diluviums in Sudwest-Deutsch- 



land. Zs. deut. geol. Ges. Verh. 54: 83-106 (1898) 127, 136 

Ueber alteren Loss im Niederrheingebiet. Zs. deut. geol. Gee. 



59, Monatsb. 5-6 (1907) 127 

Stelzner, Alfred Wilhelm. Beitra<?e zur Geologie . . . der Argentinischen 
Republik. Casael & Berlin, 1876-85. 2v 57,128 



250 MOVEMENT 07 BOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 



Stentiel, Arthur. Eine neue atmospharische Stoning. Wetter 21: 121-125 
(1904) 150 

Stephenson, J. Des trombes de sable. Bibl. univ. n. b. 6: 155-156 (1836). ... 84 

Stevens, J. 0. Surface water supply of Nebraska. U. S. Geol. surv. Water 
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Stevenson, Thomas. Observations on the simultaneous force of the wind at 
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Report on simultaneous observations of the force of the wind at 

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Nature 25: 607 (1882) 76 

Observations on the increase of the velocity of the wind with the 

altitude. Nature 27: 432-433 (1883) 76 

Stevenson, William Henry, Schaub, Ira Obed, and Snyder, A. H. The main- 
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Stewart, James. On the reclamation ci sand wastes on the coast, and the pre- 
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Stlckland. See BritUebank, 0. 0., Stickland, and Shephard, J. 

Stlgilelthner. Staubfall. Gelber Schnee. Met. Zs. 23: 170 (1906) 89 

Stlzenberger, Ernst. Obersicht der Versteinerungen des Grossherzogthums 
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Stokes, George Gabriel. On the effect of the internal friction of fluids on the 
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Stokes, Henry Newlin. Quoted in Clarke, Frank Wigglesworth, and Hille- 
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Stollczka, F. Reise nach Yarkand. Verh. geol. Reichsanst. 1874: 119-120.. 118 

Stone, George Hapgood. Wind action in Maine. Amer. jour. sci. (3) 31: 
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Stoop. See Meyer, and Stoop. 

Stowe, Edwin. The effect of wind-driven sand as a cutting agent. Trans. 
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Strahan, C. Extract from the narrative report of Major C. S. Strahan . . • 
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[Sunset effects in 1902] Nature 66: 79, 199, 222-223, 370, 390 (1902) 117, 119 

Suomalalnen, E. W. Dunenbildungen bei Twarminne, unweit Hangft im 
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Suess, Franz Eduard. Ueber den Loss. Schriften Ver. Verbr. naturw. Kennt. 
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Die Herkunft der Moldavite und verwandter Glaser. Jahrb. 

geol. Reichsanst. 50: 193-382 (1900) 26 

- Die Tektonik des Steinkohlengebietes von Rossitz und der 

Ostrand dee bdhmischen Grundgebirgee. Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 57: 793-834 
(1907) 144 

Svenonlus, Fredr. Ofversikt af Stora Sjdfallets och angransande fjalltrakters 
geologi, I. Geol. foren. f6rh. 21: 541-570(1899) 27 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 251 

Page. 
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Oest. 4: 630-631 (1901) 89, 95 

Der Staubfall in der Nacht vom 10-11 Marz, 1901. Carinthia 

•1:73-77,115-118(1901) 89 

Staubfall am Moigen dee 23 Marz 1906. Carinthia 96: 163-165 

(1906) 89 

Swallow, George Clinton. Second report, geology of Missouri. Ann. rept. 

Geol. surv. Missouri 1-2,1: 59-170, II: 215 (1855) 126 

Swellengrabel, N. tJber niederlandischen Dunenpflanzen. Bot. Centbl. 

Beiheft 18: 181-198 (1905) 71 

Sykes, Godfrey. Quoted in Hornaday, William Temple, Camp fires on desert 

andlava. N. Y., 1908. p. 231 55 

Sykes, P. Molesworth. A fourth journey in Persia, 1897-1901. Geog. jour. 

19:121-173(1902) 65 

Symons, George James. See Royal society of London. Krakatoa committee. 
Symons's meteorological magazine. See The blood-rain plant at Camden 

Square: Dust showers in the southwest of England; Falls of hay; The great 

dust fall of February, 1903. 

T., O. SeeO. T. 

Tacchlnl, Pietro. In discussion of Durand, Edouard Joseph, Les pluies de 

poussiere des deserts de l'Asie centrale. Compt. rend. Assoc, franc, a van. 

sci. 7: 474-479 (1878) 167 

[Sulle pioggie di sabbia verificatesi nelP ultimo scirocco del feb- 

braio 1879.] Mem. Soc. spettrosc. ital. 8 Append.: 19-20 (1879); Compt. 

rend. 88: 613-614 (1879) 110,121 

Sulle polveri meteoriche di scirocco raccolte in Italia e segnata- 

mente in Sicilia. Nota IV. Ann. met. ital. (2) 1: 81-94 (1879) 96 

Sur la presence du fer dans les chutes de poussieres en Sicile et 

en Italie. Compt. rend. 90: 1568-1569 (1880) 89 

Sulle polveri meteoriche e Panalisi chimica dalla sabbia del 

Sahara. Trans. R. Accad. Lincei. (3) 7: 134-136 (1883) 93, 121 

Pioggia con sabbia e semi. Rend. Accad. Lincei (5) 6: 299 

(1897). Abst. Met. Zs. 14: 374 (1897) ; Nature 56: 161 ( 1897) 89, 162 

See also Macagno, I., and Tacchini, Pietro. 

Tacquln, A. Les pluies de sable aux Canaries. Bull. Soc. beige geol. 16, 

Proc. verb.: 540-541 (1903) 89 

Takagl, Takeshi. [The dust haze in the Yangtse Valley] Yosuko Engan ni 

shuteugen suru Kosa ni tsukite. Kisho Shito, Tokyo 25: 219-232 (1906) ... 80, 118 
Tanner, H. C. B. Our present knowledge of the Himalayas. Proc. Roy. 

geog. soc. n. s. 13: 403-^23 (1891) 103 

Tansley, A. G., and Fritech, F. E. The flora of the Ceylon littoral. New 

phytologist 4: 1-17, 27-55 (1905) 71 

Tarr, Ralph Stockman. Erosive agents in the arid region. Amer. nat. 24: 

455-459(1890) 50,79 

Tarry, Harold. Sur les pluies de poussiere et les pluies de sang. Compt. 

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Fritsch, Zs. Met. 5: 643-644 (1870) 89,95,96 

Tassln. Rapport sur lee dunes du golfe de Gascogne, 1801 54 

Taylor, Hugh. A column of dust. Nature 88: 415(1888) 85 

Tcnlhatchef, Petr Aleksandrovich. The deserts of Africa and Asia. Rept. 

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4:628-640(1882) 88 

Teall, J. J. Harris. Volcanic dust from the West Indies. Nature 66: 130 

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In discussion of Flett, John Smith, Note on a preliminary exam- 
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Telsserenc de Bort, Leon Philippe. Sur une pluie terreuse tombee aux lies 

Canaries le 21 fevrier 1883. Ann. Bur. cent. met. 1882, IV: 125 89 

Tempete de sable en Islande. Ciel et terre. 3: 331(1882) 85 

Tenlson-Woods, Julian Edmund. The Hawkesbury Sandstone. Jour. Proc. 

Roy. soc. New South Wales 16: 53-116 (1882) 31, 79, 141, 142, 143 

Tenne, C. A. See Calker, Friedrich Julius Peter van, and Tenne, C. A. 



252 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 



Teach, P. Nederlandsche ldss-terreinen en hunne mogelijke wijxe van ont- 

staan. Tijd. K. Nederl. Aardr. Gen. (2) 24: 886-891 (1907) 127 

Tesstof* See Gillet-Laumont, Tessier, and Chaasiron. 

Theile, F. Die typischen Formen und die Entstehung der Dreikant&er. gifc. 

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Them&k, Ede. Die sudhungarische Sandwuste. A delmagyarorszagi homok- 

Bivataff. Foldtany Kozlony 17: 183-191, 275-277 (1887) 54 

Theobald, G. Steinwirbel. Jahrb. Schweizer Alpenklubs 4: 534-535 

(1867-68) 44 

Thesleff, Artur. Dy nbildningar i 03tra Finland . Medd . Geogr. foren . Finland 

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Thompson, G. Wyville. The Atlantic. Preliminary account of the general 

results of the exploring voyage of H. M. S. Challenger. London, 1878. 2 v. . 57, 144 
Thompson, E. C. [Volcanic ashes in Porto Rico rain probably from Martin- 
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Thomson. Peter. On the sand hills, or dunes, in the neighborhood of Dunedin. 

Trans. New Zealand inst. 3: 263-269 (1871) 26,54 

Thomson, William. See Kelvin, William Thomson, lard. 

Thoroddsen, Thorvaldr. Oversigt over de islandske Vulkanera Historic. 

Copenhagen, 1882. 170 p. Trans, of resume. Ann. rept. Smithsonian 

inst. 1886: 495-541 147 

Eine Lavawuste im innern Islands. Peterm. Mitt. 31: 285-294, 

327-339(1885) 80,140 

Thorpe, T. E. ' ' Red rain " and the dust storm of February 22, [1903]. Nature 

68:53-54,222-223(1903) 93,94 

Thoulet, J. Etude mineralogique d'un sable du Sahara. Bull. Soc. min. 

France 4: 262-268 (1881) 69,93 

Experiences relatives a la vitesse des courants d'eau ou d'air 

siLBceptibles de maintenir en suspension des grains mine>aux. Ann. mines (8) 

5:507-530(1884) 42 

Experiences synth&iques sur l'abrasion. Ann. mines (8) 11: 

199-224(1887) 27 

Experiences synthe'tiques sur l'abrasion des roches. Compt. 

rend. 104: 381-383 ( 1887) 27 

La marche des sables le long des rivages. Compt. rend. 144: 

938-940(1907) 163 

De Pinfluence du vent dans le remplissage du lit de l'ocean. 

Compt. rend. 146: 1184-1186(1908) 42,47 

Origine 6olienne des mineraux fins contenus dans les fonds 

marina. Compt. rend. 140: 1346-1348 (1908) 47, 104, 120, 161 

Dissolution des poussieres ferrugineuses d' origine cosmique dans 

lee eaux de l'Ocean. Compt. rend. 148: 445-447 (1909) 47 

Sediments marins d'origine eolienne. Compt. rend. 150: 947- 

949(1910) 47,104 

Tletze, Emil Ernst August. Ueber Lossbildung und uber die Bildung von 

Salzsteppen. Verh. geol. Reichsanst. 1877: 264-268 135, 141 

Zur Theorie der Entstehung der Salzsteppen und der angebli- 

chen Entstehung der Salzlager aus Salzsteppen. Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 27: 

341-374(1877) 80,84,113,118,130,140 

Die Funde Nehring's im Diluvium bei Wolfenbuttel und deren 

Bedeutung fur die Theorieen fiber Lossbildung. Verh. geol. Reichsanst. 

1878:113-119... 127,130 

uber die eeologische Aufnahme der Gegend von Lemberg und 

Gr6dek, insbesondere liber den Loss dieser Gegend. Verh. geol. Reichsanst. 

1881:37-40.. 40,130 

Uber einige Bildungen der iungeren Epochen in Nord-Persien. 

Jahrb. geol. Reichsanst. 31:67-130(1881) 140 

Die geognostischen Verhaltnisse der Gegend von Lemberg. 

Jahrb. geol . Reichsanst. 32: 7-152 (1882) 40, 125, 130 

Die geognostischen Verhaltnisse der Gegend von Krakau. 

Jahrb. geol . Reichsanst. 37: 423-838 (1887) 40 

Tight, William George. Bolson plains of the Southwest. Amer. geol. 30: 

271-284 (1905) 39 

[Timoshchenkov, I.] TnMom;eHKOB'i>, H. [Drift-sands of the Don region.] 

Ctmrqie necKH Bt ,7I,OHcKoft oo\ji. [PriazovskH Xra] IlpHaaoBCKiit Kpaft 

1897, nos. 334-336, 338 54 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 258 

Page. 
Tissandfer, Gaston. Lee poussieres atmosphe'riques. Gompt. rend. 78: 

821-824 (1874); Ann. chim. phys. (5) 3: 203-208 (1874) 45, 110, 111, 115, 116 

Corpuscles alliens et matieres salines contenus dans la neige. 

Compt. rend. 83: 58-61 (1875) 45, 110, 116, 120 

Sur r existence de corpuscules ferrugineux et msgnltiques dans 



les poussieres atmosphenques. Compt. rend . 81: 576-579 ( 1875; ; Jour, pharm . 

chem. (4) 33: 331-335 (1875) 45, 110, 111, 116, 120, 121 

Sur la presence du nickel dans les poussieres ferrugineuses atmos- 



phenques. Compt. rend. 83: 75-76(1876) 110,120 

Analyse micrographique comparative de corpuscules ferrugi- 



neux atmosphenques et de fragments dltacne's de la surface des meteorites. 

Compt. rend. 83: 76-78 (1876) 110, 120, 121 

Sur une pluie de poussiere tombee a Boulogne-sur-Mer, le 9 



octobre 1876, et sur le mode de formation des pluies terreuses en glnlral. 

Compt. rend. 83: 1184-1186 (1876)) 110 

Les poussieres de Pair. Paris, 1877. xii, 106 p 110, 

111, 114, 115, 116, 120, 122, 161 

Les poussieres de Tatmosphere. Rev. sci. (2) 18: 814-820 (1880) 110, 

122, 149 

Pluie de poussiere. La Nature 1887, II : 62 91 

See also Meunier, titienne Stanislas, and Tissandier, Gaston. 



Tltlus, Johann Daniel. Abhandlung uber die von der naturforschenden Ge- 
sellschaft in Danzig auf gegebene Frage: Welches die dienlichsten und am 
weni^sten kostbaren Mittel si ad, der uberhandnehmenden Versandung in der 
Danziger Nahring vorzubeugen und dem weiteren Anwachs der Sanddunen 
abzuhelfen . . . Leipzig, 1769 75 

Todd, James Edward. On the annual deposit of the Missouri River, during 
the post-Pliocene. Abet. Proc. Amer. assoc. adv. sci. 36: 287-291 H.877) 135 

Richthofen's theory of the loess, in the light of the deposits of 

the Missouri. Proc. Amer. assoc. adv. sci. 37: 231-239 (1878) 126, 128, 135 

On the relation of loess to drift in southwestern Iowa. Proc. 



Iowa acad. sci. 1875-80: 19 (1880) 133 

Recent wind action upon the loess. Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 



1875-80: 2 1 ( 1880) 141 

The loess and its soils. Proc. Iowa hort. soc. 17: 263-270 (1882) 128 

Quaternary volcanic deposits in Nebraska. Science 7: 373 



(1886) 151 

Formation of the Quaternary deposits [Missouri], Missouri geol. 



butv. 10: 111-217 (1896). Rev. by O. H. Hershey. Science n. s. 5: 587-588 
(1897). Reply by Todd and further notes by Hershey. Ibid., 695-696, 

768-770 126, 130 

Degradation of loess. Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 5: 46-51 (1897) 128, 

130, 135 
Volcanic dust in southwestern Nebraska and in South Dakota. 



Science n. e. 5: 61-62 (1897) 151 

Is the loess of either lacustrine or semi-marine origin? Science 



n. s. 51 993-994 (1897) 130 

The moraines of southeastern South Dakota and their attendant 



deposits. Bull. U. S. Geol. surv. 158, 1899. 171 p 55,135 

More light on the origin of the Missouri River loess. Proc. Iowa 



acad. sci. 13: 187-194 (1906) 128, 130, 133, 136, 138 

Recent alluvial changes in southwest era Iowa. Proc . Iowa acad . 



sci. 14: 257-266 (1907) 139 

Description of the Elk Point quadrangle, South Dakota-Ne- 



braska-Iowa. U. S. Geol. surv., Geol. atlas of the U. S.. folio 150, 1908 138 

-, and Bain, Harry Foster. Interloessial till near Sioux City, 



Iowa. Proc. Iowa acad. sci. 3: 20-23 (1894) 128, 132 

Tolle, A. Die Schutzwerke der Insel Norderney. Zs. Arch. Ing.-Ver. Han- 
nover. 10: 311-316 (1864) 75 

Toiman, Cyrus Fisher. Erosion and deposition in the southern Arizona 
bolson region. Jour. geol. 17: 136-163 (1909). Also separate.. 31,39,40,41.53,105 

The crescentic dunes of the Salton sea. Unpublished MS. . 56, 63, 64 

Toepfer, H. Die deutsche Nordseekuste in alter und neuer Zeit. Geog. 7a. 

3: 305-331 (1903) 54 

Topley, William. Sand-dunes and blowing sand. Pop. sci. rev. 14: 133-142 

(1875) 54,74,143 

- See also Foster, Clement Le Neve, and Topley, William. 



254 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 

Tornados, whirlwinds, waterspouts, and hailstorms. Nature 35: 155-157, 291- 

292(1881-82) 85 

Toula, Franz. Die Denudation in der Wuste. Deut. Runds. Geog. Stat. 

14:12-19(1892) 57 

Tourgee, Albion Winegar. An object lesson in reforestation. How barren 

wastes have been reclaimed in France. Forestry and irrig. 10: 354-361 (1904) 75 
Trabert, Wilhelm, and Valentin, Josef. Der Staubfall vom 10.-12. Mara 1901. 

Jahrb. Naturw. 17: 211-216 (1901-02) 89 

Transport de Pembrun par le vent. Ciel et terre 15: 570 (1895) 112 

Travers, William Thomas Locke. On the sand-worn stones of Evans' Bay. 

Trans. New Zealand inst. 2: 247-248 (1869) 26,63 

Remarks on the sand dunes of the west coast of the provincial 

district of Wellington. Trans. New Zealand inst. 14: 89-94 (1882) 75, 76, 77 

Treub, Melchior. Notice sur la nouvelle flora de Krakatau. Ann. Jardin 

bot. Buitenzorg 7: 213-223 (1888). Ab&t. Nature 38: 344 (1888) 15$ 

Tristram, Henry Baker. The great Sahara. London, 1860 65, 78, 84 

Trowbridge, Charles Christopher. On atmospheric currents at very great 

altitudes. Mon. weath. rev. 35:390-397 (1907) 49 

Tschfrwlnsky, P. N. Schneedimen und Schneebarchane in ihrer Beziehung 

zu aolischen Schneeablagerungen im allgemeinen. Zs. Gletscherkunde 2: 

104-112 (1907). Abst. Ann. geol. min. Russie 10, III: 174, 185 (1907). ... 27, 53, 63 
Tsehorn, Berahard. Die Rauch-Plage. In Weyl, Theodor. Handbuch der 

Hygiene, Suppl.-Bd. 3, p. 127-200. Jena, 1903 118 

Tschudl, Johann Jakob von. Peru. Reise Bkizzen aus der Jahren 1838-42. 

St. Gallen, 1846. 2 v. Tr. by G. Rosa, London, 1847 63 

[TsIolkovskH, A.] EtfojiKOBcKifi, A. [Fixation of drift-sands in Woroneah 

government.] 06b vKpfenvieHiK necKOFb bt> BopoHeaecsoft ry6. [Messager de 

rind us trie fores ti ere] JI^eonpoMBinijieH. B^cthhkb 1899: 362 75 

Tuckett, F. F. Remarkable examples of atmospheric erosion of rocks on 

Corsica. Geol. mag. (5)1:12-13(1904) 26 

Turner, C. [Fall of pollen in Essex and Somerset, June 1, 1902.] Nature 

•6:157(1902) 91 

Turner, Henry Ward. Mohawk Lake beds. Bull. Phil. soc. Washington 

11:385-409(1891) , 151 

« Volcanic dust in Texas. Science n. s. 1: 453-455 (1895) 151 

Further contributions to the geology of the Sierra Nevada. 

Ann. rept. U. S. Geol. surv. 17, 1: 521-740 (1896) 152, 155 

[TutkovsKlI, P.] TyTKOBCJcLft, H. A. Zur geologie des Lutzk'schen Kreises im 

Gouv. Wo I hymen. II. Uber den See-Loss und den subaeralen Loss. (Russian 

and German). [Ann. geol. min. Russie] Esero^HiiKb reojior. MuHepajior. 

PocciH 2,1:51-63(1896) 136 

[Zur Geologie des Lutzkischen Kreises, Gouv. Wolhynien] Rb 

reojiorin Jlymcaro y&3£a, Bojihhckoh ryoepHiix. [Ann. geol. min. Russie] 

E3Kero£HHK3» Teo^or. Mraepajior. PocciH. 3, 1 : 110-118 (1898) 136 

[Skizze der posttertiaren Ablagerungen der Districte Wladimir- 

Wolynskund Kowel, Gouvernement Wolhynien] OiepKb nocjr&TperiFiHiiCxi 

0(5pa30BaHift Bjia^KMnprb-Bo-iMHCKaro h k>. -b. tooth KoBejn»cKaroyB3#OBT>, 

Bojthhckoh ryfJepHin. [Ann. geol. min. Russie] EaseroAHHKb Teojior. 

MnHepaaor. PocciH. 4: 103-109(1899) 136 

[On the question of the manner of formation of the loess.] Kb 



Bonpocy o caoco&k oopaaoBaHiji jneoca. [ZemleviSdienie] SeMjieBfyrfeme. 
1899:213-311 127 

[Cailloux faconnes (Dreikanter) dans la partie sud du Polessie*.] 



nnpaMH^ajEbHBie Bajrynu bt> KWKHOM'b nojrfccbfc. [Bull. Comite" Geol. St. 
Petersburg] H3b*ct1h Teojior. KoMnreTa. 19: 363-406 (1900) 26 

See also Geikie, James. 



Tyndall, John. On the blue colour of the sky, the polarization of skylight, and 
on the polarization of light by cloudy matter generally. Proc. Roy. soc. 17: 
223-233 (1869); Phil. mag. (4) 37: 384-394 (1869); Ann. chim. phys. 16: 491- 
493 (1869); Arch. Sci. phys. nat. Geneva (2) 34: 156-172 (1869) 117 

Note on the formation and phenomena of clouds. Proc. Roy. 

boc. 17: 317-319 (1869); Phil. mag. (4) 38: 156-158 (1869); Ann. chim. phys. 
(4)18:496-497(1869) 117 

Tyrrell, Joseph Burr. Crystosphenes or buried sheets of ice in the tundra of 
northern America. Jour. geol. 12:232-236 (1904) 102 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 255 



Ueber Fernsichten. Jahresb. Sonnblick-Ver. Vienna 10: 31-32 (1902) 115 

Udden, Johan August. On a natural formation of pellets. Amer. geol. 11: 

268-271(1893). 151 

Erosion, transportation, and sedimentation performed by the 

atmosphere. Jour. geol. 2: 318-331 (1894). AbaL Amer. nat. 28: 953-954 

(1894) 22,43,44,46 

Dust and sand storms in the West. Pop. sci. mon. 49: 655-664 

(1896) 53,79,81,82,165 

Loess as a land deposit. Bull. Geol. soc. Amer. 9: 6-9 (1898). 128, 131 

A geological romance. Pop. sci. mon. 54: 222-229 (1898) 151 

The mechanical composition of wind deposits. Augustana 

Library Publications 1, 1898. 69 p 22,35,36,44,68 

Geology of Louisa County [Iowa]. Iowa Geol. surv. 11: 55-126 

(1900) 126,128 

Geology of Pottawattamie County [Iowa]. Iowa Geol. surv. 

11: 199-277 (1900) 126, 128, 131 

Geology of Mills and Fremont Counties [Iowa]. Iowa Geol. surv. 

13:123-183(1902) 126,128 

Loess with horizontal shearing planes. Jour. geol. 10: 245-251 

(1902) 128,139 

 Examination of sample of sirocco dust quoted 45 

Vdden, Jon Andreas. Geology of Clinton County [Iowa]. Iowa Geol. surv? 

15:36^431(1904) 128 

Uhlig, Victor. Ueber die geologische Beschaffenheit eines Theiles der ost- 

und mittelgalizischen Tief ebene . Jahrb . geol . Reichsanst. 34 : 175-232 ( 1884) . 135 
U. S. Dept. of Agrlc. Bureau of Soils. 
Bulletin 10. The mechanics of Boil moisture. By Lyman J. BriggB. 1897. 29, 30, 70 
Bulletin 30. The mineral constituents of the soil solution. By Frank K. 

Cameron and James M. Bell. 1905 13, 109 

Bulletin 38. Studies on the movement of soil moisture. By Edgar Buck- 
ingham . 1907 30, 71 

Bulletin 45* The moisture equivalents of soils. By Lyman J. BriggB and 

John W. McLane. 1907 31 

Bulletin 50. Moisture content and physical condition of soils. By Frank K. 

Cameron and Francis E. Gallagher. 1908 16,29,31 

Bulletin 54. The mineral composition of soil particles. By G. H. Failyer, 

J. G. Smith, and H. R. Wade. 1908 13 

U. S. Dept. of Agric. Bureau of Soils. Field operations. Annual 1899-date. 
Containing results of surveys by members of the soil survey force. References 
to dunes, p. 56; eolian soils, p. 123; excessive erosion by wind, p. 165; mechan- 
ical analysis of blown soils, p. 167. 
U. S. Dept* of Agric Bureau of Soils. 
Field operations, 1809* p. 36-76. A soil survey in the Pecos Valley, New 

Mexico. By Thomas H. Means and Frank D. Gardner 5ff 

Field operations, 1901* p. 93-124. Soil survey of Allegan County, Michigan. 

By Elmer O. Fippin and Thomas D. Rice 72 

p. 521-57. Soil survey of the Ventura area, California. By J. Garnett 

Holmes and Louis Mesmer 170, 172 

Field operations, 1902. p. 793-839. Soil survey from Arecibo to Ponce, Porto 

Rico. By Clarence W. Dorsey, Louis Mesmer, and Thomas A. Caine 56, 143 

Field operations, 1903. p. 1219-1248. Soil survey of the Imperial area, Cali- 
fornia. By J. Garnett Holmes and party 63 

Field operations, 1904. p. 895-923. Soil survey of the Garden City area, 

Kansas. By James L. Burgess and George N. CofTev 169 

Field operations, 1900. p. 563-585. Soil survey of Oklahoma County, Okla- 
homa. By W. E. McLendon and Grove B. Jones 170 1 

Field operations, 1907. p. 813-836. Soil survey of the North Platte area. 

By E. L. Worthen and O. L. Eckman 16fr 

U. S. Dept. of Agric Forest Service. Forest planting in the sand-hill region 

ofNebraska. Circular37. 1906. 5p 75 

U. S. Army. Chief of Engineers. Report of Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army. 

1876, p. 181-190; 1879, p. 273-275; 1886, p. 574-577; 1903, p. 87, 783-784 55, 75 

U. S. Geological Survey. Topographic map of the United States 50 



256 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 



Upcott, L. E. A remarkable dust eddy. Rept. Marlborough Coll. nat. hist, 
soc. lffl: 90. v - 85 

Upham, Warren. The geology of Chisago, Isanti, and Anoka Counties [Min- 
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A review of the Quaternary era, with special reference to the 

deposits of flooded rivers. Amer. jour. eci. (3) 41: 33-52 (1891) 128, 130 

Valley loess and the fossil man of Lansing, Kansas. Amer. 



geol . 31: 25-34 ( 1903) 128, 130 

Urquhart, A. T. Earth-worms in New Zealand. New Zealand jour. sci. 

(1882). Abst. Nature 27: 91 (1882) 107 

[UspenskfflL] YcneHCKift. [Report on the exploration of the sands at Britany 

station on the Chernipov-Piriatin branch]. Onerb no B3cji$AOBaHho 

necKOBfe npH cramrjii EpHTaHH uo^bfe.a.Haro nyTH ^epHHTOBrb-EIiipjrniH^. 

[Magasin Provincial du Tchernigov] 3eMcmfi CoopH. ^epHHroscK. ry6. 

1898: 56r-77 54 

Ussher, William Augustus Edmond. The Post-Tertiary geology of Cornwall, 

pt. III. The raised beaches and associated deposits of the Cornish coast, pt. V. 

Blown sands and recent marine. Geol. mag. (2) 6: 203-211, 307-313 (1879). . 54 
Usslng, N. V. Unders&else af St0vet i Regnen d. 3.-4. Maj 1892. Vidensk. 

medd. Naturh. fflren. Copenhagen 44: 131-138 (1892) 152 

[V* M.] B. M. [Sand areas of the Voronesh government.] Ilecm Bopo- 

HexccKoA ryo\ [Agronome] Xo3hhht» 1897, no. 41 54 

Vacher, P. Sur une pluie de sable observee a Oran. Bull. Soc. geog. archeol. 

Oran 22: 10-11 (1902) 89 

Vahl, M. De kvartaere Stepper i Melleme vropa. Geog. tids. 16: 173-183 (1902) . 137 
Valderrama. Staubfall auf dem Kanarischen Inseln. Met. Zs. 22: 170 (1905); 

Nature 71: 422 (1905) 89 

Valentin, Josef. Der Staubfall vom 9. bis 12. Marz, 1901. Sitzungsb. Kaiserl. 

Akad. Wise. Vienna 111, Ila: 727-776 (1902) ; 90 

See also Trabert, Wilhelm, and Valentin, Josef. 

Van Baron, J. De morphologische bouw van het diluvium ten westen van 

den Ijscl. Tijd. K. nederl. Aardr. Gen. (2) 24: 129-166 (1907) 127 

Fan Dam, J. See Beijerinck, Martinus Willem, and Dam, J. van. 
Vanderllnden, £. La pluie de poussiere des 10 et 11 mars 1901. Ciel et 

terre 22: 257-262 (1901) 90 

La pluie de poussiere des 21 et 22 fevrier 1903. Ciel et terre 

24:49-59(1903) 90,96 

Vasselot de B6gn6, ComU M6de*ric de. La dune littorale. Rev. eaux fordts 

14:129-138, 193-202,257-265(1875) 75 

Noticesur les dunes ae la Coubre. Paris, 1878. 78 p 54 

Va tonne. See Mircher. H. Mission de Ghadames . . . Alger 1863. 
Yauquelin, Louis Nicolas. Analyse d'une poussiere tombee, le 14 Mars 1813, 

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Chem. (Poggendorf) (2) 15: 384 (1829). Abst. Chauveau, Ann. Soc. m&. 

France 51 : 74 (1903) 95 

Yeenema, C. Aschengeruch [12 April 1906]. Wetter 23t 116-117 (1906) 150 

Veitmann, C. H. Zur Eenntniss des Moordampfs. Arch. gee. Naturl. 10s 

26G-L72 (1827) 118 

Venukoff. Sur les resultats recueillis par M. Sokoloff concernant la formation 

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Verbeek, Rogier Diederik Marius. Krakatau. Batavia, 1885-86. xl, 567 p. 

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Verrill, Addison Emory. Notes on the geology of the Bermudas. Amer. jour. 

sci. (4)0:313-340(1900). Abst. Nature 02: 92 (1900) 144 

The mud shower. Science n. s. 15: 872 (1902) 79 

Verworn, Max. Sandschliffe dom Djebel Nakus. Ein Beitrag zur Entwicke- 

lungsgeschichte der Kantengerdlle. Neuee Jahrb. Min. 1800, 1: 200-210 26 

Vettln, E. Ueber den aufsteigenden Luftstrom, die Entstehung des Hagels 

und die Wirbelatrcirae. Ann. Phys. Chem. (Poggendorf) (2) 102: 246-255 (1857) 86 
Vlborg, Erich. Beschreibung der Sandgewachse und lhre Anwendung zur 

Hemmung des Flugsandes auf der Kuste von Jutland. Aus dem Danischen 

von Jak. Petersen. ^Copenhagen, 1789 71,75 

[VIernlfcey, N.] Bfymfewb, H. [Drift-sands and their fixation.] IlecKH h 

mxiy aaKpfenjieHie, [Le village] ftepeBBx 1800: 991-998 75 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL, INDEX. 25^ 

Pip. Pace. 

Yiglino, Alberto. II loess dello Shansi settentrionale. Boll. Soc. geol. ital. 

S 20:311-338(1901) 127 ; 129,iai 

and Capeder, G. Gommunicazione priliminaire aul loess pie- 

v montese. Boll. Soc. geol. ital. 17: 81-84 (1898) 126, 127, 129, 131 

Vjgodaraere, A. Cittadella-. See Cittadella- Vigodarzere, A. 
VlDasefior, F. Analisis de las cenizaa de la erupci6n del volcan de Santa 
Maria [Guatemala] Bol. Mexico Sec. Fomento (2) ano 2, 7, 11: 279-280 

13 (1902) ,. 15? 

Yllovo, Stefanovic" von. Uber dea seitliche Rucken der Flusse. Mitt. Geog. 

1-r Ges. Vienna 24: 167-187 (1881). Abst. Gaea 17: 705-719 (1881) 40 

Vlrchow, Rudolf. Uber eine besondere Art geschliffener Steine. Zs. Ethn. 

2:453-464(1870) 26 

Lagerstatten aus der Steinzeiten der oberen Havel-Gegend und 

in der Nieder-Lausitz. Zs. Ethn. 2: 352-358 (1870) 26 

* Vlrgfl. £Sneid. Book 4, line 454 89 

Vlrfet d'Aoust, Pierre Theodore. Observations sur un terrain d'origine 

m£teorique ou de transport aenen qui existe au Mexique, et sur le pheno- 
u mene dea trombee de poussiere auquel il doit principalement son origine. 

Bull. Soc. geol. France (2) 15: 129-139 (1857)..... 85,87,105,124, 140,164 

« Observations relatives a la theorie generate dee trombes. 

Compt. rend. 83: 890-892 (1876) 85 

Sur dea terrains de formation aerienne. Compt. rend. Soc. 

g£og. Paris 1885: 464-466. Abst. Nature 82: 376 (1885); Bull. Amer. geog. 

* soc. 18:72 (1886) 105, 124, 140 

Vischer, Hanns. A journey from Tripoli across the Sahara to Lake Chad. 

;; Geog. jour. 32: 241-266 (1909). Abst. Scott, geog. mag. 25: 371 (1909) 171 

1 Vtvenot, Rudolfo von. Idee Bulla natura dello "stato nebbioso del cielo" a 

Palermo e la sua relazione collo sirocco. Boll, meteor. Reale oaserv. Palermo 

* 1, X: 1-7 (1865); Zs. Meteor. 1: 113-121, 12&-139 (1866) 89 

Yogel, C. See Cnelius, Carl, and Vogel, C. 

i' Vogler, Paul. Uber die Verbreitungsmittel der schweizerischen Alpenpflan- 

zen. Flora8i: 1-137 (1901) 91,161,162 

Volcanic ashes. Nature 29: 437 (1884) 159 

[Volcanic ashes from Cotopaxi.] Nature 16: 335 (1877) 153 

Volcanic dust falls in Georgia. Sci. Amer. 88: 243 (1903) 91 

The volcanic eruption of Krakatau. Proc. Roy. geog. soc. n. s. 6:142-152 (1884) 147 
[VolkOF, N.] Bojekob^, H. [Fixation of sand in the Chernigov government.] 

YKp&nxeHie necKora bt> ^epHETOBcsoft ry<5. [Magasin Provincial de Tscher- 

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53952°— Bull. 68—11 17 



2&6 MOVEMENT OF BOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

PASO* 

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260 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL, BY THE WIND. 



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See also Beyer, Samuel Walker, and Williams, Ira Abraham. 



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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 261 

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262 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 263 

Page. 
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Lehmablagerungen. Zs. deut. geol. Ges. 46: 493-500 (1894) 40 

Buntsandfltein bei Saalfeld in Thuringen und fiber sandge- 

schliffene Gerolle in dessen Konglomeraten. Monatsb. deut. geol. Gee. 1907: 

227-230 146 

Zlrkel, Ferdinand. Micromineralogische Mittheilungen. Neuea Jahrb. Min. 

1873:1-25 148 

— [Mikroskopische Untereuchung der in Norwegen niedergefal- 

lenen vulkamschen Asche.] Neues Jahrb. Min. 1875: 399-401 149 

Zlttel, Earl Alfred, ritter von. Ueber Gletscher-Erscheinungen in der bayer- 

ischen Hochebene. Sitzungsb. K. Bay. Akad. Wiss. Munich (2) 4: 252-283 

(1874); Geol. Verh. 1875: 61-62; Neues Jahrb. Min. 1875: 971-972 

Quoted in Gerhard Rohlfe' Expedition in die Libysche Wtiste. 

Peterm. Mitt. H>: 178-185 Q874) 66 

Die libysche Wuste nach ihrer Bodenbeschaffenheit und ihrem 

landschaftlichen Character. Jahresb. geog. Ges. Munich 4-5: 252-269 (1875). 82 
T)ber.den geologische Bau der libyschen Wuste. Mttnchen, 

1880 99 

Zobrist, Theodore. Lea dunes. Refutation dee theories de M. Bouthillier de 

Beaumont. Bull. Soc. Neuchateloise geog. 4: 17-35 (1888) 54 

Zona, T. Sirocco del 29 agosto 1885 e cenm eulP origine del foehn, del solano 

e delle argille rosse abissali dell'atlantico. Pubbl. Real osserv. Palermo 8, 

VIII: 1-6 (1887) Abst. Meteor. Zs. 5: 409-410 (1888) 89 

ZOpprltz, K. Uber den angeb lichen Einfluse der Erdrotation auf die Gestal- 

tung von Flussbetten. Verh. deut. Geographentags, Halle Zz 47-53 (1882). . 40 
Die Zusammensetsung des Passatstaubes auf dem sudlichen v Atlantischen 

Ozean. Prometheus 16:254 (1905) 95 

Zwemer, Samuel Marinua. Three journeys in northern Oman. Geog. jour. 

19:54-64(1902) 65 



INDEX. 



Pagtt. 

Adobe 128 

Alkali dust 105 

retention of blown dust by 63 

Alumina, in sirocco dust , 94 

Ammophila armaria as sand binder 75 

Analyses, sirocco dust 93, 95 

volcanic dust \ 155 

See also Mechanical analyses. 

Angle of rest of sand 60 

Animals, soil movement by 16 

Arctic haze, due to snow 119 

ice, dust on 103 

Atmospheric dust 110 

collection 114 

composition Ill, 112 

condensation of water on Ill 

heat absorbed by Ill 

local material in 106 

optical effects 116, 117 

organic matter in 160 

quantity 114, 115, 116 

suspension of 110 

sources 112, 120 

transient 99 

uniformity of Ill 

Autumn haze 117 

de Baer, law of 40 

Baked surface of soil, protection by 33 

Barchans. See Dunes, crescentic. 

Basin ranges, origin ; 38 

Beach grass as a sand binder 75 

Bishop's Ring 117 

Black rain and snow 92 

Blood rain 90 

Blown sands. See Sands, blown. 
Blown soil. See Soil blowing. 

Bolsons, origin of 38 

Brush cover to prevent blowing * 170 

Burial, natural, of articlas in the soil 106 

Callina 118 

Garnotite * 145 

Cement dust, effect on plants 167 

Cementation of calcareous sands 143 

Chemical composition of sirocco dust 93, 95 

Chemical composition of volcanic dust 153, 155, 156 

Chernozem 162 

Cirques, formed by eolian erosion 41 

Clay, prevention of blowing by 170 

Clearing land, methods for avoiding soil blowing 169 

Climate and dune movement 143 

of the Pleistocene and Recent periods 137 

relation of geologic deposits to 137, 143, 144, 146 

265 



266 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL, BY THE WIND. 

Page. 

Coastal dunes 64,65,75 

sands, sources of 163 

Cobalt, in atmospheric dusts 120, 121, 122 

in red ram . 92 

Colloidal clay, prevention of blowing by 168 

Colob formation 142 

Competence of the wind 41 

radius of 42 

Condensation on dust particles Ill, 115 

Concretions of the loess 125 

Coral rock, eolian 143 

Corrasion by wind 24, 40, 53, 145 

damage to crops by — 166. 

Corona?, caused by dust 117- 

Cosmic materials in atmospheric dust 120 

origin of sirocco dust ....,- 90- 

Creep of soil , , 16, 20. 

Critical moisture content of soils ,,.•..... 31 . 

Cross-bedding, eolian * 138, 141 

Crusting of soils, protection by 33 

Cryokonite 103, 160 

Cultivation to prevent blowing 171- 

wind-damage following . 29, 168, 169 

Cyclone, nature of *...... 87 

Deep-sea deposits, iron spherules in 121" 

volcanic dust in 151 

Deflation 37,136 

zone of 137 

Deforestation, sand drift started by 77 

Denudation, eolian 47, 99 

* error in calculations of 47 

Deposition, eolian 49, 107 

Desert pavement 32, 37, 51 

Deserts, eolian deposits in 122 

geology of 54 

haze in 118 

in past geologic time 144, 145 

sand and dust Btorms in 78, 82 

surface of 37, 65 

Dew, retention of blown dust by 53 

Diatoms in sirocco dust 90 

Distance of transfer, by dust storms 82 

eolian action 47 

of organic matter 162 

volcanic dust 149 

Dreikanter 26,145 

Drift, glacial, relation to loess 132 

Drifting sand. See Sands, blown. 

Dry farming methods, soil blowing caused by 170 

Dry fog and haze. See Dust haze. 

Drying action of wind 22, 29, 30, 171 

Dune flora 71 

Dune sands. See Sands, blown. 

Dune smoke 66 

Dunes 54, 57, 142, 143, 163 

coastal.. 54,65,75 

control. - - • • 74 

craterlike hollows in 66 

crescentic *. . . 61 

encroachment 74 

fixation .J 74, 76 

intermittance of movement 143 

longitudinal 65 

migration. 58 

moisture in 72 

reclamation 74 



wdm, 267 

Page. 
Dunes, slopes « ^^ .^^^^^^ 60 

soil layers in „.«. 143 

transverse 64 

Dust, atmospheric ^^ 110 

blown, accumulation of.... ... ,. 100, 104 

burial of articles by. 106 

composition of ... 103 

deposition of in cities ^. . . ...^ 101 

deposition of in fields ^ . . . . , 100 

in the soil 100,104 

size of ^ % 44, 45 

quantity deposited 102, 103 

industrial, in the air 104 

in rain and snow 102 

on arctic ice 103 

See also Atmospheric dust; Cosmic dust; * Dust storms; Dust haze; 

Sirocco dust; Volcanic dust. 

Dust eddies, nature of 88 

Dust falls 77,80 

See also Dust storms; Sirocco dust; Volcanic dust. 

Dust hatos 117 

Dust haze 117 

. . effect on insolation 119 

. . from smoke 118 

. in deserts , 117, 118 

volcanic 119 

Dust storms 77,79,96,99,102 

deposition by , 81,102,140 

distances covered 82 

fertilizing action 129 

local material moved by ;;.:......... 106 

loess formed by 140 

quantity of material carried 81 

types : 78 

Dust whirlwinds 83 

material moved by 86, 87 

Earthworms, soil translocation by 16, 107 

Eddies, always present in wind 34 

in dune formation 66 

in ripple formation 68 

lifting of material by 34 

See also Dust eddies. 

Eolation 37 

Electrical phenomena in dust storms 85 

repulsion of suspended particles 110 

Elutriation by wind 35, 94, 136 

Eolian corrosion 24, 40, 53, 145, 166 

denudation 99 

deposition 49 

regions of 52 

deposits 81, 104, 122 

characteristics of 36, 141 

See also Eolian rocks; Eolian soil; Loess. 

erosion 24,31,37,39,51,78,171 

plane of 38, 39 

protection against 28 

See also Soil blowing. 

mesas 51 

planation 38, 39 

rocks 141, 142, 143 

See also Eolian deposits. 

soils 52,105,122 

characteristics of 124 

Erosion by wind. See Eolian erosion; Soil blowing. 

of loess 125 

Evaporation from Band 71 



268 MOVEMENT OF BOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Page. 

Faceted pebbles 26,145 

Fall of small bodies in air, rate of 42 

Falls of dust, pollen, etc. See Dust-falls; Pollen; etc. 

Fallow, soil Mowing induced by 170 

Fertility of blown sands .*. 73 

loess 128,129 

volcanic dust ^ 158 

Fires, whirlwinds over 86 

Fish, falls of 91 

Fog, dry. See Dust-haze. 

Forestation of dunes 76 

Fossils of loess 125,133 

Fumes, injury to plants and soil 166,167 

Gascony , dunes of 76 

Gases in the soil. See Soil gases. 

Glacial drift, relation to loess 132 

period, loess formed in '. 132 

See also Ice. 

Gold, separation by air elutriation 36 

Gullies formed by wind 51 

Hail, solid nuclei in 121 

Halos, dust 117 

Hawkesbury sandstone, origin of 142 

Haze, due to snow crystals lid 

See also Dust-haze. 

Humus, distribution by wind 160, 161 

in blown sands 73 

soil blowing prevented by 28, 29 

Ice, in tundra 102 

movement of soil material by 17 

See also Glacial. 

Ice-sheet, formation of loess at border of 137 

formation of loessial material by 136 

Impact forces of air on suspended particles , 35 

Inflation , zone of 139 

Insects, rains of 91 

Inselberge, origin of 39 

Insolation, effect of haze on 119 

Insolational disintegration of sand 69 

Iron in atmospheric dusts 120 

Irrigated farms, soil blowing on 169 

Eanab formation, origin 142 

Keuper formation , origin 145 

Krakatoa, revegetation of 159 

Lag gravels 35 

Laterite 94, 105 

Leaves, blowing of • 161 

Lee Bands 35 

Levees, natural 134 

Lichens, rain of 91 

Loess 52,70,122,123,124 

age 132 

concretions 125 

dunes under 142 

erosion 125 

fertility of 129 

fossils 125,133 

origin 102,129,130,133,135,138,139 

Pre-Pleistocene 141, 143 

relation to glacial drift 132 

relation to streams 134 

secondary 133, 139, 140 

stratification 134,135 



INDEX. 269 

Page. 

Loess-like deposits, eolian 140 

Lcess-Mannchen 125 

Manure, prevention of soil blowing by 170 

Marram grass 75 

Mauch Chunk formation, origin of 144 

Mechanical analyses of blown soils 30,167 

dunesands 44 

Meteoric dust. See Atmospheric dust; Cosmic dust; Sirocco dust. 

Meteors, atmospheric dust from 120 

Mala 118 

Minerals in blown dusts 103 

sirocco dust 92 

the soil, persistence of 13 

supplied by the wind 22, 109 

volcanic dust * 152,153 

Moisture, in dunes 70,71,72 

movement of. in sands 30 

prevention of soil blowing by 29, 30, 170 

retention of blown dust by..., 52, 53 

See also Soil moisture. 

Moor-smoke, haze caused by il8 

Mounds formed by wind 50 

Mulch, dust, soil blowing caused by 170 

Natural burial of articles in the soil 106 

fixation of dunes 76 

N$ve°, loess accumulation in 139 

Nickel in atmospheric dust 120, 121, 122 

Night-soil, use of, in China 129 

Nubian sandstone, origin of 142 

Old Red sandstone, origin of 144 

Organic matter, blowing of 160 

in wina-borne dusts 160 

See also Humus. 

Overgrazing, soil blowing caused by 169 

Pampas, origin of 128 

Passatstaub. See Sirocco dust. 

Pebbles, faceted 26,145 

protective layers of. See Desert pavement. 

Phosphorus in volcanic dusts 157, 158 

Planation, eolian 38, 39 

Plants, dissemination by wind 161 

protective action of 28 

See also Dune-flora; Vegetation. 

Pollen, rains of 91 

Potassium in volcanic dusts 156 

Protections against eolian erosion 28 

Protococcus nivalis, red snow caused by 91 

Pumice, dust from 148 

Radius of competence 42 

Rain, "black, f ' "red, ""muddy," etc 80,91,92 

See also Sirocco dust. 

of blood 90 

salt in 112,113 

solid matter in Ill, 116 

Rain-wash 17,19,40,107,108 

origin of loess by 138 

Rate of fall of small bodies in air 110 

Red color of rocks 145 

Red rain. See Sirocco dust. 

snow *..< 91 

sun and sky, cause of 117 

Ripple-marks in rocks 141 

Ripples, sand 67 



270 MOVEMENT OF BOH/ Sd^TERI AL, BY THE WIND. 

Page. 

River dimes , , , , , , , , . , 163 

sediment, amount t . , ,,.,.,,..,, 18 

distribution by wind : 163 

in soils ::..:.:...:: 21 

Riven, asymmetric erosion by . . : 40 

soil translocation by ::::::;..... 18, 21, 163 

Roofs, soil on. . : 105 

Rounding of sand grains : 69, 137 

Rye, use of, to prevent soil blowing 169, 172 

Sahara, denudation of „..,.„, 49 

dust from 91, 92, 94, 96 

See also Sirocco dust. 

sand from, minerals in 92 

Saint Peter sandstone, origin of 142 

Salt crust, protective action of , . . 33 

crystals, rains of 91 

in air and rain 112 

Saltation, movement of sand by 33, 47, 53 

Sand, angle of rest of 1 60, 61, 62 

binding, plants for 75 

blast 24 

blowing of, relation of moisture to 30 

blown 35, 36, 37, 53, 70, 141, 142, 146 

effect of fixation on 76 

fertility of 73 

mechanical analysis of 36, 44, 68, 70 

minerals in 68 

moisture in 70 

See also Dunes; Soil blowing. 

coastal 163 

drift, nature of T , „ 63 

drift, intermittence of , , 143 

dunes. See Dunes. 

glacierB 57 

grains, shape of , 69 

plains 54 

ridges ;.:.:... 64 

ripples 67 

Sahara, minerals in ::::;.::::,.: 92 

spouts. See Dust whirlwinds. 

storms, desert 78 

See also Dust storms. 

Sandstones, eolian : . 141, 142 

Sandy soils, blowing of : : : 167 

Seeds, wind-distribution of , 161 

Sheetflood :.;.;.... 40 

Silty soils, blowing of .:;::.:.... 168 

Sirocco dust 83,88,92,99 

chemical composition •. 93 

color ::::.::::.....: 95 

injury to plants by ,..-.- 167 

iron spherules in 121 

local materials in 93, 106 

minerals in 92 

organic matter in 160 

[, origin 91,92 

quantity deposited 97 

size of particles 45 

Size of particles of wind-borne materials v . . P 41, 42, 44, 45, 69, 124 

Sky, color, cause of , , 117 

Smoke, atmospheric dust from 101, 112 

black rain caused by ,„, 91, 92 

haze caused by 118 

injury to plants by ...,.,. , , 166, 167 

3now, colored ...... t , r . , ,,,,-. 91, 92 

See also Sirocco dust. 



INDEX. 271 

Page. 

Snow, deposition of loess with % -^ *-•.... ..... .•..-.•<•.•. .-^.- .•.-.•. -.v. 102, 139 

•drifting of < « - *...^.....*... •.•.*.... .-.•..- 53 

dunes ,. ... 63, 65 

Soil blowing, effect on soil composition 109, 124, 164 

excessive ,.....,,.., 79, 164, 165, 167, 169 

soil translocation by 22, 41, 79, 81, 99, 103, 104, 108, 109 

creep 16, 20 

eolian 51,52,105,107,122,124,167 

gases, effect of wind on 22 

injury by fumes 166, 167 

loessial 128,129 

moisture, effect of wind on . - , 22, 29, 30 

• -Set also Moisture. 

temperature, effect of wind on. — 22 

translocation ,....,< 15, 17, 22, 46, 47, 79, 162 

See also Soil blowing. 

volcanic dust in 150, 158 

Solifluction 16 

Spherules of iron in atmospheric dusts 120 

Steppes, dust storms of 77, 78 

Stofces, formula of 42 

Stones moved by wind 44 

rain of 91 

Storms. See Dust storms; Sand storms. 

Straw, use to prevent soil blowing 170 

Streams, relation of loesB to 134 

translocation by 18, 19, 20, 21 

See also Rivers. 

Sulphur, rains of ." 91 

Sun, colored, cause of 117 

Sunset colors, cause of 117 

Suspension of solids in air, experiments on 43 

forces producing 42 

Sylvania sandstone, origin of 142 

Tamarisk, prevention of soil blowing by 172 

Temperature of the soil. See Soil temperature. 

Till, glacial, relation of loess to 132 

Tirs 123,162 

Tornadoes 87 

Trade wind dust. See Sirocco dust. 
Translocation. See Soil translocation. 

Transparency of air, effect of dust on 115, 117 

Transport capacity of wind 46 

Triassic Period, deserts in the 142, 145 

Tschernozem 162 

Tuff, volcanic. See Volcanic tuff. 

Tundra, ice in 102 

Uniformity of blown dusts and sands 36, 111, 124 

Upper currents of the atmosphere 49 

Valleys, asymmetry of 40 

Vegetation, accumulation of blown material by . . . 50, 51, 52, 58, 100, 109, 131, 134, 139 

action of wind on 171 

effect of volcanic dust on 159 

for sand-binding 75 

formation of loess by 131, 134, 139 

of dunes 71, 72 

protective action of 28, 57, 109, 168 

Volcanic dust 106, 119, 148, 149, 150, 158, 160, 167 

composition 152, 155, 156, 157 

fertility 158, 159 

blowing of 36,147,160 

tuff 151, 153, 155, 156, 157 

soil layers in 158 

Volcanoes, material ejected by 146 

whirlwinds over 87 



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272 MOVEMENT OF SOIL MATERIAL BY THE WIND. 

Water in soils. See Soil moisture. Page- 

soil translocation by 17,18, 19 

Waterspouts 87 

Whirlwinds, erosion by 87 

See also Dust whirlwinds. 

Willows, prevention of soil blowing by 172 

Wind, action of , on vegetation 171 

corrosion. See Eolian corrasion. 

eddies in 34 

erosion. See Eolian erosion. 

geologic action of 22 

translocation of soil. See Soil blowing. 

transport capacity of 46 

velocity of, in relation to competence 41, 42 

vertical component of 34 

Windbreaks 171 

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